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The power of indigenous breeds for rural transformation - presentation given at the National Agricultural Research Institute in Lae, PNG
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The power of indigenous breeds for rural transformation - presentation given at the National Agricultural Research Institute in Lae, PNG


This presentation summarizes some of the reasons why indigenous livestock breeds are the foundation for sustainable rural development and why devloping countries should not follow the "western path" …

This presentation summarizes some of the reasons why indigenous livestock breeds are the foundation for sustainable rural development and why devloping countries should not follow the "western path" of increasing production at al costs, by means of imported genetics and animal feed.

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  • 1. The power of indigenous livestock breeds for rural transformation Ilse Köhler-Rollefson, LPP 4th April, 2014 at NARI in Lae, PNG
  • 2. Why indigenous breeds? • „Their yields are so small“ • „We don‘t even know about their performance or even their existence“. • „Farmers want fast growing animals – which are also good for food security and poverty alleviation..“
  • 3. Structure • 1. Global context of livestock development • 2. Role of livestock for the poor • 3. Advantages of local breeds • 4. Need to rethink the productivity paradigm? • 5. Examples of local production systems from India • 6. Experiences with local pig breeds
  • 4. Livestock in crisis The FAO regards livestock as : – the biggest enemy of the environment – 18% of total anthropogenic GHG emissions (calculations are being revised) – responsible for land degradation – source of pollution (esp. marine and waterways) with nitrogen and phosphorous – green tide – biodiversity loss
  • 5. The other population bomb livestock humans 3.6 x increase data: FAOSTATS Source: Presentation by Tony Weis: The Meat of the Global Food Crisis Livestock population bomb
  • 6. slaughtered livestock humans 7.1 x increase data: FAOSTATS Source: Presentation by Tony Weis: The Meat of the Global Food Crisis Growth in animal slaughter
  • 7. • „We have to produce more with less“ • „We have to increase resource use efficiency“
  • 8. “For example, the introduction of advanced genetics, feeding systems, and animal health protection have enabled industrialized countries, over the past four decades, to reduce their overall land requirements for livestock by 20%, while at the same time doubling total meat production”
  • 9. In Germany….
  • 10. Livestock development according to the western model at what cost ? • Social – loss of rural income opportunities, increased unemployment rates. • Biodiversity loss – both domestic animal diversity and floral diversity • Routine application of antibiotics and other additives • Animal welfare
  • 11. Significance of livestock for the poor 100 million rural poor (defined as existing on less than $ 2.00/day). More than 70% are fully and partially dependent on livestock. Livestock is the most important asset of the rural poor
  • 12. Pastoralists • Worldwide an estimated 120 million pastoralists utilize the 41 percent of the earth’s land surface where crops can’t be grown: tropical and subtropical drylands, mountainous and high-altitude zones, very cold areas. • By means of grazing they convert the local vegetation into food and energy that can sustain people.
  • 13. Smallholders/women • About 600-700 million smallholders raise small numbers of livestock on crop residues, left overs, in “interstitial” spaces (along road sides) • Zero to minimal input, but often highly profitable – interest rates much higher than in bank
  • 14. Livestock Revolution The situation changes when people switch from local breeds to high-input systems, as during the “Livestock Revolution”. The Livestock Revolution is a term coined in 1999 to describe a development in the livestock sector which is similar to the “Green Revolution”: Local breeds are replaced with high input and high output hybrid animals (poultry and pigs) – farmer loses breeding function and becomes dependent on purchased inputs.
  • 15. From Asset to Liability? •Farmers often get into a debt trap squeezed between escalating input prices and the consolidated power of the food processors and supermarket chains on the other. •The financial squeeze “forces many farmers to cut costs wherever they can, and creates strong incentives to unethical behaviour.”
  • 16. Concentration and consolidation • In India, the most rapid growth in livestock population has been among large landholders, and concerned especially industrial poultry units. The number of stock owned by the poor, including small ruminants, pigs, and poultry, is decreasing dramatically (Chacko in FAO,2010). • In Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) the number of pig producers shrunk from 85,000 to 10,000 between 1995 and 2008 • In Romania, pig producers declined by 90% in 4 years
  • 17. Loss of jobs and debts in Europe Dairy farmers in Denmark Debts average € 2.25 million/per farm € 19,000/per cow (Mathias, 2012) Dairy farmers in Germany 4000 (about 4%) are expected to go out of business this year (website Green Party Germany) 1984 2008 33,800 dairy producers 3,780 dairy producers
  • 18. For the sake of national autonomies and of rural livelihoods, this is not what should happen in developing countries!
  • 20. Why? „GREEN“ • Optimal utilization of local biomass lessens dependence on feed imports • Breeds are resistant to disease – use of antibiotcs can be minimized • Locally evolved systems are largely compatible with notions of animal welfare • No fossil fuels needed (for fertilizer, transport of feed, etc.) EQUITABLE • Have been developed and stewarded by PEOPLE for generations • Reproduce naturally • Represent cultural heritage • Require no huge investment in infrastructure • Low risk
