The developmental stages

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  • 1. Ana G. Mendez University System School for Professional Studies Florida Campuses Turabo University EDUC 580Educational Psychology: Human Growth and Development Professor: Carraballo By: Iliana Sepulveda-Romero
  • 2.  It is human to have a long childhood; it is civilized to have an even longer childhood. Long childhood makes a technical and mental virtuos out of man, but it also leaves a life-long residue of emotional immaturity in him. — Erik Homburger Erikson (1902-1994)
  • 3.  Ego Development Outcome: Trust vs. Mistrust Basic strength: Drive and Hope Infancy as the Oral Sensory Stage (as anyone might who watches a baby put everything in her mouth) where the major emphasis is on the mothers positive and loving care for the child, with a big emphasis on visual contact and touch. Many studies of suicides and suicide attempts point to the importance of the early years in developing the basic belief that the world is trustworthy and that every individual has a right to be here.
  • 4.  Ego Development Outcome: Autonomy vs. Shame Basic Strengths: Self-control, Courage, and Will During this stage we learn to master skills for ourselves. Not only do we learn to walk, talk and feed ourselves, we are learning finer motor development as well as the much appreciated toilet training. Here we have the opportunity to build self-esteem and autonomy as we gain more control over our bodies and acquire new skills, learning right from wrong. "Terrible Twos" is our ability to use the powerful word "NO!" It may be pain for parents, but it develops important skills of the will. The most significant relationships are with parents.
  • 5.  Ego Development Outcome: Initiative vs. Guilt Basic Strength: Purpose During this period we experience a desire to copy the adults around us and take initiative in creating play situations. We make up stories with Barbies and Kens, toy phones and miniature cars, playing out roles in a trial universe, experimenting with the blueprint for what we believe it means to be an adult. We also begin to use that wonderful word for exploring the world — "WHY?"
  • 6.  Ego Development Outcome: Industry vs. Inferiority Basic Strengths: Method and Competence During this stage, often called the Latency, we are capable of learning, creating and accomplishing numerous new skills and knowledge, thus developing a sense of industry. This is also a very social stage of development and if we experience unresolved feelings of inadequacy and inferiority among our peers, we can have serious problems in terms of competence and self-esteem.
  • 7.  Ego Development Outcome: Identity vs. Role Confusion Basic Strengths: Devotion and Fidelity Adolescence is a stage at which we are neither a child nor an adult, life is definitely getting more complex as we attempt to find our own identity, struggle with social interactions, and grapple with moral issues. Our task is to discover who we are as individuals separate from our family of origin and as members of a wider society.
  • 8.  Ego Development Outcome: Intimacy and Solidarity vs. Isolation Basic Strengths: Affiliation and Love In the initial stage of being an adult we seek one or more companions and love. As we try to find mutually satisfying relationships, primarily through marriage and friends, we generally also begin to start a family, though this age has been pushed back for many couples who today dont start their families until their late thirties. If negotiating this stage is successful, we can experience intimacy on a deep level.
  • 9.  Ego Development Outcome: Generativity vs. Self absorption or Stagnation Basic Strengths: Production and Care The middle age is when we tend to be occupied with creative and meaningful work and with issues surrounding our family. The significant task is to perpetuate culture and transmit values of the culture through the family and working to establish a stable environment. Strength comes through care of others and production of something that contributes to the betterment of society.
  • 10.  Ego Development Outcome: Integrity vs. Despair Basic Strengths: Wisdom Older adults often look back on lives with happiness and are content, feeling fulfilled with a deep sense that life has meaning and weve made a contribution to life, a feeling integrity. Strength comes from a wisdom that the world is very large and we now have a detached concern for the whole of life, accepting death as the completion of life.
