Sudha project(adITyaranjaN)


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Sudha project(adITyaranjaN)

  1. 1. Summer Training Project Report on “Study of Market Demand and supply for Milk and Milk Products of Sudha (Comfed)” Ranjan Kr. Das 2011-13
  2. 2. Page 2 CORPORATE GUIDE CERTIFICATE This is to certify that this project report entitled “Study of Market Demand and supply for Milk and Milk Products of Sudha (Comfed),” embodies the result of training work carried out by “Mr. Ranjan Kumar Das”, student of “Master of Business Administration” from Amity Patna, under Amity University, Noida. He has undergone training from 13/06/11 to 31/08/11 at Sudha (COMPFED), Patna. No part of this report has been submitted for any other degree or published in any other form. Mr. Rajiv Verma (Marketing Manager) Patna.
  3. 3. Page 3 Faculty Guide Certificate It is certified that the project report entitled “Study of Market Demand and supply for Milk and Milk Products of Sudha (Comfed),” is a piece of summer internship programme prepared by Mr. Ranjan Kr. Das , student of MBA, under my guidance & supervision for partial fulfillment of MBA Curriculum of Amity Global Business School, under Amity University, Noida. His research work was found to be very valuable to our organization. We wish all the success in her future endeavors. Prof. Shubhadeep Chakraborty Faculty & Coordinator (BBA) Amity Patna
  4. 4. Page 4 CONTENTS 1. Profile of the study a. Declaration b. Executive Title c. Acknowledgement d. Executive Summary 2. Preface 3. Introduction 4. Objective of the study 5. Scope of the study 6. Limitation of the study 7. Methodology 8. Abstract 9. An introduction to the problem 10. History of COMFED a. Background b. Area of operation c. Physical performance d. Marketing e. Processing infrastructure 11. SWOT Analysis 12. Real facts and previous year sales record 13. Graphical presentation 14. Curriculum activities by COMFED 15. Procurement 16. Customer’s questionnaire 17. Retailer’s questionnaire 18. Conclusion 19. Recommendations 20. Key Learning  BIBLIOGRAPHY
  5. 5. Page 5 DECLARATION I hereby declare that, the project entitled “MARKETING STRATEGIES TO GENERAT SALES FOR SUDHA DAIRY (COMFED)” assigned to me for the partial fulfillment of MBA degree from Amity Global Business School, Patna. The work is originally completed by me and the information provided in the study is authentic to the best of my knowledge. This study has not been submitted to any other institution or university for the award of any other degree. Ranjan Kr. Das MBA 4th SEM
  6. 6. Page 6 Executive Title Since this study is of short duration and I research deeply about the milk industry and its market, channel of distribution, customers and its strategies. Hence my project title is:- “Study of Market Demand and supply for Milk and Milk Products of Sudha (Comfed)” Objectives:-  To understand the Milk industry and its complete distribution chain.  Since the Milk industry is related to its heavy manufacturing plants and lastly to retail shop that helps to understand the processes and Retail Management.  Since it has more and less seasonal demand which could help us to understand the average production and speed production of the product.  To know about the production process of Milk Product.  To know about customer perception and market demand of Sweets.  To earn particle knowledge.  To understand how a project is prepare and how it helps a company in his development.  This project also helps me in understanding the complete distribution channel and benefits and problem of supplier and retailers.  In this project I also came to know about the operation management and minimum inventory policy of the company since the product offered perishable products.  The time management is very important in perishable product and I learn a lot about that in this project.
  7. 7. Page 7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT “Gratitudeisthehardestofemotionstoexpressandoneoftendoesnotfind adequatewordstoconveywhatonefeelsandtryingtoexpressit” The present project file is an amalgamated of various thoughts and experiences .The successful completion of this project report would have not been possible without the help and guidance of number of people and especially to my company guide Mr. Rajeev Verma (AGM). Take this opportunity to thank all those who have directly and indirectly inspired, directed and helped me towards successful completion of project report on Marketing Research of Sudha Dairy (Comfed). I am also immensely indebted to my project guide, Mr. Shubhadeep Chakrborty lecturer AGBS, Patna for his illumining observation, encouraging suggestions and constructive criticisms, which have helped me in completing this research project successfully. There are several other people who also deserve much more than a mere acknowledgement at their exemplary help. I also acknowledge with deep sense of gratitude and wholehearted help and co- operation intend. Ranjan Kr. Das MBA- 4th Semester
  8. 8. Page 8 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The training at Patna Dairy Project, COMPFED helped me to gain the practical experience and the study conducted by me centers around the importance and position of different dairy industries. A thriving dairy sector is of vital importance to every person specially farmers. It provides milk, Ghee, Cheese other products to every person. It provides a source of income to rural and urban enterprises and productive individuals and also a way for the farmers to make their living standard high. During my summer training in Patna Dairy Project, COMPFED, the basic focus of my training was on comparative analysis of pouched liquid milk of SUDHA. Under this project I had to find out the different players carrying on business of liquid milk in Patna and also their market share in the same region. After that we had to make comparative analysis so that we can recommend suggestion to the Patna Dairy Project, COMPFED to increase its share in the market in Patna. The training was quite a comprehensive one in itself.
  10. 10. Page 10 PREFACE Summer Training is the bridge for a student that takes him from his theoretical knowledge world to practical industry world. The main purpose of industrial visit is to expose for industrial and business environment, which cannot be possible in the classroom. I feel my selves very grateful that we have got an opportunity to do the summer training in SUDHA where the management and working culture are quite excellent. It gives us immense pleasure to have successfully undergone training in the FMCG sector, which is the upcoming sector in the industry. This training was quite a comprehensive one in itself, it helped us have the firsthand experience in:-  Identification  Data Collection  Analysis  Recommendation/ Suggestion Identification:- It is the process of defining the marketing problem and marketing research problem. Data Collection and Management:- It mainly involved maintaining a list of prospects with details and classifying on certain basis thus providing the required database. Analysis:- It is the process of editing, tabulating, and interpreting the data so that recommendation for action can be effectively made. Recommendation/Suggestion:- It is the last step which involves the feedback, and suggestion for the project.
  11. 11. Page 11 INTRODUCTION
  12. 12. Page 12 INTRODUCTION Milk is the nutrient-rich liquid secreted by the mammary glands of female mammal’s .The female ability to produce milk is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. It provides the primary source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to digest other types of food. The early lactation milk is known as colostrums, and carries the mother's antibodies to the baby. It can reduce the risk of many diseases in the baby. The Bihar State Co-operative Milk Producers’ Federation Ltd. (COMPFED) was established in 1983 as the implementing agency of operational Flood program of dairy development on “Anand” pattern in Bihar. History India is the highest milk producer in the entire globe. India is well known as the ‘Oyster’ of the global dairy industry, with opportunities galore for the entrepreneurs globally. It might be dream for any nation in the world to capitalize on the largest and fastest growing milk and milk products' market. The dairy industry in India has been witnessing rapid growth with liberalization. As the economy provides good opportunities for MNCs and foreign investors to release the full potential of this industry. The main objective of the Indian Dairy Industry is to manage the national resources in a manner to enhance milk production and upgrade milk processing using innovative technologies.
  13. 13. Page 13 The crossbred technology in the Indian Dairy Industry has further augmented with the viability of the dairy units by increasing the milk production per animal. Then subsequently milk production has also increased at an exponential rate while the benefits of an increase in milk production also reached the consumers from a relatively lower increase in the price of milk. The favorable price environment for milk producers for the Dairy Industry in India however appeared to have weakened during the 90's, a decline in the real price of milk being noticed after the year 1992. And then slowly regained it is glory after 1992 to till now. In India dairying from very much earlier is regarded as an instrument for social and economic development. The country’s milk supply comes from millions of small producers, who are dispersed throughout the rural areas. All these farmers maintain an average herd of one or two milk animals, comprising cows and/or buffaloes. Mostly ample labor and a small land base encourage farmers to practice dairying as an occupation subsidiary to agriculture. As income from crop production is seasonal instead dairying provides a stable which is a year-round income and also an important economic incentive for the small farmers. Brief Introduction India had tremendous milk production in 40 years and has become the world’s largest milk-producing nation with a gross output of 84.6 million tons in 2001. The Indian Dairy Industry has achieved this strength of a producer-owned and professionally- managed cooperative system, despite the facts that a majority of dairy farmers are illiterate and run small, marginal operations and for many farmers, selling milk is their sole source of income. More than 10 million dairy farmers belong to 96,000 local dairy cooperatives, who sell their products to one of 170 milk producers’ cooperative unions who in turn are supported by 15 state cooperative milk marketing federations.
