Soil fungal communities as indicator ofsoil health in fruit tree orchardsLuisa ManiciConsiglio per la ricerca e la sperime...
Background: crop yield declineEuropean intensive cultivation systems, such as orchards,vineyards, vegetable and cereal cro...
Yield declineRoot rot caused by Pythium e Fusarium solani  on horticultural crops after monocropping                 rotat...
Yield declineBlack root rot of strawberry.            Rhizoctonia, Cylindrocarpon, Pythium            and other weak patho...
Background:yield decline-replant disease in fruit             tree cropsThe decreasing trend of EU fruit production in the...
Background:    yield decline in fruit tree cropsPathogenicity of root rot fungal agents ranges in severityfrom decreased g...
Background:                    yield decline in fruit tree crops                                   Apple seedlings        ...
Plant/pathogens interaction                       and Replant disease *       Case Study: Simulation of a post transplant ...
Indicator : Plant growth                             Bioassay with                             clonal M9                  ...
Indicator: Root health 3                     9                                          27               81 Visual scale o...
Relationship between plant heath              indicators  Plant growth vr Root health:Coef. Corr.= 0.82; R2= 66.98; P>0.01...
Plant growth        Mean separation test (95%) among 5 orchards                    and control (fallow)ANOVA sign P>0.01  ...
Comunities of root fungal endophytes                                   sites   1        2        3        4          5    ...
Pathogenicity/functionality of rootendophytesinteraction plantendophyte of 3population of rootendophytes ( 74isolates) was...
Pathogenicity/functionality of root endophytes                                                Scatterplot by Level Code   ...
Soil suppressivenessSoil suppressiveness is the natural ability of soil to control pest     and pathogens of plantsThe two...
Soil suppressiveness - Biomass    Case study on comparing soil health in conventional and      organic apple orchards repl...
Conventional       Control             Organic• Growth score significantly differred for management: organic >conventional...
Conventional Organic             Growth stcore                               14               (Growth score)              ...
Plant growth/soil helath- Biomass                      Root                      COL        MIC                TOC   HA+FA...
Soil suppressiveness - biodiversity     Case study: soil fungi as indicator relationship between soil       biodiversity o...
Location: Piana del Sele (Campania region), anintensively grown area, southern Italy, SOMvarying from 1.8 to 2.5 %
Comparison of biodiversity      Indicator: root endophytic fungal communities      Indicator:  Diversity profile, graphica...
Fungal community composition of root endophytic fungi                                   Functional meaning of higher biodi...
Pathogenicity/functionality of root endophytes                                                                    Thielavi...
How to induce soil suppressiveness in         organic fruit tree orchards  By increasing microbial biomass and microbial d...
BIO-INCROP, a project on organic fruittree cropping systems  General aim: exploitation of natural resources to  increase s...
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Convegno la mela nel mondo interpoma bz - 16-11-2012 3 - luisa manici

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Convegno la mela nel mondo interpoma bz - 16-11-2012 3 - luisa manici

  1. 1. Soil fungal communities as indicator ofsoil health in fruit tree orchardsLuisa ManiciConsiglio per la ricerca e la sperimentazione in agricoltura(CRA)(Research centre for industrial crops, Bologna, Italy)
  2. 2. Background: crop yield declineEuropean intensive cultivation systems, such as orchards,vineyards, vegetable and cereal crop are affected by yielddecline of which root rot fungal complex is the main bioticcauseComplex of soil-borne fungi: Pythium, Rhizoctonia,Cylindrocarpon, Fusarium, etc.These pathogens survive on organic residues in soil andcontinuous cropping systems (fruit tree orchards, specializedhorticultural crops) can build their inoculum leading to aprogressive soil sickness.Diagnosis of yield decline/replant disease if very difficultbecause clear symptoms are evident solely when infectionlevel is severe. In any case, they are more evident on youngor weak plant (i.e. after abiotic stress).
  3. 3. Yield declineRoot rot caused by Pythium e Fusarium solani on horticultural crops after monocropping rotation Rotation_wheat Monoculture monocropping
  4. 4. Yield declineBlack root rot of strawberry. Rhizoctonia, Cylindrocarpon, Pythium and other weak pathogens
  5. 5. Background:yield decline-replant disease in fruit tree cropsThe decreasing trend of EU fruit production in the last twentyyears has several causes; however replant disorders due to theeco-functional intensification of growing areas specializing in fruitproduction in one of the main causes of this decline.The biotic component of replant disorders or “soil sikness” of fruittree crops have been definitively elucidated in ’80s with the firstapplication of soil fumigants on replanted orchards. • May, W. F., Abawi, G. S., 1981. Controlling replant diseased of pone and stone fruit in northern United States by preplant fumigation Plant Dis. 65, 859-864. • May, W. F., Merwin, I. A., Abawi, G. S., 1994. Diagnosis, etiology and management of replant disorders in New York cherry and apple orchards. Acta Hort. 363, 34-41. • Browne, G. T., Connell, J. H., and Schneider, S. M. 2006. Almond replant disease and its management with alternative pre-plant soil fumigation treatments and rootstocks. Plant Dis. 90:869-876
  6. 6. Background: yield decline in fruit tree cropsPathogenicity of root rot fungal agents ranges in severityfrom decreased growth rates to lethality. This depends on• Specialization level of the pathogens toward the host crop, which can widely vary.• plant vigor, physiological state of plants, abiotic factors and the general status of soil fertility.The average increase of plant growth on disinfected soilas compared to replanted soil, is 42%, as inferred from arecent bioassay on 9 different apple orchards using M9rootstock (preliminar results of BIO-INCROP project).
