The Development of Biologically-Based Strategies for     the Management of Apple Replant Disease                        Ma...
Biologically-based strategies  •   Management of the resident orchard soil      biology in a manner that leads to      dis...
Control of Apple Replant DiseaseHistorically (USA): Soil Fumigation primary means of controlCost effectiveReadily availabl...
Barriers to development of biology-based control methodsDevelopment of effective non-fumigant controls requires knowledge:...
Apple Replant Disease Etiology  Causal Pathogen Complex:                                                     Control   Pre...
Strategies evaluated for management of replant diseaseManipulation of resident soil                         Establishing n...
Control of Soilborne Diseases with Brassica Seed Meal Formulations
Brassica residue amendment for disease/pest control“Biofumigation”: the chemistry-based paradigm                          ...
Brassica seed meal amendments for soilborne disease control    Current model:         Multiple mechanisms of action       ...
Outcomes that imply biological mechanism:   Level of disease suppression increased for weeks after active chemistrylost fr...
Application of Brassica SM amendments for control of apple replant diseaseTen trials                   General conclusions...
Individual seed meals always fail:CV orchard trial2004-2009TreatmentsB. juncea (BjSM; yellow mustard)B. napus (BnSM); cano...
Individual seed meals always fail; however…  CV orchard trial  2004-2009 Treatments B. juncea+mef B. napus+mef S. alba+mef...
Why did independent use of seed meal fail?       Pythium         Phytopthora cambivora and Phytophthora cactorum incidence...
Brassicaceae SM formulations for disease control in organic systemsSTM commercial organic orchard trialB. juncea/S. alba s...
Brassica SM formulation for replant disease control in organic systems                              Jonagold/G11 yield dat...
Brassica SM treated soils biologically more robust:          Pratylenchus penetrans
Nematode pathogens and parasites elevated in seed meal treated soils     Arthrobotrys   (nematode trapping)               ...
Brassica SM formulation for replant disease controlSunrise organic orchard trialSeed meal formulations:         B. juncea/...
Effect of Brassica SM formulation on fruit yieldGala/M9 yield data 2012                          Gala/G11 yield data 2012B...
Effect of Brassica SM formulation on Pratylenchus penetrans root densitiesGala/M9 2012                                    ...
Pyrosequencing Analyses of Rhizosphere Microbial Communities                                                NMDS plot of B...
Summary:•   Development of non-fumigant measures for replant disease control is a    knowledge-based process•   Biological...
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Convegno la mela nel mondo interpoma bz - 16-11-2012 5 - mark mazzola

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Convegno la mela nel mondo interpoma bz - 16-11-2012 5 - mark mazzola