  14. 14. Page 14 In India dairy business has been practiced as rural cottage industry over the years. Semi-commercial dairy started with the establishment of military dairy farms and co-operative milk unions throughout the country towards the end of the 19th century. Since Independence this Industry has made rapid progress. A large number of modern milk and milk product factories have since been established. The organized dairies in India have been successfully engaged in the routine commercial production of pasteurized bottled milk for Indian dairy products. The growth of Indian Dairy Industry during the last three decades has been impressive, at more than 5% per annum; and in the 90's the country has emerged as the largest producer of milk. This is not a small achievement when we consider the fact that dairying in India is largely stringent that farmers in general keep dairy animals in proportion to their free crop and also are available for family labor with little or no purchased inputs and a minimum of marketed outputs. The existence of restrictive trade policy milk in the Diary Industry and the emergence of Amul type cooperatives have changed the dairy farming practices in the country. Farmers have gained the favorable price for their milk and for their production. Which was essentially a self- reliant one is which is now being transformed into a commercial proposition. In India Milk production is dominated by small and marginal land-holding farmers and also by landless laborers who in aggregate own 70% of the national milk animal herd. And as the crop production on 78% of the agricultural land still depends on rain, which is prone to both drought and floods, rendering agricultural income is very much uncertain for most of the farmers. Dairying, as a subsidiary source of income and occupation, is real relief to most of the farmers in the society. Usually one or two milk animals enable the farmers to generate sufficient income to break the vicious subsistence agricultural-debt cycle. The Operation Flood which is the successful Indian dairy development programmed has analyzed that how food aid can be utilized as an investment in building the type of institutional infrastructure that can bring about national dairy development. Programs like this, with similar policy orientations, may prove to be appropriate to dairy development in India. India in the early 1950's was commercially importing around 55000 tons of milk powder annually to meet the urban milk demand. Most of the significant developments in dairying have taken place in India in this century only.
  15. 15. Page 15 INDIAN DAIRY INDUSTRY (NDDB) National Dairy Development Board, an institution of national importance was setup by the Government of India to promote plan & organize programmers for development of dairy & other agriculture based & allied industries along co-operative lines on an intensive & nationwide basis. India's Milk Product Mix Total contribution to the economy/ sales The Indian Dairy Industry engages in the production and processing of milk & cream. This industry is involved in the manufacture of various dairy products like cheese, curd, yoghurt etc. The Indian Dairy Industry specializes in the procurement, production, processing, storage and distribution of dairy products. India as nation stands first in its share of dairy production in the international scenario. The industry contributes about Rs 1, 15,970 to the national economy. Fluid Milk 46.0% Ghee 27.0% Butter 6.5% Curd 7% Khoa (Partially Dehydrated Condensed Milk) 6.5% Milk Powders including IMF 3.5% Paneer & Chhana (Cottage Cheese) 2% Others, Including Cream, Ice cream 1.5%
  16. 16. Page 16 Employment opportunities The Indian Diary industry which is in the developing stage provides gainful employment to a vast majority of the rural households. It employs about 8.47 million people on yearly basis out of which 71% are women. Jobs in Indian dairy industry are mainly in the fields of production and processing of dairy products. An individual with minimum of 60% marks who has bachelor’s degree course in the dairy technology can easily be availing an opportunity to work in this industry. For the graduation course in Dairy technology one has to qualify the All India Entrance Test that is affiliated to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research. After that the person can continue with his masters in dairy technology. Jobs would be for the following positions.  Dairy Scientists: The main job of the dairy scientists is to deal with collection of milk and taking care of the high yielding variety of animals.  Dairy Technologists: the work of Dairy technology requires procurement officers who take the responsibility of collecting milk from farmers, milk booths and cattle-rearers. This particular procurement officer should well understand the latest technology that is applicable in maintaining the quality of milk of the process of transporting it to the desired location.  Dairy Engineers: dairy engineers are usually appointed is to set up and maintain dairy plants.  Marketing Personnel: These individuals deal with the sale and marketing of milk together with milk products.
  17. 17. Page 17 Amul's success story Amul's success had huge impact in the creation of same structure of milk producers in other districts of Gujarat initially. Amul's experience was driving force in project planning and execution. The ‘Anand Pattern' was followed in Kaira district, Mehsana, Sabarkantha, Banaskantha, Baroda and Surat districts. As even before the setting up of the Dairy Board of India, farmers and their leaders carried out various tests of the hypotheses that explained Amul's success. All through these districts, milk producers and their leaders experienced significant commonalties and found easy, effortless ways to adapt Amul's game plan to their respective areas. This eventually led to the Creation of the National Dairy Development Board with the clear mandate of replicating the 'Anand pattern' in other parts of the country. Initially this pattern was followed for the dairy Industry but at later stage oilseeds, fruit and vegetables, salt, and tree sectors also benefited from its success.
  18. 18. Page 18 Latest developments  Indian Dairy Industry is the largest milk producer all over the world, around 100 million MT Indian Dairy Industries value of output amounted to Rs. 1179 billion in 2004-05 which approximately equals combined output of paddy and wheat. With 1/5th of the world’s bovine population.  In India the Milk animals constitutes 45% indigenous cattle, 55 % buffaloes, and 10% cross bred cows Intensive Dairy Development Programmed (IDDP): The Schemes, modified under these programs are on the basis of the recommendation of the evaluation studies. Which were launched during Eighth Plan period and is being continued throughout the Eleventh Plan with an outlay of Rs. 32.49 core for 2009-10. Strengthening Infrastructure for Quality and Clean Milk Production (CMP): this is a centrally sponsored scheme which was launched in October 2003, which had the main objective of improving the quality of raw milk produced at the every village level in the India. Dairy Venture Capital Fund- this is introduced in the Tenth Five Year Plan to bring about structural changes in unorganized sector, which would measure like milk processing at village level, marketing of pasteurized milk in a cost effective manner, quality or the up gradation of traditional technology to handle commercial scale using modern equipments and management skills. INDIAN DAIRY INDUSTRY Size of the Industry More than 10 million dairy farmers belong to 96,000 local dairy cooperatives, who sell their product to one of 170 milk producers’ cooperative unions who in turn are supported by 15 state cooperative Geographical distribution Delhi, Punjab, Mumbai, Gujarat, Surat, Lucknow, Bihar, Hyderabad Output per annum Growing 5 % per annum Market Capitalization The industry contributes about Rs 1,15,970 to the national economy
  19. 19. Page 19 COMPANY PROFILE The Bihar State Milk Co-operative Federation Ltd. (COMFED) was established in 1983 as the implementing agency of OPERATIONAL FLOOD programme of dairy development on “Anand pattern” in Bihar and Jharkhand (erstwhile Bihar). COMFED is the state level co-operative organization, having six district level affiliated Milk unions in the state of Bihar. As on March 2011, COMFED had 9775 village dairy cooperatives (DCS) federated into six milk unions located in the state of Bihar and having average 11.03 lakh kgs of milk every day. Approximately 5.53 lakh Farmers are presently members of village dairy cooperatives. AFFILIATED MILK UNIONS AND AREAS OF OPERATION Five-district level Milk Producers’ Coop. Unions affiliated to the Milk Federation were covering eighteen districts until the end of OF program in March 1997 (end of eighth Plan). One more milk union was organized during 2008-09 and has been affiliated. Number of districts being covered by unions at present has risen to twenty-six. Different milk unions, which are organizing the DCS network in these districts, are listed below:- Sl No Name of the Milk Unions Areas of District Covered 1. Vaishali Patliputra Milk Union (VPMU) Patna, Vaishali, Nalanda, Saran , Sheikhpura & Patna districts 2. Barouni Milk Union, Barouni Begusarai, Khagaria, Lakhisarai and part of Patna District. 3. Tirhut Milk Union, Muzaffarpur Muzaffarpur, Sitamarhi, Sheohar, E. Champaran, Siwan, Gopalganj & West Champaran districts. 4. Mithila Milk Union, Samastipur Samastipur, Darbhanga & Madhubani district 5. Shahabad Milk Union, Ara Bhojpur, Buxar, Kaimur and Rohtas districts 6. Bhagalpur Milk Union, Bhagalpur Bhagalpur, Munger, Banka and Jamui
  20. 20. Page 20 The Milk Federation has already taken up organization of Dairy Cooperative Societies (DCS) in the districts of Gaya, Jahanabad, Arwal and Nawada under Magadh Dairy Project and work has been initiated by Kosi Dairy Project in Saharsa, Supaul and Madhepura districts. However, Kosi Dairy Project will be covering Katihar, Purnia and Araria districts also. At present the total number of districts covered by unions and Dairy Projects is thirty six (36). COMFED owns and operates the following plants:- 1. Jamshedpur Dairy, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand 2. Ranchi dairy, Ranchi, Jharkhand 3. Cattle feed Plant – Ranchi, Jharkhand 4. Bokaro Dairy, Bokaro, Jharkhand 5. Gaya Dairy, Gaya including Jahanabad CC, (5 Bulk Milk Chilling Center) 6. Kosi Dairy Project, Purnia (including Kishangunj Dairy, Araria CC, Katihar CC and Purnia Dairy) 7. One dairy Plant of 4 lakh litre /day capacity at Bihar Sharif with 30 MT powder productions and UHT milk production facilities. The districts of East and West Singhbhum, Ranchi, Bokaro and Dhanbad now in Jharkhand are being covered by the dairies directly under the control of Milk Federation for the supply of milk and milk products to the urban consumers in these cities. Procurement of milk has been taken up in Ranchi district only. MISSION, PURPOSES, GOALS & OBJECTIVES OF ERP IMPLEMENTATION COMFED has adopted the following Mission Statement: “To integrate all business processes across the organization in order to provide online information which will facilitate quick decision making” (A) Purpose of Implementing SAP ERP “The purpose of implementing SAP R/3 project is to inculcate into the organization the best business practices in order to become a world class organization".