  • 21. Utilize all kinds of eco-systems: Example Chilka lake buffaloes in Odisha/India
  • 22. Mobile pig keeping in high rainfall India
  • 23. Camels grazing in mangroves
  • 24. Use of alpine pastures in India
  • 25. Livestock production in tune with local resources. • We need to support and facilitate the optimal utilization by domestic animals of the locally available biomas, especially in remote and marginal areas, as well as in interstitial spaces, for instance along road sides, and improved use of the aftermath on harvested fields. • This requires animals with specific behavioural characteristics and ability to walk • Learned behaviour is important
  • 26. Example: Thar Desert in India
  • 27. Tharparkar cattle Stored
  • 28. Jaisalmeri sheep
  • 29. Marwari goat
  • 30. Jaisalmeri dromedary breed
  • 31. Food products with health benefits
  • 32. Camel Forage Plants 36 Camel forage plants: containing phytochemicals and most of them with proven medicinal value
  • 33. Jaisalmeri Ghee  Sale price is 70% higher.  The taste panel found it to be better both as raw and cooked for taste and aroma.  The laboratory analysis showed significantly higher contents of vitamin A,E and carotenoids.
  • 34. Table showing taste panel results Character Jaisalemeri ghee Commercial Ghee Appearance 7.58 2.46 Flavour 7.80 2.02 Aroma 8.00 2.02 Based on scale of 1 to 8
  • 35. Table showing the fatty acid and the vitamin composition of ghee Name of fatty acid Jaisalmeri ghee Commercial ghee butyric acid C4:0 % by mass 2.1 0.2 caporic acid C6:0 % by mass 1.7 1.5 caprylic acid C8:0 % by mass 1.2 0.7 capric acid C10:0 % by mass 3.1 1.4 lauric acid C12:0 % by mass 2.7 2 tridecanoic acid C13:0 % by mass 0.1 0.1 myristic acid C14:0 % by mass 9.8 9.9 myristoleic acid C14:1 % by mass 1.2 0.6 pentadecanoic acid C15:0 % by mass 1.7 1.3 palmitic acid C16:0 % by mass 30 32.6 palmitoleic acid C16:1 % by mass 1.8 1.7 heptadecanoic acid C17:0 % by mass 1.1 0.9 cis-heptacanoic acid C17:1 % by mass 0.5 0.4
  • 36. CONTINUED stearic acid C18:0 % by mass 20.3 11.4 oleic acid cisC18:1 % by mass 27.2 25 linoelaidic acid C18:2 % by mass 0.6 0.3 linoleic acid cis C18:2 % by mass 2.4 5.8 omega-linolenic acid cis C18:3 % by mass 0.6 0.7 arachidic acid C20:0 % by mass 0.4 0.7 eicosenic acid C20:1 % by mass 0.1 0.3 arachidonic acid C20:4 % by mass 0.1 0 heneicosanoic acid C21:0 % by mass 0.1 0.1 behenic acid C22:0 % by mass 0.2 0.6 tricosanoic acid C23:0 % by mass 0.1 0.1 lignoceric acid C24:0 % by mass 0.1 0.1 0.1
  • 37. contd vitamin A mg/Kg 19.2 18.3 vitamin D3 mg/Kg 0 0 vitamin E mg/Kg 166.9 131.3 carotenoids mg/Kg 2.7 0.2
  • 38. Jaiselmeri Goat Meat  The meat sold at 25% higher prices than the goat meat imported from adjoining districts.  The taste panel conducted outside the district showed significantly higher aroma, flavour, texture and overall palatability than that from local goats.
  • 39. Camel products
  • 40. Lesson learnt: • Establishment of value chains benefits not only the producers of the raw materials (camel breeders), but creates a myriad of rural job opportunities for processors, especially women.
  • 41. Local breeds are a long-term business opportunity • Consumers increasingly concerned about animal welfare and health issues • Low-input costs • Independence from fossil fuels Let us ensure that livestock keepers get the opportunity to capitalize on them!
  • 42. Examples from the pig sector: Pedigree pork“Do you long for Pork that has real flavour and taste? Pork that melts in your mouth? Succulent and juicy when cooked? Traditional cured bacon and hand made sausages?” The BPA can put you in touch with small scale pig producers who still produce pork like Grandma and Grandpa remember it. Dedicated pig enthusiasts who are proud to be able to offer you a very special eating experience from their small herds of pedigree pigs. Traditional Breeds such as Tamworth, Saddleback, Berkshire, etc. that reflect Britain’s rich heritage of native breeds and strong reputation for outstanding pork, bacon and sausages.
  • 43. Gloucester Old Spot Pig known as the 'orchard pig or 'the pig with the built in apple sauce', because it grazed on the windfall apples in the orchards that once grew in abundance along the banks of the River Severn in Gloucestershire.
  • 44. Schwaebisch-Hallische Pig in Germany
  • 45. Some possible steps (from the perspective of an outsider) • Participatory documentation of PNG pig husbandry systems to develop awareness and raise profile • Maybe develop Biocultural Protocols in places where local people can facilitate? • Establish linkages with private entrepreneurs? Maybe some study tours to Australia?
  • 46. Strategic Priority No. 6 of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources calls for: • Support indigenous and local livestock systems of importance to animal genetic resources, including through the removal of factors contributing to erosion. • Promote exchange, interaction and dialogue ……in order to integrate traditional knowledge with scientific approaches. • Promote the development of niche markets for products derived from indigenous and local species and breeds…..
  • 47. What livestock keepers want….. • “Livestock Keepers shall have the right to appropriate training and capacity building and equal access to relevant services enabling and supporting them to raise livestock and to better process and market their products.”
  • 48. Women pig keepers in PNG have the entrepreneurial potential
  • 49. Tenkyu, PNG, for your hospitality !