Risky business Mining in Africa


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With hundreds of international companies trawling Africa for mineral weath, this document puts the risks into perspective.

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Risky business Mining in Africa

  1. 1. Risky BusinessMining in Africa, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Fraser Institute3000 mining companies rate Africa<br />African nations trail the world as preferred destinations for mining .<br />The Policy Potential Index (PPI) is a composite index, measuring the over all policy attractiveness of the 79 jurisdictions in the survey. The PPI is normalized to a maximum score of 100. A jurisdiction that ranks first under the “Encourages Investment” response in every policy area would have a score of 100; one that scored last in every cat e gory would have a score of 0.<br />
  3. 3. Why does Africa rate so poorly?<br />
  4. 4. Leadership<br />Disputed leadership or civil war 2001 – 2011<br />19<br />22<br />1<br />21<br />20<br />21<br />16<br />18<br />23<br />14<br />13<br />15<br />2<br />12<br />27<br />28<br />3<br />24<br />4<br />11<br />7<br />10<br />Political ChaosPast, Present, and future...<br />6<br />25<br />8<br />5<br />9<br />26<br />
  5. 5. African Governance<br />The citizens of the 8th and 9thbest governed countries rally to overthrow their leaders in massive, popular revolt.<br />
  6. 6. Political Violence<br />Intensity of sabotage; strikes, riots, civil commotion and malicious damage to property; and political insurrection, revolution, rebellion, mutiny, coup d'état, war and civil war.<br />
  7. 7. Corruption<br />← A score of 0 (darkest blue) indicates high corruption; <br />A score of 10 (lightest blue) indicates low corruption.<br />
  8. 8. Skilled and Unskilled LabourFinding good workers is too hard...<br />Years of education and literacy in West and Central Africa<br />The steeper the rise, the less educated.<br />
  9. 9. Infrastructure<br />Power is by far Africa’s largest infrastructure challenge, with 30 countries facing regular power shortages and many paying high premiums for emergency power.<br />Not only are Africa’s infrastructure networks deficit in coverage, but the price of the services provided is also exceptionally high by global standards Whether for power, water, road freight, mobile telephones, or Internet services, the tariffs paid in Africa are several multiples of those paid in other parts of the developing world.<br />
  10. 10. Infrastructure (cont.)<br />
  11. 11. Recent Examples<br />
  12. 12. Simandou, GuineaRio Tinto Powerless<br />The Guinea military government that was overturned in the November elections had issues about how long Rio was taking to develop the project and had already taken two of the miner's four Simandou tenements. As well as the cash payment, Rio, Chinalco and 5 per cent owner the IFC agreed to give Guinea 15 per cent of the project at no cost to the government, 10 per cent at something called "historic cost" and the right to buy an extra 10 per cent at market value. <br />
  13. 13. Libyan UprisingChinese Government Powerless<br />Prior to the uprising in Libya, Chinese businesses have had 50 major projects under commission there, with a total contract value of US$18.8 billion.<br />China’s losses suffered from repatriating some 36,000 Chinese employees from Libya is set to surpass 3 billion dollars.<br />
  14. 14. Ivory Coast<br />Trade to and from the Ivory Coast is in rapid decline, due to economic sanctions imposed by the EU following November’s disputed presidential election.Almost all shipping lines have now stopped taking bookings for cargo destined for the West African country.EU companies are banned from doing business with Ivorian institutions linked to incumbent leader Laurent Gbagbo. He has refused to cede power to AlassaneOuattara, recognised by most international bodies as the country’s legitimate President after winning last year’s elections.<br />
  15. 15. Nationalisation Debate in South Africa<br />[The country's mineral wealth] “is a national asset and a common heritage that belongs to all South Africans, with the state as the custodian.” <br />South African President, Jacob Zuma, Feb 2011<br />
  16. 16. Namibia Strategic Minerals Legislation<br />Namibia's Ministry of Mines and Energy has followed the lead of countries like Zambia, the DRC and Zimbabwe and will soon take control of all future rights in strategic minerals. <br />Namibia's Mines and Energy Minister IsakKatali told Parliament that Cabinet declared uranium, copper, gold, zinc and coal strategic minerals to allow state-owned Epangelo exclusive exploration and exploitation rights. <br />
  17. 17. Is there hope?<br />
  18. 18. The Dodd-Frank Act (USA)“Blood Gold, Blood Tin, Blood Tantalum, Blood Tungsten”<br />The Dodd-Frank Act, signed into law on July 21, 2010, includes “Section 1502”, adding reporting requirements for companies’ SEC filings on the sources of “conflict minerals”.<br />The Act’s intends to curb the violence and exploitation in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and neighbouring countries by exposing companies that use minerals derived from this region through disclosure and public pressure.<br />HP, Intel, Microsoft, Apple, Nokia, and Acer surveyed suppliers, visited factories, and attempted to find loopholes in suppliers’ answers on their sourcing of minerals. RIM, Philips, Toshiba, SanDisk, and LG have also begun individual tracing.<br />
  19. 19. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative<br />The EITI sets a global standard for transparency in oil, gas and mining. <br />It is...<br />- An effort to make natural resources benefit all<br />- A coalition of governments, companies and civil society<br />- A standard for companies to publish what they pay and for governments to disclose what they receive<br />Compliant Countries<br />Azerbaijan, Niger, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Ghana ,Norway, Kyrgyz Republic, Timor-Leste, Liberia, Yemen (Suspended), Mongolia. <br />Candidate Countries (not yet compliant)<br />Afghanistan , Kazakhstan , Albania, Madagascar, Burkina Faso, Mali, Cameroon, Mauritania, Chad , Mozambique, Côte d´Ivoire, Peru, Democratic, Republic of Congo, Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Sierra Leone, Guatemala, Tanzania, Guinea, Togo, Indonesia, Trinidad and Tobago, Iraq, Zambia.<br />
  20. 20. Mining growth in Africa is strong but project risk remains extremely high<br />