  21. 21. Page 21 (B) Goals and Objectives a) Support the core mission statement. b) Achieve the purpose of implementing SAP R/3. c) Support the organization to achieve the organizational mission, vision, objectives and goals. d) Seamless flow of data and information right from top to bottom as well as bottom to top. e) To be customer centric (C) Objectives a) Create a new vision of Business policies and processes that are cost- effective, customer oriented, efficient and innovative. b) Create and implement an operational environment which is pro-active and results in c) Savings in inventory carrying cost d) Reducing operational costs e) Eliminating redundancy f) Promoting near paperless environment g) Streamlining data flow h) More effective use of resources i) Support to the business growth j) Leverage of administrative costs k) Providing most advanced real time information system. l) Standardization of processes m) Regulatory requirements The primary benefits expected to accrue from the SAP implementation are: a) Support a flexible, evolving and responsive business environment. b) Eliminate non-value adding activities such as data entry duplication.  Improved ability to service customers.  Reduction in administrative costs.  Better management of inventory  Support information sharing and access  Streamline processes and reduce waste.  Better credit control.  MIS reports timely &accurately.  Batch management.
  22. 22. Page 22 Bihar's rural landscape has undergone a silent revolution under an umbrella organization that involves around six lakh farmers and provides indirect employment to many others. It has been brought about by Bihar State Milk Co- operative Federation Limited (Comfed), which markets milk and milk products under the brand 'Sudha'. It celebrated its 29th foundation day this month. Its Managing Director Harjot Kaur told that Comfed was committed to serve its customers and realize the dream of having at least one Bihari dish in the plate of every Indian. Although COMFED’s journey started since 1983, and from then to till now it has achieved so many things not for itself but also for the many of farmers joined to it. Comfed is a rural organization involving six lakh farmers. Starting with just 1030 cooperatives in 1983, today the number of cooperatives has risen to 11,400. The milk production is 11 lakh liters per day, and the annual turnover in 2011-12 was Rs 1503.00 crore, 11% more than that of previous year. This is remarkable for any cooperative. In 2011-12, the Comfed marketed 8.17 lakh liters milk per day, which is a record in its history. Many farmers associated with our cooperatives have been awarded at the national level for their performance. Recently Haryana dairy farmers are vehemently agitating against milk companies, to rule out such agitations we have taken sufficient steps as farmers are the most precious part of our organization. Whatever profit the Comfed earns, trickles down to farmers. We procure milk from farmers at Rs 25.58 per litre, which is higher than the cooperatives of Haryana, Rajasthan, Punjab, Karnataka and Maharashtra, apart from others. The recent hike in the prices of milk was also passed down directly to farmers. There are no middleman between us and the farmers. The Comfed also provides fodder at subsidized rates to farmers. We also assist them in artificial insemination and maintaining health of their domestic animals. As per the new road map for dairy development, we envisage to produce 44 lakh liters milk per day from the existing 11 lakh liters per day, covering around 60% villages of the state against the existing 33%. We are also trying to capture new markets. At present we sell packaged milk in Bihar and Jharkhand, parts of Orissa, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and North-east. We send bulk milk to Delhi, Manesar and Kolkata, where it is sold by various dairy cooperatives like Amul and Mother Dairy under their own brand names. In these places, we plan to market our milk under the 'Sudha' brand. Moreover, we are also looking to export to other countries like Bangladesh and Bhutan. Moreover, we have also decided to do value addition to our existing more than two dozen milk products by increasing their variety. Consequently, I believe, our cumulative profit would rise by around 15% per annum in the coming five years.
  23. 23. Page 23 Sudha to go international After positioning Bihar firmly among major milk producing states of the country, Bihar State Cooperative Milk Producers' Federation Limited (Comfed) is all set to export milk and milk products to Bangladesh and Bhutan by early next year. It is also in the final stages of commissioning new dairies at Biharsharif and Hajipur next month, which will hike its milk-processing capacity significantly. "We have plans to increase the existing milk production from 12 lakh liters to 20 lakh liters daily by the end of the year," said Comfed MD Vipin Kumar. Comfed is the apex cooperative federation of six milk unions of the state. Patna Dairy Project, run under the name and style of Vaishali- Patliputra Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh Ltd, is the lead union. Though the six unions have their own procurement and marketing arrangements, they market their products under the brand name 'Sudha'. Comfed has currently 26 milk products. "But we are planning to export only those products that are not sensitive to temperature fluctuation — like ghee, milk powder and milk in tetra pack," said Patna Dairy Project MD Sudhir Kumar Singh. "The shelf life of tetra pack is around 90 days while temperature fluctuation is not a matter of concern for products like ghee and milk powder," Singh said and added the products would have to undergo quality test of Export Council of India before the exports begin. As of now, Comfed has been supplying milk and milk products to different parts of the country as well as Nepal. And the demand has been gradually going up. "We have tie-up with Mother Dairy-Kolkata, Amul- Manesar, Delhi Milk Scheme and other dairy cooperatives in various states to whom we supply milk and milk products which are sold by them under their brand names. But now we are planning to sell them under the brand name Sudha," Singh said. Of the 12 lakh liters of milk produced by Comfed-affiliated dairies daily, around 3 lakh liters are supplied to Jharkhand, Orissa, Delhi, Kolkata, Varanasi and Guwahati. "Besides, we export around 50,000-60,000 liters of milk to Nepal daily," Singh said and added Comfed has 6000 milk outlets and 14 dairies which involve as many as 5.5 lakh dairy cooperative farmers. Patna Dairy will get a shot in the arm when its upcoming dairy plants at Biharsharif and Hajipur are commissioned in September. "The dairy at Biharsharif, likely to cost Rs 120 crore, is coming up on a 26-acre plot of prime land made available by the state government, and will have a capacity to process four lakh liters of liquid milk per day," Singh said. Besides, the Biharsharif dairy will have tetra pack facility and could also produce 30 tons of milk powder per day by drying 3 lakhs liters of liquid milk. The dairy coming up at Hajipur would have a capacity of one lakh liters of milk.
  24. 24. Page 24 A proposal has been mooted to set up a dairy plant in Chhapra, where a 25,000-litre chilling plant already exists and milk availability is very good. There's also a plan to set up a 30-tonne capacity milk powder plant either at Hajipur or Chhapra, the Patna Dairy MD said. Patna Dairy brought Sheikhpura district under its ambit last year. Now, a milk chilling plant is being planned in the district. Around 100 primary milk cooperative societies have already been formed in the district. Singh said the Patna Dairy this year completed expansion of its balanced cattle feed plant from 100 tons to 150 tons. Work is in progress for setting up another plant of the same capacity. The dairy makes cattle feed available to farmers at their doorstep at a concessional rate of Rs 11.50/kg. Dairy farmers are given remunerative price of Rs 18 to 26 per litre for milk, depending on the quality as per set parameters. In its eagerness to expand its footprint to new areas, Patna Dairy is not ignoring its local base. Said Sudhir Kumar Singh, "At present, we meet 50% demand for milk in the state capital, while the rest is met by local milkmen and private dairies. By 2015, our procurement will increase to 5 lakh liters daily, which at present varies between 2.5 to 3 lakh liters every day. So, even if supplies by local vendors fall, we will be in a position to meet the demand of Patnaites in the coming years." Efficient and effective operation of milk cooperative societies has had a positive impact on social peace and harmony. "Left extremism is very low in areas covered by milk cooperatives. This shows that income-generation activities are the best way to control extremism," Singh said. Patna Dairy's smooth operation has not gone unrecognized. It won National Productivity awards four times – in 2000-01, 2002-03, 2004-05 and 2005-06. Given a new lease of life in 1981, when a team of National Dairy Development Board took it over, Patna Dairy (or, for that matter, Comfed) has proved, to use a cliché, that where there's a will, there's a way.
  25. 25. Page 25 SUDHA IN INDIA A new organization Bihar State co-operative milk producer federation limited came into existence to implement the project and the actual field work was taken up in 1983.the project originally to complete within 3 years by the end of 1986 and was closed in 1988. After extending of the project period twice each time by one year the project was implemented in 8 districts of Bihar namely Patna, Barouni (Begusarai), Bokaro, Samastipur, Ranchi, Jamshedpur,Muzzafarpur and Gaya. The Sudha Diary of Bokaro district co- operative milk process societies limited has 22 years back in the name of comfed. Sudha dairy is also approving by the National Dairy Development board. Any dairy industry has some important section as like:-  Milk Reception Section  Processing and packing section  Store keeping section  Marketing section  Administration section  Cleaning section.  Quality Control Section
  27. 27. Page 27 Objective of the Study Objective of Internship Training:-  To know the organization structure of the company.  To know functions of various departments.  To understand the work culture.  To help student to develop necessary interpersonal and managerial Skills.  To gain well rounded view of Management operations.  To gain firsthand experience from industry.  To make assessment of the organization in the industry.
  28. 28. Page 28 Scope of the study The scope is limited to the extent of the place, time, organization and their information collected during the project. It is done as a part of academic study. The scope o f the study limited to information supplied by the Department Head and information collected by standing order and settlement copies of the company. The information collected is limited to the academic knowledge gained by the student during the study of the course.
  29. 29. Page 29 Limitation of the Study The study is not proposed to be an expert study as it was done by a student for the purpose of a partial fulfillment of the course in the in plant training, which is an integral part, in completion and reward of BBA. The Study was conducted in a short period of six weeks, and so the finding cannot be generalized for all times. Some of the information's being confidential was not included in the study. The scope of the study by and large is very vast. It is difficult to satisfy all the areas; therefore an attempt is made to cover as much as possible.