  7. 7. Background: yield decline in fruit tree crops Apple seedlings control Growth reduction on replanted soilGrowth reduction of apple seedling on replanted soil using peat as control
  8. 8. Plant/pathogens interaction and Replant disease * Case Study: Simulation of a post transplant period in South Tyrol, performed in pot on soil samples taken from five third- generation orchards, using M9 rootstock plantlets The trial aimed at • To evaluate plant response immediately after transplanting on apple replanted orchards and define soil health indicators. • To evaluate the effectiveness of replanting in “inter-row” to minimize replant disease in apple orchards*Kelderer; Manici; Caputo; Thalheimer 2012 Planting in the ‘inter-row’ to overcome replant disease in apple orchards: astudy on the effectiveness of the practice based on microbial indicators. Plant and Soil 357, 381-393
  9. 9. Indicator : Plant growth Bioassay with clonal M9 rootstocks Trial performed at Laimburg Research Centre (BZ,Italy ) in April 2010 Plant growth= sum of length of shoots
  10. 10. Indicator: Root health 3 9 27 81 Visual scale of four classes of root heath with geometric progression
  11. 11. Relationship between plant heath indicators Plant growth vr Root health:Coef. Corr.= 0.82; R2= 66.98; P>0.01. Plant growth is a good indicator of soil healt in replanted orchards, evaluated in greenhouse bioassay
  12. 12. Plant growth Mean separation test (95%) among 5 orchards and control (fallow)ANOVA sign P>0.01 29 d 25 Plant growth (cm) 21 bc ab a 17 a a 13 9 1 2 3 4 5 Fallow control Orchards The general soil health status of replanted orchards is lower then that of the correspondent fallow control.
  13. 13. Comunities of root fungal endophytes sites 1 2 3 4 5 species R IR R IR R IR R IR R IR F Cylindrocarpon obtusisporum Cylindrocarpon olidum Rhizoctonia sp. AG- F Rhizoctonia solani AG-6 Phoma sp. Alternaria alternata Fusarium culmorum Rhizoctonia sp. AG-P Humicola grisea Fusarium acuminatum Fusarium compactum Fusarium oxysporum Cylindrocarpon destructans Fusarium solani Fusarium equiseti Trichoderma sp. Rhizoctonia sp. AG-A Fusarium lateritium Rhizoctonia sp. AG-G Fusarium semitectum Abundance classes: <5% 5-10% <10-25% <25-50%
  14. 14. Pathogenicity/functionality of rootendophytesinteraction plantendophyte of 3population of rootendophytes ( 74isolates) was evaluatedby growing M9plantlets on artificiallyinoculated peat.
  15. 15. Pathogenicity/functionality of root endophytes Scatterplot by Level Code 6,2 Dray weight (4 plants) Mutual 5,2 Commensal 4,2 3,2 Parassitic 2,2 Cylindroc Rhizoctonia Control Fusarium spThis figure shows the variability of plant-endophyte relationship andsuggests its potentiality in soil health.
  16. 16. Soil suppressivenessSoil suppressiveness is the natural ability of soil to control pest and pathogens of plantsThe two main components of soil suppressiveness are:1. Microbial biomass (SOM and evapotranspiration)2. Microbial diversity (cropping practices) • Functional diversity, by increasing several beneficial mechanisms: • by increasing indigenous antagonists to soil borne pathogens and nematodes • by protecting roots with mutual relationship (antagonism toward pathogens e.i competition for colonization, antibiosis toward pathogens). • by increasing plant vigor with positive effects such as plant growth promotion, inducing acquired resistance etc.
