IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENT IN
– Connection between science and technology
were minimal in the 18th century. In 19th century
these changed when science, technology and
industry found a common ground and common
cause. Science became a growing force with
technology for a change in intellectual and
material climate of the 19th century.
Development of Science
- Coloumb’s law on electrostatic interaction published
in 1785 and frictional electrostatic instrumentation led
to the new science of electricity.
- Volta invention of cell or battery led to the important
discovery of Oersted in the 1820 that electricity
- Faraday’s discovery in 1830 that magnetism generates
electricity among others led Maxwell unification theory
of electricity and magnetism in 1864 predicting the
radiation of electromagnetic waves such as light of
- The work of Carnot, Claussius, Helmholtz
resulted in the Development of thermodynamics
with 4 laws, statistical-molecular explanation of
thermodynamics together with the refinement of
Newton’s by Laplace and Maxwell’s theory made
physics and mathematical in character.
- Lavoisier made chemistry a science based upon
analysis and measurements Dalton’s atomic
theory in 1808 provided for interpreting analysis
and expressing chemical composition.
- The work of Humprey Day, Berzeliu and others
led to the discovery of new elements.
- The middle of 19th century saw the birth of
organic chemistry pioneered by Laurent and
- Thermodynamics and thermo chemistry that led
to physical chemistry.
- In 1859 a breakthrough in understanding of
evolution, was presented by Charles Darwin
(1809-1882) in his Origin of Species by natural
selection theory which states that one species
could develop from another.
Darwin argue that:
1. Some individuals within a species have
characteristics that allow them to survive
better than the rest.
2. Those who survive and reached adulthood are
likely to breed passing on their characteristics
to the next generations.
3. With successive generations there will be an
increase within a species of those
characteristics improving its survival chances.
4. The characteristics of a species are gradually
Geology had emerged as a science capable of
revealing information from the past from fossils
evidence as illustrated by the work of William
Smith(1769-1839) and Charles Lyall. They studied
rock strata and the fossils in them noting that the
deeper and older the strata the greater are the
difference in showed life forms and concluding a
continuous process of change.
Science and Scientist from 18th to 19th Century
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
DONE WHAT? SAID WHAT?
Described cells for the first time.
Bacteria first observed
Constructed first mercury
Distinguished between negative
and positive charge
Used binary nomenclature to
classify of species
Experiments on burning
Classification of minerals
Discovered the planet Uranus
Combustion of oxygen produces
Formulated Coulomb’s law of
interactions between charges and
Measured mass of earth after
determining the gravitational
Invented galvanic cell for storing
and as a source of electricity.
Formulated atomic theory of
Hans Christian Oersted
Andre Marie Ampere
Found first fossils of Ichthyosaur
Founded the science of comparative
Discovered that electric current
Formulated Ampere’s Law that tells
how electric current generates
First measurement of earth’s
Formulated the law of induction
that tells how magnetism generates
James Clerk Maxwell
Discovered the nucleus in the cell
First use of ether in surgery
Introduced experimental psychology
Published his on “The Origin of
Unified mathematically electricity
and magnetism into four equations.
Predicted existence of
electromagnetic waves such as light.
Michael S. Pupin
Martinus W. Beijenrinck
Discovered, produced and detected
Developed vaccine against rabies
First open heart surgery
Discovered natural radioactivity
First diagnostic x-ray taken
First known virus found