  30. 30. Page 30 Methodology: The data collected for this report is as follows:  Primary data  Secondary data Primary data: The primary data is collected through: a. Personal observation. b. Interview with:  Consumers  Marketing Department  Account Department  Procurement Department Secondary data: The secondary data has been collected with reference to various records of the company, Such as: 1. Website: 2. Files.
  31. 31. Page 31 Abstract Dairy industry is of crucial importance to India. The country is the world’s largest milk producer, accounting for more than 13% of world’s total milk production. It is the world’s largest consumer of dairy product, consumer almost 100% of its own production. In the organized dairy industry, the cooperative milk producer has an 80%market share. During the operation flood era (1971-1996), an integrated co-operative dairy development program on the proven Anand model was implemented in three phases, the National Dairy Development board being the implementing agency. The Dairy Board planned and spearheaded India’s dairy programs by placing dairy development in the hands of milk producers. There are 15 state milk marketing federations, COMFED being one of them. COMFED is a dairy cooperative in Bihar that has been primarily responsible, through its innovative practices, for it to become the leading producer of milk and milk products in Bihar, along with its presence in neighboring States. The distinctive features of this paradigm involve managing a large decentralized network of supplier and producers, learn and efficient suppliers and producers, simultaneous development of market and suppliers.
  32. 32. Page 32 An Introduction to the Problem Now-a-days most sensitive problem is better solution of problem in the world of marketing management consumer wants better solution of any problem. Benefits and satisfaction the consumer are getting from goods manufacturing to service generation since the concept of marketing management has changed and now it becomes as consumer oriented. The marketing managers are supposed to perform multidimensional responsibility. Most of the company tries to develop the technology to improve their products and services to satisfy the customer. To satisfy the consumers demand by supplying the right product to right place and on the right time. By Globalization and information revaluation where free trade is imposed in all over the world, for any company to service in the market its distribution channel should be strong. If the distribution channel of any organization would be sound than only it can be complete with its competitors. As far as this particular organization is concern it produces milk and Milk’s products which are so perishable in nature. So many products require minimum time reach in the hands of customers beginning from their manufacturing. So, managing sound distribution network is always a crucial job for marketing manager of the concern organization. Because it is the time factor that counts the effectiveness of the manager. Overall distribution strategy involves two things: - I. Decision is regarding physical movement of goods. II. Decision regarding route of channel of distribution. But before the decision regarding physical movement of goods it is necessary to decide the route through which the products will move. The longer the distribution channels the more time and money will be invested. So managing an appropriate sound distribution channel is always an important job of marketing manager. As a student of Business Management I have also tried to understand the mechanism of distribution channel of Patna Dairy. After getting an opportunity to apply my theoretical knowledge to the real situation in the Patna Dairy, (a unit of Bihar State Milk Co-operative Federation Limited)
  33. 33. Page 33 HISTORY OF COMFED 1. Background The Bihar State Co-operative Milk Producers’ Federation Ltd. (COMFED) came into existence in 1983 as the implementing agency of Operation Flood (OF) program of dairy development on Anand pattern in the State. All the operation or erstwhile Bihar State Dairy Co-operation was handed over to COMFED. 2. Area of operation There are six district level Milk Producers' Co-operative Unions affiliated to the Milk Federation. These milk unions are covering twenty-six districts and in addition five districts are being covered by the Federation. Different milk unions, which are organizing the DCS network in these districts, are as follows:  Vaishali Patliputra Milk Union, Patna Covers Patna, Vaishali, Nalanda, Saran and Sheikhpura district  DR Milk Union, Barouni Covers Begusarai, Khagaria, Lakhisarai and part of Patna Districts.  Tirhut Milk Union, Muzaffarpur Covers Muzaffarpur, Sitamarhi, Sheohar, East Champaran, West-Champaran, Siwan and Gopalganj  Mithila Milk Union, Samastipur Covers Samastipur, Darbhanga & Madhubani districts  Shahabad Milk Union, Ara Covers Bhojpur, Buxar, Kaimur & Rohtas districts  Bhagalpur Milk Union, Bhagalpur Covers Bhagalpur, Munger, Banka and Jamui Districts
  34. 34. Page 34 The Milk Federation has already taken up organization of Dairy Co-operative Societies (DCS) in the districts of Gaya, Jahanabad, arwal and Nawada under Magadh dairy project and work has been initiated in Saharsa, Supaul and Madhepura districts. However, kosi dairy project will be covering Kishangunj, katihar, Purnia, and Araria districts also. The districts of East and West Singhbhum, Ranchi, Bokaro, Dhanbad, Jamshedpur and other districts of Jharkhand is covered by the COMFED(dairies) directly also under the control of Milk Federation for the supply of milk and milk products to the urban consumers in these cities. Procurement of milk has been taken up in Ranchi districts only. The Milk Federation has already taken up organization of Dairy Co-operative Societies (DCS) in the districts of Gaya, Jahanabad, Bhagalpur and GOI has approved a proposal for dairy development in Supaul, Madhepura and Saharsa districts. The districts of East and West Singhbhum, Ranchi, Bokaro and Dhanbad are being covered by the dairies directly under the control of Milk Federation for the supply of milk and milk products to the urban consumers in these cities. Procurement of milk has been taken up in Ranchi district only. 3. Physical Performance: Because of initial teething troubles and the set back caused by the natural vagaries, the progress was impeded. Regaining of confidence of the milk producers in the cooperative dairying system shattered due to poor management by erstwhile Bihar State Cooperation earlier was also of one of the major reasons for sluggish growth. Lack of functional infrastructure in the sphere of animal husbandry, especially in breed improvement, artificial insemination (AI) and animal health cover also contributed to the torpid progress. Policy decisions taken six to seven years ago have changed the trend of growth in all quarter’s of cooperative dairying in Bihar. In the earlier years, the emphasis was on the horizontal of dairy cooperative network. Now the strengthening / consolidation of the dairy cooperatives is being done to make them viable and gradual expansion of area is also being done. Achievements under different activities are summarized in the following pages.
  35. 35. Page 35 4. Marketing A. Liquid Marketing In the initial years, the emphasis of COMFED was on organizing DCS and educating farmers. In the initial years the milk sale moved at snail's speed from Later, marketing was given a boost by considering it a thrust area, about 5 to 100.55 thousand liters per day in 1987 to 106.54 thousand liters per day (TLPD) in 1992-93. However, strategies adopted in 1993-94, changed the trend completely. Year 2003 was declared as "Market Development Year". The daily average milk marketing has now reached a level of about 531 TLPD showing a continued increase which is depicted below: Marketing of milk and milk products is being in about 80 to 85towns / cities through 7839 (407) outlets in Bihar and Jharkhand. 7, lakhs 81 thousand litre per day sale of Bihar and Jharkhand is covered by COMFED. It is being marketed in areas as far as Guwahati and Calcutta besides in cities like Varanasi and Siliguri. In order to boost the sale of liquid milk, the dairies adopted the following strategies:-  Continual improvement in the quality of milk. It was achieved as a result of taking up taking up Dairy Plant Management (DPM) and Quality Assurance Program (QAP) by all the dairies with technical and financial assistance from NDDB / Comfed. Nine out of ten dairies of Comfed, namely, Patna, Muzaffarpur, Ranchi, Bokaro, Gaya, Bhagalpur, Jamshedpur, Barouni and Samastipur dairy have already been accredited with ISO : 9001:2000 and HACCP :ISO and HACCP certification. Bihar is one of the few States in the country which has been permitted by the National Dairy Development Board to use the “Mnemonic” symbol on the confirming the quality standards fixed by NDDB.  Reaching close to the consumers by expanding the retail network and establishing new whole day milk booths. Strengthening of door- delivery system.
