Stages of Lung Cancer

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Illinois CyberKnife treats cancer patients with a nonsurgical method called stereotactic radiosurgery. Learn more about the treatment process and call 847-723-0100 or visit www.illinoisck.com to find out if CyberKnife® treatment is right for you.

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Stages of Lung Cancer

  1. 1. Stages of Lung Cancer 1700 Luther Lane Suite 1110 Park Ridge, IL 60068 847-723-0100 IllinoisCK.com
  2. 2. Lean more about lung cancer and how we can help. Please note: We encourage consumers to thoroughly review and understand all treatment options. The information presented here is not all-inclusive. Rather, it represents a starting point to learn about medical conditions and treatment options. This is not intended as a substitute for medical advice from your professional healthcare provider.  Contact your professional healthcare provider to find out if stereotactic radiation therapy is right for you. 1700 Luther Lane Suite 1110 Park Ridge, IL 60068 847-723-0100 IllinoisCK.com
  3. 3. Lung Cancer Overview ¤  Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) ¤  Non-small cell lung cancer is an umbrella term for several types of lung cancers that behave in a similar way. ¤  Non-small lung cancer accounts for 85% of lung cancers. ¤  Smoking increases the risk of NSCLC. ¤  Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) ¤  Small cell lung cancer occurs almost exclusively in heavy smokers. ¤  Small cell lung cancer accounts for 15% of lung cancers in the United States. ¤  SCLC grows more rapidly and spreads to other parts of the body earlier than non-small cell lung cancer. 1700 Luther Lane Suite 1110 Park Ridge, IL 60068 847-723-0100 IllinoisCK.com Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. There are two types of lung cancer:
  4. 4. 1700 Luther Lane Suite 1110 Park Ridge, IL 60068 847-723-0100 IllinoisCK.com
  5. 5. Diagnosing Lung Cancer Lung cancer can be diagnosed by Screening Procedures: ¤  Chest x-ray- A type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of the lungs inside the body. ¤  Sputum cytology- A procedure in which a sample of sputum (mucus that is coughed up from the lungs) is viewed under a microscope to check for cancer cells. ¤  Low-dose spiral CT scan-A procedure that uses low-dose radiation to make a series of very detailed pictures of areas inside the body. If the results of a screening procedure produces abnormal cells, the next step is: ¤  Biopsy- a procedure used to extract lung tissue from the body in order to look at the cells under a microscope and diagnose the cancer cells. 1700 Luther Lane Suite 1110 Park Ridge, IL 60068 847-723-0100 IllinoisCK.com
  6. 6. The TNM Staging System ¤  A staging system describes how far a cancer has spread. The most widely used staging system for lung cancer is the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM system. ¤  Non-small cell lung cancer is broken down into four stages of severity. ¤  Small cell lung cancer uses a two-tiered system of severity. ¤  The TNM system for lung cancer is based on key pieces of information: ¤  The extent of the primary tumor (T category) ¤  Whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes (N category) ¤  The absence or presence of distant metastasis (M category) ¤  The combination of these categories determine what stage of cancer the patient is in. 1700 Luther Lane Suite 1110 Park Ridge, IL 60068 847-723-0100 IllinoisCK.com
  7. 7. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Stage I ¤  The size of the cancer is no larger than 5 cm. ¤  The cancer is only localized within the lungs. ¤  The tumor is not blocking any airways. ¤  The cancer has not spread to any lymph nodes. 1700 Luther Lane Suite 1110 Park Ridge, IL 60068 847-723-0100 IllinoisCK.com
  8. 8. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Stage II ¤  The cancer has spread to the lymph nodes within the lungs. ¤  The tumor has grown to be larger than 5 cm, but no larger than 7 cm. ¤  The tumor is partially clogging the airways. ¤  The cancer has the ability to collapse one lung or cause localized pneumonia. 1700 Luther Lane Suite 1110 Park Ridge, IL 60068 847-723-0100 IllinoisCK.com