  • 11. Eriksons Freudian basic virtue and maladaptation / malignancy psychosocial psycho- life stage / relationships / issues second named (potential negative outcome - one crisis stages sexual strength (potential or the other - from unhelpful (syntonic v stages positive outcomes experience during each crisis) dystonic) from each crisis)1. Trust v Oral infant / mother / feeding and being comforted, Hope and Drive Sensory Distortion / WithdrawalMistrust teething, sleeping2. Autonomy v Anal toddler / parents / bodily functions, toilet training, Willpower and Self- Impulsivity / CompulsionShame & Doubt muscular control, walking Control3. Initiative v Phallic preschool / family / exploration and discovery, Purpose and Ruthlessness / InhibitionGuilt adventure and play Direction4. Industry v Latency schoolchild / school, teachers, friends, neighbourhood Competence and Narrow Virtuosity / InertiaInferiority / achievement and accomplishment Method5. Identity v Puberty adolescent / peers, groups, influences / resolving Fidelity and Fanaticism / RepudiationRole Confusion and identity and direction, becoming a grown-up Devotion Genitality6. Intimacy v (Genitality) young adult / lovers, friends, work connections / Love and Affiliation Promiscuity / ExclusivityIsolation intimate relationships, work and social life7. Generativity v n/a mid-adult / children, community / giving back, Care and Production Overextension / RejectivityStagnation helping, contributing8. Integrity v n/a late adult / society, the world, life / meaning and Wisdom and Presumption / DisdainDespair purpose, life achievements Renunciation
  • 12. Psychosocial Crisis Stage Life Stage age range, other descriptions1. Trust v Mistrust Infancy 0-1½ yrs, baby, birth to walking2. Autonomy v Shame and Doubt Early Childhood 1-3 yrs, toddler, toilet training3. Initiative v Guilt Play Age 3-6 yrs, pre-school, nursery4. Industry v Inferiority School Age 5-12 yrs, early school5. Identity v Role Confusion Adolescence 9-18 yrs, puberty, teens*6. Intimacy v Isolation Young Adult 18-40, courting, early parenthood7. Generativity v Stagnation Adulthood 30-65, middle age, parenting8. Integrity v Despair Mature Age 50+, old age, grandparents
  • 13. life stage / relationships / issues crisis virtue outcomes Eriksons related Maslow Hierarchy of Needs elements of social stage - primary correlation orderinfant / mother / feeding and being comforted, 1. Trust v Hope & Drive cosmic order biological & physiologicalteething, sleeping Mistrusttoddler / parents / bodily functions, toilet training, Willpower & Self- law and order safetymuscular control, walking 2. Autonomy v Control Shame & Doubtpreschool / family / exploration and discovery, 3. Initiative v Purpose & ideal prototypes belongingness & loveadventure and play Guilt Directionschoolchild / school, teachers, friends, 4. Industry v Competence & technological esteemneighbourhood / achievement and accomplishment Inferiority Method elementsadolescent / peers, groups, influences / resolving 5. Identity v Role Fidelity & Devotion ideological esteemidentity and direction, becoming a grown-up Confusion perspectivesyoung adult / lovers, friends, work connections / 6. Intimacy v Love & Affiliation patterns of esteemintimate relationships, work and social life Isolation cooperation and competitionmid-adult / children, community / giving back, 7. Generativity v Care & Production currents of education self-actualisationhelping, contributing Stagnation and traininglate adult / society, the world, life / meaning and 8. Integrity v Wisdom & wisdom self-actualisationpurpose, life achievements, acceptance Despair Renunciation
  • 14. 1. Infancy as the Oral Sensory Stage where the major emphasis is on the Father’s positive and loving care for the child, with a big emphasis on visual contact and touch.2. Play Age: during this stage we learn to master skills for ourselves. Not only do we learn to walk, talk and feed ourselves, we are learning finer motor development as well as the much appreciated toilet training.3. School Age: most significant relationship is with the school and neighbourhood.4. It is no surprise in the young adulthood stage the most significant relationships are with peer groups.5. Young Adulthood 18 to 35 basic strengths is affiliation and love.6. Late Adulthood: the significant task is to perpetuate culture and transmit values of the culture through the family (taming the kids) and working to establish a stable environment.7. Older adults often look back on lives with happiness and are content, feeling fulfilled with a deep sense that life has meaning and weve made a contribution to life, a feeling integrity.8. Autonomy v Shame and Doubt /Early Childhood 1-3 yrs: toddler, toilet training.9. Early childhood most significant relationships are with parents.10. Human stages of growth and development are differentiated by age and key stages of scientifically supported psychomotor development.
  • 15. 1. Infancy as the Oral Sensory Stage where the major emphasis is on the Father’s positive and loving care for the child, with a big emphasis on visual contact and touch. (False is mother’s)2. Play Age: during this stage we learn to master skills for ourselves. Not only do we learn to walk, talk and feed ourselves, we are learning finer motor development as well as the much appreciated toilet training. (False is early childhood )3. School Age: most significant relationship is with the school and neighbourhood. (True)4. It is no surprise in the young adulthood stage the most significant relationships are with peer groups. (False is adolescence)5. Young Adulthood 18 to 35 basic strengths is affiliation and love. (True)6. Late Adulthood: the significant task is to perpetuate culture and transmit values of the culture through the family (taming the kids) and working to establish a stable environment. (False is middle adulthood )7. Older adults often look back on lives with happiness and are content, feeling fulfilled with a deep sense that life has meaning and weve made a contribution to life, a feeling integrity. (True)8. Autonomy v Shame and Doubt /Early Childhood 1-3 yrs: toddler, toilet training. (True)9. Early childhood most significant relationships are with parents. (True)10. Human stages of growth and development are differentiated by age and key stages of scientifically supported psychomotor development. (True)
  • 16.  http://www.support4change.com/index.php? option=com_content&view=article&id=47&Ite mid=108