  36. 36. Page 36  Strengthening of marketing teams by inducting professionals and better supervision.  Service to retailers and red dressal of consumer complaints.  Liberalizing the terms for appointment of retailer’s viz. reduction in the security deposits, facility for cash collection, increased commission, etc.  Creating consumer awareness and education. B. Milk Products Marketing With a view to improve the financial viability of dairies, broaden the product mix to serve a larger section of the population and improve the disposal of milk procured by the DCS, the dairies have resorted to the production of long shelf-life, value added and fresh milk products(indigenous milk based products /sweets). The product mix comprises of Ghee, Table Butter, Ice Cream, Dahi (Mishti and Plain), Lassi (in sachets and Tetra Bricks), Flavoured Milk, Peda, Kalakand, Gulabjamun, Rasogulla, Paneer (vacuum-packed), and Milk Cake and Khoa. Besides these products, surplus milk is conserved in the form of white butter, skim milk powder (SMP) and whole milk powder (WMP), which are mainly consumed by own dairies. Dairies are in the process of mechanizing the production processes for having better hygiene, improved sheltie life and commercial production. All the products are sold under ‘SUDHA’ brand name. AI's Performed Adequate arrangements have been made to expand the coverage of dairy co- operative societies under this program. For AI training, training facilities available at Comfed headquarter are being utilized and some persons are provided training at ERDTC, Siliguri, a NDDB managed training centre. Around 80% of the total functional DCS are covered under this program. Animal Health Program Main activities under animal health (AH) program include prophylactic vaccination, de-worming, mastitis control program, organization of veterinary/infertility camps and treatment of veterinary first AIS cases. Resume of different components of AH program is as follows
  37. 37. Page 37 ProphylacticVaccination Around 2665 Veterinary First Aid (VFA) centers have been established which do the vaccinations. Prophylactic inoculations are mainly done against Foot &Mouth Disease (FMD), Hemorrhage Septicemia (HS), Black Quarter (BQ) and Theileriosis diseases. During 2001-02, after initial trial, mass vaccination with Trio-o-vac (combined FMD, HS and BQ vaccine) on the lines of Pulse Polio vaccinations in children was taken up. During 2009-10 about 16.35 lakh vaccinations have been done. MastitisControlProgram This program has been taken up with the technical assistance from NDDB. Under this program, screening of milk animals is done using "Masticate". The doubtful or sub-clinical cases are given treatment. Awareness amongst the milk producers is created for disinfecting the udders and teats after milking with a view to check the infection of animals. Milk unions provide necessary disinfectant and treat cups to the milk producers on cost basis. Deworming Worm infestation in the milk animals affects the productivity adversely. Hence, for improving the productivity and health of animals, de-worming with broad-spectrum anthelmintics is arranged regularly by the milk unions. Veterinary Camps The milk unions organize veterinary camps where the milk producers bring their animals for treatment. Feed and Fodder Since, seventy five to eighty percent of the cost of milk production depends on the feeding of milk animals; this is very important affecting the economy of dairying activity. Both green fodder and balanced cattle feed are required to beefed in appropriate quantities for optimizing the output i.e. the production and also to maintain the health of the animal. The farmers in select dairy co- operative societies are being provided training through a computerized nutrition balancing system with the help of National Dairy Development Board.
  38. 38. Page 38 Adult Cattle feed (ACF) and Bypass Protein Feed (BPF) is manufactured by our cattle feed plants (CFP) located at Patna, Ranchi and Muzaffarpur. The total installed capacity of these plants is 260 Metric Tons Per Day (MTD) The cattle feed produced by these plants is supplied on cost basis to the farmers. Besides manufacturing BPF and ACF, CFP Ranchi also manufactures other livestock feeds to meet the requirement of Govt. farms in Bihar and Jharkhand. During 2009-10, the sale of cattle feed to DCS was 57.55 thousand Metric Tons. Green fodder is equally important in animal nutrition. Besides providing important nutrients, it helps in reducing the intake of balanced cattle feed and in turn the cost of production. After prolonged extension work and persuasion, the farmers have started not only the cultivation of different fodders in their fields but have started the production of fodder seeds. Another Important scheme under fodder development has been the treatment of straw with urea, which not only increases the palatability of dry fodder but increases its nutritional value also. Feeding of urea treated straw helps in reducing the cost of production of milk. Farmers have now taken it up on regular basis and during 2009-10 about 11613 MTs of straw has been treated. Training / Manpower Development Capacity building / skill up gradation has been given maximum emphasis in implementing the dairy development program. This has been achieved through regular training of milk producers, management committee members (MCM) of DCS, staff of DCS / milk unions of Comfed. Training of milk producers, DCS staff and MCM has been mainly arranged at the Comfed training centre at Patna. Training programs organized at Comfed's training centre include programs of Society Operation for Secretaries, Orientation of MCM, AI & VFA training, Dairy Animal Management, and Legal Literacy & Women Empowerment. Refresher courses and tailor made programs as per need of milk unions is also organized.
  39. 39. Page 39 Clean Milk Production Besides creating awareness amongst the milk producers about importance of clean milk production (CMP) program, efforts are made to install bulk coolers and link the DCS covered under CMP with these bulk coolers. Other actions taken include – Pre poning arrival time of milk vehicles at chilling centers / dairy docks, use of Stainless Steel milk cans, sanitization of milk cans, vigorous testing of adulterants etc. Plant Name of the Plant Capacity of the Plant (TLPD) Management Patna 150.0 VPMU Barouni 200.0 BMU Muzaffarpur 150.0 TMU Samastipur 200.0 MMU Aara 100.0 SMU Jamshedpur 100.0 COMFED Ranchi 100.0 COMFED Bokaro 100.0 COMFED Bhagalpur 25.0 COMFED Gaya 35.0 COMFED Purnia 10.0 BMU Kaimur 10.0 SMU Gopalganj 10.0 TMU Total 1190.0
  40. 40. Page 40 Procurement The milk procurement during 1994-95 averaged 114.32 thousand kg’s, per day which jumped more than five times to around 608.38 TKPD in 2006-07 but the devastating floods in July-Sept 2007 and also during second half of 2008 had very severe effect on the production of milk and its procurement by DCS. In 2008-09, it fell down to 415.36 TKPD but due to sustained efforts it again picked up the momentum. The daily average milk procurement during 2011-12 was 1074.92 TKPD. Unit wise Milk Procurement (in ‘000 kgs per day) Milk Union/ Unit 1887-88 1997-98 2003-04 2006-07 2010-11 2011-12 Barouni 20.57 65.93 135.00 173.69 333.08 314.12 Muzaffarpur 10.77 24.43 52.84 87.13 118.13 115.12 Samastipur 7.44 32.00 69.86 129.85 248.13 250.99 Patna 30.18 56.18 102.66 157.33 221.23 210.15 Shahabad - 8.77 29.99 45.41 123.75 129.44 Vikramshila 1.41 2.81 3.27 7.78 35.05 35.73 Gaya .68 .0.15 3.55 2.42 10.76 7.50 Kosi - - - - 6.29 7.13 Ranchi - 5.35 6.06 4.78 4.95 4.74 Total 71.05 213.19 403.00 608.38 1101.38 1074.92
  41. 41. Page 41 Extra Curricular Activities Performed By COMFED COMFED (Sudha) performs many extra activities relating to their products which can help the organization in his sale growth and advertisement also. Sudha’s “Dahi Khao” contest is one of the examples of that thing. The figure showing the contestants of Dahi Khao contest by COMFED
  42. 42. Page 42 RASHTRIYA KRISHI VIKAS YOJNA: After crucial analysis of the situation, the state government, for the development of diary area has prepared a diary road map for the year 2008- 12. In this plan emphasis will be made for the complete development of dairy area. 1) Establishment of milk co-operative societies in villages which help the farmers to sell their milk. 2) Improvement in the breed of milk animals so that the product of milk in the state can increase and can reach to 172 MT per from 138 MT. 3) Improvement in the health of animals. 4) Increasing the capacity of dairy equipments. 5) Development of human resource at village level. These plans are being implemented by all the units of COMFED. In 2009 and 2010 the state government has provided an amount of Rs. 27.59 crore and Rs. 21.39 crore respectively to COMFED for implementation of these plans. In 2010-11 Rs. 21.86 crore has been provided by the state government. Due to the implementation of the dairy road map programme approx 1210 villages are being benefited. This has been possible due to establishment of co-operative societies in these villages. Approx 112 farmers have got training in this field. Under this programme there are 65 AI centers which provide their services to five to six villages nearby. These centers are also helping in improving the breed of milk animals.
  43. 43. Page 43 BIHAR GRAMIN JEEVIKOPARJAN YOJNA: Bihar government with the help of financial assistance of World Bank has started ‘Bihar Gramin Jeevikoparjan yojna’ to improve the living standard of people residing in villages. The main objective of this programme is to raise the living standard of women and other people of backward community by dairying activities. This programme has also aimed to create awareness among the villagers about their fundamental rights. For implementing this plan self help groups are also formed. COMFED is helping the members of this self help group in earning the regular income by connecting them to the milk co-operative societies. For this a plan has been prepared under which the three districts of Bihar i.e. Muzaffarpur, Nalanda and Khagaria are targeted for implementation for this plan.
  44. 44. Page 44 SWOT Analysis of Sudha Dairy, Patna Strengths: •Demand profile: Absolutely positive •Availability of raw material: Rich. •Technical manpower: Professionally-trained, technical human resource pool, built over last 30 years. Weaknesses: •Lack of control over yield: Theoretically, there is little control a little control over yield. However, increased awareness of developments like embryo transplant, artificial insemination and properly managed animal husbandry practices will automatically lead to improvements in milk yield. •Logistics of procurement: Woes of bad roads and inadequate transportation facility make milk procurement problematic. But with the overall economic improvement in India, these problems would also get solved. •Competition: With so many newcomers entering this industry, competition is becoming tougher day by day. But then competition has to be faced as a ground reality. The market is large enough for many to carve out their niche.
  45. 45. Page 45 Opportunities: "Failure is never final, and success never ending”. Dr Kurien bears out this statement perfectly, if dairy entrepreneurs are looking for opportunities in India, the following areas must be tapped:  Value addition: There is a phenomenal scope for innovations in product development, packaging and presentation. Given below are potential areas of value addition: o This will lead to a greater presence and flexibility in the market place along with opportunities in the field of brand building. o Addition of cultured products like yoghurt and cheese lendfurther strength - both in terms of utilization of resources and presence in the market place. o A lateral view opens up opportunities in milk proteins through casein, caseinates and other dietary proteins, further opening up export opportunities. o Yet another aspect can be the addition of infant foods, geriatric foods and nutritional.  Export potential: Efforts to use export potential are already on.Opportunities will increase trem endously for the export of agri- products in general and dairy products in particular. Threats:  Milk vendors, the un-organized sector: Today milk vendors are occupying the pride of place in the industry. Organized dissemination of information about the harm that they are doing to producers and consumers should see a steady decline in their importance.