  1. 1. The Development of Biologically-Based Strategies for the Management of Apple Replant Disease Mark Mazzola USDA-ARS, Tree Fruit Research Lab, Wenatchee, Washington, USA
  2. 2. Biologically-based strategies • Management of the resident orchard soil biology in a manner that leads to disease suppression. • The development of disease control methods based upon the causal pathogen/parasite complex
  3. 3. Control of Apple Replant DiseaseHistorically (USA): Soil Fumigation primary means of controlCost effectiveReadily availableRequires no knowledge of the causal biologyMotivation for change:Loss of fumigants (methyl bromide)Potential loss of additional fumigant chemistriesRestrictions in use of registered fumigants
  4. 4. Barriers to development of biology-based control methodsDevelopment of effective non-fumigant controls requires knowledge: What are the biological targets? How do they interact to cause disease?Progress hindered by perception/approach: Etiology is biologically too complex Cause varies dramatically from orchard to orchard (?) Certain studies used one-dimensional approach yielding ID of unlikely causal agents
  5. 5. Apple Replant Disease Etiology Causal Pathogen Complex: Control Pre-plant Fum Cylindrocarpon (destructans, olidium) Phytophthora (cactorum, syringae, cambivora, megasperma) Pythium (at least 15 species) Rhizoctonia (solani AG 5, 6 binuc. AG’s G, I, Q) Pratylenchus penetrans (lesion nematode)Mazzola, 1997; 1998; Mazzola et al., 2002Paulitz et al., 2003, Allain-Boulé et al., 2004
  6. 6. Strategies evaluated for management of replant diseaseManipulation of resident soil Establishing new orchardmicrobial antagonists In old orchad aisle Solarization Soil excavation Rootstock tolerance
  7. 7. Control of Soilborne Diseases with Brassica Seed Meal Formulations
  8. 8. Brassica residue amendment for disease/pest control“Biofumigation”: the chemistry-based paradigm Brassica residue Myrosinase Glucosinolate Isothiocyanates Pest Suppression Fungi Oomycetes Nematodes Weeds
  9. 9. Brassica seed meal amendments for soilborne disease control Current model: Multiple mechanisms of action Operative mechanism can change over time Functional mechanism varies with target pest Resident soil biology is often instrumental Mazzola et al., 2001; 2007; 2009 Cohen & Mazzola 2005; 2006 Weerakoon et al. 2012
  10. 10. Outcomes that imply biological mechanism: Level of disease suppression increased for weeks after active chemistrylost from the soil system (Lewis and Papavizas, 1971; Warton et al., 2003; Weerakoon et al.,2012) Pathogen or parasite suppression was obtained irrespective of seedmeal (Brassica napus) glucosinolate content (Mazzola, 2001). Disease suppression only functions in a biologically intact soil system(Cohen & Mazzola, 2006).
  11. 11. Application of Brassica SM amendments for control of apple replant diseaseTen trials General conclusions:Six orchard locations Individual seed meals used independently always fail Failure can be traced back to causal biologyTrial duration 3-6 years
  12. 12. Individual seed meals always fail:CV orchard trial2004-2009TreatmentsB. juncea (BjSM; yellow mustard)B. napus (BnSM); canola)S. alba (SaSM, white mustard))Mefenoxam (Ridomil)Telone-C17 c b ab a a a Mazzola & Brown 2010 Plant Disease
  13. 13. Individual seed meals always fail; however… CV orchard trial 2004-2009 Treatments B. juncea+mef B. napus+mef S. alba+mef Mefenoxam c c bc c Telone-C17 ab a Mazzola & Brown 2010 Plant Disease
  14. 14. Why did independent use of seed meal fail? Pythium Phytopthora cambivora and Phytophthora cactorum incidence of root infection increased dramatically in B. juncea amended soil
  15. 15. Brassicaceae SM formulations for disease control in organic systemsSTM commercial organic orchard trialB. juncea/S. alba seed meal formulation applied 6 April 2010Planted to Jonagold/G11 12 May 2010
  16. 16. Brassica SM formulation for replant disease control in organic systems Jonagold/G11 yield data 2012B. juncea/S. alba seed meal
  17. 17. Brassica SM treated soils biologically more robust: Pratylenchus penetrans
  18. 18. Nematode pathogens and parasites elevated in seed meal treated soils Arthrobotrys (nematode trapping) Aporcelaimellus (predatory nematode) Plectosphaerella cucumerina (parasitic fungus)
  19. 19. Brassica SM formulation for replant disease controlSunrise organic orchard trialSeed meal formulations: B. juncea/S. alba or B. juncea/B. napusApplication date: Sept. 9, 2009 (autumn prior to planting) or April 6, 2010 (spring of planting)Cultivar/rootstock: Gala/M9 or Gala/G11Planting date: May 13, 2010
  20. 20. Effect of Brassica SM formulation on fruit yieldGala/M9 yield data 2012 Gala/G11 yield data 2012BjSa = B. juncea+S. alba Au = application autumn Sp = application spring of prior to planting plantingBjBn = B. juncea+B. napus
  21. 21. Effect of Brassica SM formulation on Pratylenchus penetrans root densitiesGala/M9 2012 Gala/G11 2012BjSa = B. juncea+S. alba Au = application autumn Sp = application spring of prior to planting plantingBjBn = B. juncea+B. napus
  22. 22. Pyrosequencing Analyses of Rhizosphere Microbial Communities NMDS plot of Bacterial PhylaIn seed meal treated soil yield performanceand microbial community composition wasrootstock dependent In fumigated soil yield performance and microbial community composition similar among rootstock genotypes
  23. 23. Summary:• Development of non-fumigant measures for replant disease control is a knowledge-based process• Biologically-based methods for control of replant disease are attainable• Brassicaceae seed meal formulations can yield fumigant levels of replant disease control and enhance system resilience• Degree of efficacy and persistence of biological effects may be rootstock-dependentAcknowledgments: Personnel Sarah Strauss Xiaowen Zhao Michael Cohen Jack Brown, Univ. of Idaho Gennaro Fazio, USDA-ARS, Geneva, NY

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