  9. 9. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Stage III ¤  The cancer has the ability to invade other areas near the lungs including: chest wall, diaphragm, membranes surrounding the space between the lugs, or membranes of the sac surrounding the heart. ¤  A smaller tumor can form accompanied by cancer cells in the lymph nodes farther away from the lungs. ¤  The cancer can be large enough to collapse or cause pneumonia in both lungs. 1700 Luther Lane Suite 1110 Park Ridge, IL 60068 847-723-0100 IllinoisCK.com
  10. 10. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Stage IV ¤  The tumor can be any size. ¤  The cancer has spread to both lungs or the fluid in the area between the lungs. ¤  The cancer has spread to distant organs in the body including: liver, bones or brain. 1700 Luther Lane Suite 1110 Park Ridge, IL 60068 847-723-0100 IllinoisCK.com
  11. 11. Small Cell Lung Cancer- Two Stages ¤  Limited Stage- ¤  In this stage, cancer is found on one side of the chest, involving just one part of the lung and nearby lymph nodes. ¤  Only about 1 in 3 people have limited stage SCLC when it is first found. ¤  Extensive Stage- ¤  The cancer has spread widely throughout the lung, to the other lung, to the lymph nodes on the other side of the chest, or distant organs. 1700 Luther Lane Suite 1110 Park Ridge, IL 60068 847-723-0100 IllinoisCK.com
  12. 12. Lung Cancer Treatment Options ¤  Surgery ¤  If in good general health, stage I and II lung cancer patients are usually treated with surgery. More advanced stages must be evaluated individually for the possibility of surgery. Some patients have small tumors that can be removed surgically, but they may suffer from other medical problems or may be opposed to surgery. In these cases, important treatment options like CyberKnife® offer an alternative. ¤  Conventional radiation therapy ¤  Conventional radiation therapy administers a broad beam of low dose radiation from only a few directions. Generally, treatment is offered with chemotherapy and radiation combined. ¤  Stereotactic radiosurgery ¤  Stereotactic radiosurgery is a noninvasive method of treating tumors with high dose radiation precisely aimed from different angles. Systems like the CyberKnife can offer effective treatment of lung tumors while carrying a low risk of side effects. 1700 Luther Lane Suite 1110 Park Ridge, IL 60068 847-723-0100 IllinoisCK.com
  13. 13. CyberKnife Treatment ¤  Prior to radiosurgery, doctors may implant between three and six small metal markers known as fiducials in or near the tumor that enable the CyberKnife to pinpoint the tumor location during treatment. Implanting the markers is an outpatient procedure that takes about an hour. ¤  Patients are fitted with a custom body mold made of soft material that they lie on during treatment. The fitting process is painless. Patients then undergo a CT scan used in developing a treatment plan. ¤  Most CyberKnife patients have minimal side effects, the most common being fatigue, and return to their normal routines immediately. 1700 Luther Lane Suite 1110 Park Ridge, IL 60068 847-723-0100 IllinoisCK.com
  14. 14. Additional Resources 1700 Luther Lane Suite 1110 Park Ridge, IL 60068 847-723-0100 IllinoisCK.com
  15. 15. Our Center Under the direction of medical director Dr. Arica Hirsch, Illinois CyberKnife brings together experienced physicians and the latest medical advances to provide patients with exceptional care since its 2011 opening. Illinois CyberKnife is part of Advocate Lutheran General’s Renowned Cancer Care Center, located in the center for Advanced Care on the hospital’s campus. Our doctors are board-certified in radiation oncology and have several areas of specialty, including head and neck cancers, prostate cancer and lung cancer. We are dedicated to providing our patients with the latest cancer treatment technology and are proud of the experience and expertise our physicians and caring staff bring to our patients. Read Our Blog! Medical Director: Dr. Arica Hirsch CyberKnife Nurse: Linda Green, BS RN Medical Physicist: Tony Simon Connect with us! 1700 Luther Lane Suite 1110 Park Ridge, IL 60068 847-723-0100 IllinoisCK.com

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