  46. 46. Page 46 Real Facts and previous year’s records of sales and presentations
  47. 47. Page 47 Item wise sale summary to distributors during 2010-2011 Product Unit Quantity Amount(Rs) VAT Total (Rs) Peda 100g 108433.00 17218636.22 __.__ 17218639.2 2 Peda 250g 180314.00 26907209.04 __.__ 26097203.0 4 Paneer (V- Pack) 200g 412486.00 5364957.6 6706202.4 5 60355779.3 5 Paneer (V- Pack) 100g 14298.00 2040844.91 255107.06 2295951.97 Paneer (V- Pack) 500g 70367.00 9023689.28 1127961.1 9 10151650.4 4 Plain dahi (Pouch) 500g 6207.50 224918.45 __.__ 224918.45 Misti dahi 100g 221745.60 13662095.48 __.__ 13662095.4 8 Plain dahi 200g 178804.80 10103238.46 __.__ 10103238.4 6 Plain dahi 500g __.__ __.__ __.__ __.__ Plain dahi 5kg 49760.00 1897910.25 __.__ 1897910.25 Plain dahi 18Kg 93672.00 3470728.68 __.__ 3470782.68 Ghee (Pouch) 200ml 16795.00 3787325.90 151492.69 3938818.59 Ghee (Pouch) 500ml 295144.50 63801974.31 2552078.9 5 66354053.2 6 Ghee (Jar) 1000m l 5457.00 1214395.62 48575.82 1262971.44 Ghee (Jar) 15Kg 6446.00 1387224.28 55489.17 1442713.45 Ghee (Tin) 100g 1005.00 222909.00 8916.36 231825.36 Table butter 500g 21525.50 3873251.53 484159.88 4357411.41 Table butter 200ml 639.00 109567.42 13695.96 123265.39 Lassi (Pouch) 2ooml 753432.80 26468967.60 __.__ 26468967.6 0 Mattha 200ml 21988.40 571478.00 __.__ 571478.00 Milk cake 100g 1696.00 263179.62 __.__ 263179.62 Milk cake 250g 2638.00 392663.32 __.__ 392663.32 Kalakand 100g 6304.00 1001734.84 __.__ 1001734.84 Kalakand 250g 7122.00 1061792.72 __.__ 1061792.72 Khoa Mithai 250g __.__ __.__ __.__ __.__ Khoa 500g 24189.00 3499842.12 __.__ 6423212.80 Rasogulla 100g 53854.70 6894648.16 __.__ 6259766.04
  48. 48. Page 48 Gulabjamun 250g 48849.50 6423212.80 __.__ 51461.31 Gulabjamun 500g 62304.00 6259766.04 __.__ 6259766.04 Gulabjamun 1kg 293.00 51461.31 __.__ 51461.31 Gulabjamun 5kg 1815.00 173612.50 __.__ 173612.50 Gulabjamun 10kg 33820.00 3195104.80 __.__ 3195104.80 Gulabjamun (Tin) 1kg 11432.00 1150509.36 __.__ 1150509.36 Balusahi 250g 48849.50 6514166.54 __.__ 6514166.54 Balusahi 1kg 201631.60 3220039.41 __.__ 3220039.41 Balusahi (tin) 1kg __.__ __.__ __.__ __.__ Plain Dahi 400g __.__ __.__ __.__ __.__ Flavored (Coffee) 200ml __.__ __.__ __.__ __.__ Mango lassi 200ml 214182.20 9604947.25 __.__ 9604947.25 Mango dahi 100g 855.60 80368.20 __.__ 80368.20 Ramdana 100g __.__ __.__ __.__ __.__ Flavoured Milk 200ml 76517.00 3904524.29 488065.53 4392589.82 Total 3254874. 2 245042895.3 1 11891745. 06 843528049. 72
  49. 49. Page 49 CUSTOMERS PER DAY DEMAND OF SUDHA PRODUCTS FROM THEIR RETAILERS 1. Customers demand of milk from the retailer per day (in liter)? RESPONSES NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%) 200-250 3 15 250-300 4 20 300-350 1 5 350 & ABOVE 12 60 TOTAL 20 100 INFERENCE:-Out of 20 retailers, 60% of them have demand 350 & above liters, 20% of them have 250 -300 liters, 15% have 200-250 liters & 5% have 300-350 liters of milk demands by the customers per day. 15% 20% 5% 60% CUSTOMERS DEMAND OF MILK FROM RETAILERS (IN LTR) 200-250 250-300 300-350 350-ABOVE
  50. 50. Page 50 2. Customers demand of Paneer from the retailer per day (in kg.)? RESPONSES NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%) 5-10 10 50 10-15 6 30 15-20 2 10 20 & ABOVE 2 10 TOTAL 20 100 CUSTOMERS DEMAND OF PANEER FROM THE RETAILERS (IN KG) INFERENCE: - Out of 20 retailers, 50% of them have 5 – 10 kg demand, 30% have 10-15 kg, 10% have 15-20 kg & 10% have 20 & above kg demand of paneer from total customers per day. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 5 to 10 10 to 15 15 to 20 20 & above number of repondents percentage
  51. 51. 0 20 40 60 80 1 to 3 3 to 5 5 to 10 10 & above CUSTOMERS DEMAND OF GULAB JAMUN FROM RETAILERS (IN KG) number of respondents percentage
  52. 52. Page 52 4. Customers demand to Lassi from the retailers per day (in packets)? RESPONSES NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%) 100-150 1 5 150-200 3 15 200-250 3 15 250 & ABOVE 13 65 TOTAL 20 100 INFERENCE:- Out of 20 retailers, 65% of them have 250 & above packets of demand, 15% have 200-250 packets of demand, 15% have 150-200 demand and 5% have 100-150 demand of packets of lassi from the retailers per day. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 100-150 150-200 200-250 250 & above number of respondents percentage
  53. 53. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1-3.0 3-5.0 5-10.0 10 & ABOVE CUSTOMERS DEMAND OF PEDA FROM THE RETAILERS (IN KG) percentage respondents
  54. 54. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 10 to 20 20 to 30 30 to 40 40 & above CUSTOMERS DEMAND OF ICE-CREAM FROM THE RETAILERS (IN KG) percentage number respondents
  55. 55. Page 55 7. Customers demand of Sudha ghee from the retailers per day (in kg)? RESPONSES NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%) 1-3 5 25 3-5 2 10 5-10 6 30 10 & ABOVE 7 35 TOTAL 20 100 INFERENCE: Out of 20 retailers, 35% of them have demand 10 & above kg, 30% demand of 5-10kg, 25% demand of 1-3 kg and 10 % demand of 3-5 kg of Sudha ghee from the retailers of total customers per day. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1 to 3 3 to 5 5 to 10 10 & above number of respomdents percentage
  56. 56. Page 56 8. Customers demand of Misti Dahi the retailers per day (in kg)? RESPONSES NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%) 10-20 18 90 20-30 1 5 30-40 1 5 40 & ABOVE 0 0 TOTAL 20 100 INFERENCE: - Out of 20 retailers, 90% of them have 10 – 20 kg demand, 5% have 20 -30 kg, 5% have 30 – 40 kg demand of Misti dahi from the retailers by the total customers per day. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 10 to 20 20 to 30 30 to 40 40 & above number of respondents percentage
  57. 57. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 10 to 20 20 to 30 30 to 40 40 & above CUSTOMERS DEMAND OF PLAIN DAHI FROM RETAILERS (IN KG) percentage number of respondents
  58. 58. Page 58 10. Customers demand of Butter from the retailers per day (in g)? RESPONSES (gram) NUMBER RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%) 50-100 13 65 100-150 5 25 150-200 2 10 200-250 0 0 TOTAL 20 100 INFERENCE: - Out of 20 retailers, 65% of them have 50-100 g of demand, 25% have 100-150 g of demand and 10% have 150-200 g of demand from the retailers by the total customers per day. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 50-100 100-150 150-200 200-250 number of respondents percentage
  59. 59. Page 59 11. Customers demand of Milk from the retailers on special occasions (i.e. Deepawali, marriage session etc.) in Liters? RESPONSES NUMBER RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%) 5-20 14 70 20-35 4 20 35-50 1 5 50 & ABOVE 1 5 TOTAL 20 100 INFERENCE:-OUT of 20 retailers, 70% of them demands 5-20 liters , 20% demands 20 – 35 liters, 10% demands 35 and above liters of milk from retailers on special occasions by the total customers. 70% 20% 5% 5% CUSTOMERS DEMAND OF MILK ON SPECIAL OCCASIONS FROM RETAILERS (IN LTR) 5 to 20 20 to 35 35 to 50 10 & ABOVE
  60. 60. Page 60 12. Are Retailers satisfied with the delivery time of the distributor? RESPONSES NUMBER RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%) YES 16 80 NO 4 20 TOTAL 20 100 INFERENCE:-Out of 20 retailers, 80% satisfied and 20% unsatisfied by the distribution time of the products. respondents yes no
  61. 61. Page 61 RETAILERS PER DAY DEMAND OF SUDHA PRODUCTS FROM THE COMPANY 1. Retailers demand of milk from the company per day (in liters)? RESPONSES NUMBER RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%) 25-50 13 65 50-75 4 20 75-100 2 10 100 & ABOVE 1 5 TOTAL 20 100 INFERENCE:- Out 0f 20 retailers, 65% of them demands 25-50 liters of Milk, 20% demands 50 – 75 liters, 10% demands 75-100 liters and 5% demands 100 and above liters from the company per day. 65% 20% 10% 5% RETAILERS DEMAND OF MILK FROM THE CO. (IN LTR.) 25-50 50-75 75-100 100 & above
