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  1. 1. IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENT IN SCIENCE – Connection between science and technology were minimal in the 18th century. In 19th century these changed when science, technology and industry found a common ground and common cause. Science became a growing force with technology for a change in intellectual and material climate of the 19th century.
  2. 2. Development of Science • Physics - Coloumb’s law on electrostatic interaction published in 1785 and frictional electrostatic instrumentation led to the new science of electricity. - Volta invention of cell or battery led to the important discovery of Oersted in the 1820 that electricity generates magnetism. - Faraday’s discovery in 1830 that magnetism generates electricity among others led Maxwell unification theory of electricity and magnetism in 1864 predicting the radiation of electromagnetic waves such as light of changing current.
  3. 3. - The work of Carnot, Claussius, Helmholtz resulted in the Development of thermodynamics with 4 laws, statistical-molecular explanation of thermodynamics together with the refinement of Newton’s by Laplace and Maxwell’s theory made physics and mathematical in character. Chemistry - Lavoisier made chemistry a science based upon analysis and measurements Dalton’s atomic theory in 1808 provided for interpreting analysis and expressing chemical composition. - The work of Humprey Day, Berzeliu and others led to the discovery of new elements.
  4. 4. - The middle of 19th century saw the birth of organic chemistry pioneered by Laurent and Gerhadt. - Thermodynamics and thermo chemistry that led to physical chemistry. Biology - In 1859 a breakthrough in understanding of evolution, was presented by Charles Darwin (1809-1882) in his Origin of Species by natural selection theory which states that one species could develop from another.
  5. 5. Darwin argue that: 1. Some individuals within a species have characteristics that allow them to survive better than the rest. 2. Those who survive and reached adulthood are likely to breed passing on their characteristics to the next generations. 3. With successive generations there will be an increase within a species of those characteristics improving its survival chances. 4. The characteristics of a species are gradually modified.
  6. 6. • Geology Geology had emerged as a science capable of revealing information from the past from fossils evidence as illustrated by the work of William Smith(1769-1839) and Charles Lyall. They studied rock strata and the fossils in them noting that the deeper and older the strata the greater are the difference in showed life forms and concluding a continuous process of change.
  7. 7. Science and Scientist from 18th to 19th Century WHO Robert Hooke Anton Van Leeuwenhoek Gabriel Fahrenhiet Benjamin Franklin Carolus Linnaeus Antoine Lavoisier DONE WHAT? SAID WHAT? Described cells for the first time. Bacteria first observed Microorganism discovered Constructed first mercury thermometer Distinguished between negative and positive charge Used binary nomenclature to classify of species Experiments on burning WHEN 1665 1683 1696 1714 1751 1753 1772
  8. 8. Abraham Werner William Herschel Henry Cavendish Charles Coulomb Henry Cavendish Alessandro Volta John Dalton Classification of minerals Discovered the planet Uranus Combustion of oxygen produces water Formulated Coulomb’s law of interactions between charges and between magnets Measured mass of earth after determining the gravitational constant. Invented galvanic cell for storing and as a source of electricity. Formulated atomic theory of matter 1774 1781 1783 1785 1798 1800 1808
  9. 9. Mary Anning Georges Cuvier Hans Christian Oersted Andre Marie Ampere Pail Erman Michael Faraday Found first fossils of Ichthyosaur Founded the science of comparative anatomy Discovered that electric current generates magnetism Formulated Ampere’s Law that tells how electric current generates magnetism. First measurement of earth’s magnetism Formulated the law of induction that tells how magnetism generates electricity 1811 1812 1820 1820 1828 1830
  10. 10. Robert Brown Crawford Long Wilhelm Wunot Charles Darwin James Clerk Maxwell Discovered the nucleus in the cell First use of ether in surgery Introduced experimental psychology Published his on “The Origin of Species” Unified mathematically electricity and magnetism into four equations. Predicted existence of electromagnetic waves such as light. 1831 1842 1858 1859 1864
  11. 11. Heinrich Hertz Louis Pasteur Daniel Williams William Roentgen Henri Becquerel Michael S. Pupin J.J Thomson Martinus W. Beijenrinck Discovered, produced and detected radio waves Developed vaccine against rabies First open heart surgery Discovered x-rays Discovered natural radioactivity First diagnostic x-ray taken Discovered electron First known virus found 1887 1885 1893 1895 1896 1896 1897 1898