  17. 17. Soil suppressiveness - Biomass Case study on comparing soil health in conventional and organic apple orchards replanted orchards <50 years in apple growing area of South Tyrol* Parameters: • Growth test with apple seedling assay • Fungal communities (endophytic fungi on apple seedling after bioassay) • Soil chemical analysis (N, K, humic substances, TOC etc)* Manici L. M., Ciavatta C., Kelderer M., Erschbauber G.2003Replant problems in South Tyrol: role of fungal pathogens andmicrobial populations in conventional and organicapple orchards. Plant and Soil 256, 315-324
  18. 18. Conventional Control Organic• Growth score significantly differred for management: organic >conventional• Root endophytic communities did not differ (Rhizoctonia sp. Cylindrocarponspp. and Pythium spp. and Fusarium spp. were shared by both croppingsystems)
  19. 19. Conventional Organic Growth stcore 14 (Growth score) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Sites 1 2 3 CFU g-1 soil 60000 Coeff. Corr =0.94** 50000 Total fungi in soil ( MIC) 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 1 2 3Growth score and soil inhabiting fungi significantly differred both for site (3)and management (organic>conventional) and they were highly corelated
  20. 20. Plant growth/soil helath- Biomass Root COL MIC TOC HA+FA Nmineral % cfu g-1 soil % %Growth -0.8* 0.94** -0.023 -0.03 -0.04scoreTotal fungi -0.73 1 0.09 0.01 -0.13(MIC)Colonization 1 -0.73 0.5 0.5 0.02frequency(COL) ** P>0.01 * P>0.05MIC, indicator of fungal biomass was the only parameter positivelyand significantly related to apple growth score and negativelycorrelated to root colonization. TOC, SOM, salinity, HA+FA and Navailability did not result correlated with GS.
  21. 21. Soil suppressiveness - biodiversity Case study: soil fungi as indicator relationship between soil biodiversity on soil health in fruit tree crops* Two cropping systems were compared : Peach: sod system with permanent vegetative cover and massive animal manure before planting new orchards Horticultural: continuous cropping based on chemical fertilization. Soil health for peach (target crop) was evaluated in a greenhouse bioassay with micropropagated plantlets of peach rootstock GF677Manici, L. M.; Caputo, F. 2010 Soil fungal communities as indicators for replanting new peach orchards in intensivelycultivated areas. European Journal of Agronomy 33: 188-196
  22. 22. Location: Piana del Sele (Campania region), anintensively grown area, southern Italy, SOMvarying from 1.8 to 2.5 %
  23. 23. Comparison of biodiversity Indicator: root endophytic fungal communities Indicator: Diversity profile, graphical method two compare biodiversity of two communities (endophite fungal comm. in Peach and horticultural sites) 27 24 21 18 Peach > Diversity 15 Soil from Peach Syst Horticultural 12 9 6 3 Soil from Horticultural Syst 0 0 1 2 alphaalpha=0, this function gives the total species number.alpha=1 gives an index proportional to the Shannon index, (richness)alpha=2 gives an index which behaves like the Simpson index. (eveness)
  24. 24. Fungal community composition of root endophytic fungi Functional meaning of higher biodiversity P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 Fusarium semitectum Trichoderma aureovoride Trichoderma harzianum Others Mucor hiemalis Fusarium acuminatum + Pythium sp. Penicillium sp Macrophomina phaseolina Humicola grisea Aspergillus ochraceus Chaetomium funicola Alternaria sp Phoma medicaginis Fusarium compactum Fusarium equiseti Fusarium oxysporum Fusarium dimerum Fusarium solani Cylindrocarpon destructans * + Sterile fungus 1 Rhizoctonia sp. Mortie rella sp Phomopsis sp. Penicillium semplicissimum Thielaviopsis basicola* +*root Pathogen of horticultural crops
  25. 25. Pathogenicity/functionality of root endophytes Thielaviopsis basicolaGF677 grown on peach soil 20 GF677 on hoticolt. soil.No pethogenic species 20 Growth reduction if Growth score 15 compared to peach samples 10 5 0 Thie. 7 Thie. 3 Thie. 2 Thie. 1 Thie. 4 control Cylindrocarpon destructans 20 Growth score 15 10 Thilaviopsis basicola e Cylindrocarpon destructans 5 0 Cyl. 17 Cyl. 10 Cyl. 19 Cyl. 9 Cyl. 13 control
  26. 26. How to induce soil suppressiveness in organic fruit tree orchards By increasing microbial biomass and microbial diversity with their multifunctional actions. By reducing the specialization level of root rot fungal agents toward the crops • Break before replanting new orchards • Use of cover crops to reduce specialization of soil borne fungi and pests toward the host crop By increasing plant vigour (root emission) • Plant breeding for rootstock improvement • agronomic tools (improving nutrition, physical aspects and increasing growth promoting compounds such as humic acids)INNOVATIVE CROPPING PRACTICES
  27. 27. BIO-INCROP, a project on organic fruittree cropping systems General aim: exploitation of natural resources to increase soil health Research Actions based on 1. Biological resources indigenous to the orchard soil system (beneficial microbial communities) 2. Natural resources exogenous to orchards (waste- deriving material, bio-formulates, cover crops)Output: Innovative cropping practices developed on response of microbial factors involved in suppressiveness and biological fertility of soil
  28. 28. Thank you for your attention

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