  62. 62. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0-20 20-40 40-60 60 & above RETAILERS DEMAND OF LASSI FROM CO. (IN PACKETS) no of respondents percentage
  63. 63. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0-250 250-500 500-1000 percentage no of respondents
  64. 64. Page 64 4. Retailers demand of Ice cream from the company per day (in litre)? RESPONSES NUMBER RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%) 0-50 6 30 50-100 3 15 100-150 1 5 150 & above 10 50 TOTAL 20 100 INFERENCE: - Out of 20 retailers, 50% of them demands 150 & above liters, 30% of them demands 0-50 and 20% demands 50-150 litre of ice – cream from the company per day. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0-50 50-100 100-150 150 & above RETAILERS DEMAND OF ICE CREAM FROM CO. (IN LTR) percentage no of respondents
  65. 65. Page 65 5. Retailers demand of Sudha ghee from the company per day (in kg)? RESPONSES NUMBER RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%) 0-1 10 50 1-2 5 25 2-3 4 20 3 & ABOVE 1 5 TOTAL 20 100 INFERENCE: - Out of 20 retailers, 50% of them demands 0-1 kg, 25% demands 1-2 kg, 20% demands 2-3 kg and 5% demands 3 & above kg of Sudha ghee from company per day. 50% 25% 20% 5% RETAILERS DEMAND OF SUDHA GHEE FROM CO. (IN KG) 0-1 1 to 2 2 to 3 3 & above
  66. 66. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 10 to 20 20 to 30 30 to 40 40 & above RETAILERS DEMAND OF PLAIN DAHI (IN KG) percentage no of respondents
  67. 67. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 0-5 5 to 10 10 to 15 15 & above RETAILERS DEMAND OF MILK ON SPECIAL OCCASIONS IN KGS PERCENTAGE (%) percentage no of respondents
  69. 69. Page 69 1. Preference given on different attributes:- ATTRIBUTES NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%) DELIVERY 4 2 TASTE 50 25 PRICE 5 2.5 PACKAGING 4 2 VARIETY 10 5 QUALITY 60 30 ABUNDANCE 50 25 NOT LIKE 17 8.5 TOTAL 200 100 INFERENCE: - Among the various attributes of Sudha products, 25% likes its taste, 30% likes its quality, 25% likes it because of its abundance and 20% like other attributes. 0 20 40 60 80 100 PREFERENCE GIVEN ON DIFFERENT ATTRIBUTES (PERCENTAGE (%) percentage no of respondents
  71. 71. Page 71 1. Complaints of the customer :- RESPONSE NUMBER OF RESPONSDENTS PERCENTAGE (%) LATE DELIVERY 5 2.5 TASTE 14 7 PRICE 20 10 PACKAGING 3 1.5 LACK IN VARIETY 4 2 QUALITY 35 17.5 SHORTAGE 11 5.5 NO COMPALIN 108 54 TOTAL 200 100 INFERENCE: - Out of 200 customers, 54% off them had no complaints but 46% of them have to face certain problems respectively. 2% 7% 10% 1% 2% 18% 6% 54% PREFERENCE GIVEN ON DIFFERENT ATTRIBUTES PERCENTAGE (%) late delivery TASTE PRICE PACKAGING lack in variety Quality shortage no complain
  72. 72. Page 72 Questionnaire For Consumer PARTA: INTRODUCTION 1.Nameoftheconsumer:- _____________________________________. a)Age:- b)Sex:- Male Female c)Qualification:- ________________________. d)Occupation:- ________________________. 2.Addressofconsumer:- 3.Contactnumber:- PARTB:INTRESTS 4.Doyoupurchasebrandedmilk? a) Regularly (b)Occasionally (c)No 5.Whichbrandofmilkdoyouuse? a) Sudha (b)Raj (c)Amul (d)Other 6.Howmuchquantityyoupurchasedaily? a) 1/2lt. b)1lt. c)Morethan1lt.
  73. 73. Page 73 7.Whatarethesourcesofpurchasingmilk? a) Vendor (b)Retailshop (c)Parlor 8.Haveyoueverusedbrandedsweets? a) yes b) No 9.Whichbrandofsweetsdoyouuse? a) Sudha b)Haldiram c)Raj d)Other 10.WhatisgoodinyouropinionaboutSudhaproducts? a) Quality (b) availability c)Price (d)Taste 11.WeatherSUDHAsweetsandmilkpricearereasonableornot? a) Yes (b)No 12.WhatisyourlevelofsatisfactionwithSudhamilksandproducts? a)Satisfied b)Highlysatisfied c)Dissatisfied 13.Whichbrandofsweetsiseasilyavailableinyourlocality? a) Sudha b)Raj c)Amul COMPLAINTS:- ________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________. SUGGESTIONS:- ________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________. Place:________________. Date:___________.
  74. 74. Page 74 Questionnaire For Retailer PARTA: INTRODUCTION 1.Nameoftheconsumer:- _____________________________________. a)Age:- b)Sex:- Male Female c)Qualification:- ________________________. d)Occupation:- ________________________. 2.Addressofconsumer:- 3.Contactnumber:- PARTB:INTRESTS 4.Doyousellbrandedmilk? b) Regularly (b)Occasionally (c)No 5.Whichbrandofmilkdoyousell? b) Sudha (b)Raj (c)Amul (d)Other 6.Whichquantityismoredemandedbyconsumers? b) 1/2lt. b)1lt. c)Morethan1lt.
  75. 75. Page 75 7.Whichtypeofmilkismoredemanded? b) Plane (b)Fat (c)Other 8.Doyousellbrandedsweets? b) yes b) No 9.Whichbrandofsweetsdoyousell? b) Sudha b)Haldiram c)Raj d)Other 10.WhatisgoodinyouropinionaboutSudhaproducts? b) Quality (b) availability c)Price (d)Taste 11.WeatherSUDHAsweetsandmilkpriceisaffordableforconsumer? b) Yes (b)No (c)Can’tsay 12.WhatisthelevelofsatisfactioninconsumersaboutSudhamilksandproducts? a)Satisfied b)Highlysatisfied c)Dissatisfied 13.Whichbandofsweetsiseasilyavailableinyourlocality? b) Sudha b)Raj c)Amul COMPLAINTS:- ________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________. SUGGESTIONS:- ________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________. Place:________________. Date:___________.
  76. 76. Page 76 FINDINGS OF THE STUDY  Out of the two types of Sudha milk, standard milk is more sold by the retailers and is more preferred by the customers.  56% of the retailers are facing the problem of shortages.  Out of the two milk packets, full liters milk packets are mostly sold by the retailers.  50% of the retailers have to face complaints from the customers.  Majority of the retailer’s i.e. 88% of them are satisfied as being a part of Sudha diary.  Majority of retailers are satisfied with the margin of Sudha dairy.  Sudha milk has captured majority of the market share of processed milk in Patna. It is the market leader having 92% market share.  58% of customer uses Sudha milk for drinking.  Majority of the customers are satisfied with the Sudha milk and have no any complaints.  Majority of customer prefer Sudha milk because of its quality, taste and abundance.  55% of customer prefers fat milk.  37% of the customers have to face from the problem of shortages,.  93% of the customers are satisfied with our delivery system.  Majority of customers are in a favors to open more milk booths.  87% of customers want cow milk from Sudha dairy.  Till now, the companies have been able to maintain a healthy relation at both level (External and Internal).  It is lacking behind in remote areas.
  77. 77. Page 77 SUGGESTIONS After an analysis of the findings of survey I feel that there are some strength which the company can work on and some drawback which can remove:- 1) Patna dairy should give notice to every retailers and distributers about how to preserve and guide them for the proper maintenance of the milk. 2) As we know Sudha is already a renowned dairy company which leads the market, but unlikely the main competitors of Sudha milk are khatalwale, so Patna dairy should use silent marketing. Patna dairy should recruit 4 persons whose role is to distribute pamphlets displaying what they are taking to the customers when they return after taking their milk from khatal. 3) The company should take steps to provide closer interactions with the retailers who feel that greater patronage is given to the wholesalers. For this I would suggest regular retailers meet and attractive incentives schemes targeted to them. 4) Majority of retailers has complained of getting defective packet. Patna dairy should improve packaging process and provide replacement facilities of defective packets. 5) Patna dairy has a relatively good distribution network, but still company is not able to fulfill the demand outlet in the peak season and during flood. Here company should consider on the supply of product in the peak season and during flood. 6) Patna dairy should increase the margin on the Sudha milk to at least Rs. 1, which will increase the motivation level of the retailers. 7) Patna dairy should improve the quality of toned milk.
  78. 78. Page 78 8) Patna dairy should advertise about the products to make them aware to the customers by providing display board, banner to their outlets and using other means of advertisement. 9) Price of half liters milk should be equal to half the price of full liters milk.
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  80. 80. Page 80 CONCLUSION Taken as a whole the company does seem to have good share of the retail market but it does not appear to have reached its full potential. Periodic market surveys to study market conditions, customers changing taste, marketing network and the competitive environment would help greatly in strengthening the presence of the company. I sincerely hope that my findings and suggestions may somehow prove useful to the company and it continues to go from strength to strength. I express my thanks to Mr. Rajeev Verma (Asst. General Manager), Ritesh sir and all other staffs who encouraged and help me in conducting the survey and compiling the information.
  81. 81. Page 81 BIBLIOGRAPHY  Kotler, Philip; Marketing management, New Delhi, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009.  Kothari, C.R., Research Methodology, New Delhi, New Age International Pvt. Ltd. 2004.  Marketing Management – K Ramakrishnan News Papers and Magazine  Economic Times, Patna.  India Today Magazine. Websites:   
  82. 82. Page 82 Case Study: The dairy giant AMUL Dear sir, I came across with an interesting case study on the dairy giant AMUL : Every day Amul collects 447,000 liters of milk from 2.12 million farmers (many illiterate), converts the milk into branded, packaged products, and delivers goods worth Rs 6 crore (Rs 60 million) to over 500,000 retail outlets across the country. Every day Amul collects 447,000 liters of milk from 2.12 million farmers, converts the milk into branded and packaged products, and delivers goods worth Rs 6 crore (Rs 60 million) to over 500,000 retail outlets across the country. Its supply chain is easily one of the most complicated in the world. How do managers at Amul prevent the milk from souring? Walk in to any Amul or Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF) office, and you may or may not see a photograph of Mahatma Gandhi, but you will certainly see one particular photograph. It shows a long line of Gujarati women waiting patiently for a union truck to come and collect the milk they have brought in shining brass matkas. The picture is always prominently displayed. The message is clear: never forget your primary customer. If you don't, success is certain.
  83. 83. Page 83 Organization structure It all started in December 1946 with a group of farmers keen to free themselves from intermediaries, gain access to markets and thereby ensure maximum returns for their efforts. Based in the village of Anand, the Kaira District Milk Cooperative Union (better known as Amul) expanded exponentially. It joined hands with other milk cooperatives, and the Gujarat network now covers 2.12 million farmers, 10,411 village level milk collection centers and fourteen district level plants (unions) under the overall supervision of GCMMF. There are similar federations in other states. Right from the beginning, there was recognition that this initiative would directly benefit and transform small farmers and contribute to the development of society. Markets, then and even today are primitive and poor in infrastructure. Amul and GCMMF acknowledged that development and growth could not be left to market forces and that proactive intervention was required. Two key requirements were identified. The first, that sustained growth for the long term would depend on matching supply and demand. It would need heavy investment in the simultaneous development of suppliers and consumers. Second, that effective management of the network and commercial viability would require professional managers and technocrats. To implement their vision while retaining their focus on farmers, a hierarchical network of cooperatives was developed, which today forms the robust supply chain behind GCMMF's endeavor’s. The vast and complex supply chain stretches from small suppliers to large fragmented markets.
  84. 84. Page 84 Management of this network is made more complex by the fact that GCMMF is directly responsible only for a small part of the chain, with a number of third party players (distributors, retailers and logistics support providers) playing large roles. Managing this supply chain efficiently is critical as GCMMF's competitive position is driven by low consumer prices supported by a low cost system. Developing demand At the time Amul was formed, consumers had limited purchasing power, and modest consumption levels of milk and other dairy products. Thus Amul adopted a low-cost price strategy to make its products affordable and attractive to consumers by guaranteeing them value for money. Introducing higher value products Beginning with liquid milk, GCMMF enhanced the product mix through the progressive addition of higher value products while maintaining the desired growth in existing products. Despite competition in the high value dairy product segments from firms such as Hindustan Lever, Nestle and Britannia, GCMMF ensures that the product mix and the sequence in which Amul introduces its products is consistent with the core philosophy of providing milk at a basic, affordable price. The distribution network Amul products are available in over 500,000 retail outlets across India through its network of over 3,500 distributors. There are 47 depots with dry and cold warehouses to buffer inventory of the entire range of products. GCMMF transacts on an advance demand draft basis from its wholesale dealers instead of the cheque system adopted by other major FMCG companies. This practice is consistent with GCMMF's philosophy of maintaining cash transactions throughout the supply chain and it also minimizes dumping.
  85. 85. Page 85 Wholesale dealers carry inventory that is just adequate to take care of the transit time from the branch warehouse to their premises. This just-in-time inventory strategy improves dealers' return on investment (ROI). All GCMMF branches engage in route scheduling and have dedicated vehicle operations. Umbrella brand The network follows an umbrella branding strategy. Amul is the common brand for most product categories produced by various unions: liquid milk, milk powders, butter, ghee, cheese, cocoa products, sweets, ice-cream and condensed milk. Amul's sub-brands include variants such as Amulspray, Amulspree, Amulya and Nutramul. The edible oil products are grouped around Dhara and Lokdhara, mineral water is sold under the Jal Dhara brand while fruit drinks bear the Safal name. By insisting on an umbrella brand, GCMMF not only skillfully avoided inter- union conflicts but also created an opportunity for the union members to cooperate in developing products. Managing the supply chain Even though the cooperative was formed to bring together farmers, it was recognized that professional managers and technocrats would be required to manage the network effectively and make it commercially viable. Coordination Given the large number of organizations and entities in the supply chain and decentralized responsibility for various activities, effective coordination is critical for efficiency and cost control. GCMMF and the unions play a major role in this process and jointly achieve the desired degree of control. Buy-in from the unions is assured as the plans are approved by GCMMF's board. The board is drawn from the heads of all the unions, and the boards of the unions comprise of farmers elected through village societies, thereby creating a situation of interlocking control.
  86. 86. Page 86 The federation handles the distribution of end products and coordination with retailers and the dealers. The unions coordinate the supply side activities. These include monitoring milk collection contractors, the supply of animal feed and other supplies, provision of veterinary services, and educational activities. Managing third party service providers From the beginning, it was recognized that the unions' core activity lay in milk processing and the production of dairy products. Accordingly, marketing efforts (including brand development) were assumed by GCMMF. All other activities were entrusted to third parties. These include logistics of milk collection, distribution of dairy products, sale of products through dealers and retail stores, provision of animal feed, and veterinary services. It is worth noting that a number of these third parties are not in the organized sector, and many are not professionally managed with little regard for quality and service. This is a particularly critical issue in the logistics and transport of a perishable commodity where there are already weaknesses in the basic infrastructure. Establishing best practices A key source of competitive advantage has been the enterprise's ability to continuously implement best practices across all elements of the network: the federation, the unions, the village societies and the distribution channel. In developing these practices, the federation and the unions have adapted successful models from around the world. It could be the implementation of small group activities or quality circles at the federation. Or a TQM program at the unions. Or housekeeping and good accounting practices at the village society level. More important, the network has been able to regularly roll out improvement programs across to a large number of members and the implementation rate is consistently high.
  87. 87. Page 87 For example, every Friday, without fail, between 10.00 a.m. and 11.00 a.m., all employees of GCMMF meet at the closest office, be it a department or a branch or a depot to discuss their various quality concerns. Each meeting has its pre-set format in terms of Purpose, Agenda and Limit (PAL) with a process check at the end to record how the meeting was conducted. Similar processes are in place at the village societies, the unions and even at the wholesaler and C&F agent levels as well. Examples of benefits from recent initiatives include reduction in transportation time from the depots to the wholesale dealers, improvement in ROI of wholesale dealers, implementation of Zero Stock Out through improved availability of products at depots and also the implementation of Just-in-Time in finance to reduce the float. Kaizens at the unions have helped improve the quality of milk in terms of acidity and sour milk. (Undertaken by multi-disciplined teams, Kaizens are highly focused projects, reliant on a structured approach based on data gathering and analysis.) For example, Sabar Union's records show a reduction from 2.0% to 0.5% in the amount of sour milk/curd received at the union. The most impressive aspect of this large-scale roll out is that improvement processes are turning the village societies into individual improvement centers. Technology and e-initiatives GCMMF's technology strategy is characterized by four distinct components: new products, process technology, and complementary assets to enhance milk production and e-commerce. Few dairies of the world have the wide variety of products produced by the GCMMF network. Village societies are encouraged through subsidies to install chilling units. Automation in processing and packaging areas is common, as is HACCP certification. Amul actively pursues developments in embryo transfer and cattle breeding in order to improve cattle quality and increases in milk yields.
  88. 88. Page 88 GCMMF was one of the first FMCG (fast-moving consumer goods) firms in India to employ Internet technologies to implement B2C commerce. Today customers can order a variety of products through the Internet and be assured of timely delivery with cash payment upon receipt. Another e-initiative underway is to provide farmers access to information relating to markets, technology and best practices in the dairy industry through net enabled kiosks in the villages. GCMMF has also implemented a Geographical Information System (GIS) at both ends of the supply chain, i.e. milk collection as well as the marketing process. Farmers now have better access to information on the output as well as support services while providing a better planning tool to marketing personnel.
  89. 89. Page 89 THANK YOU