Over the years technology has advanced that has changed the outlook on brain damage and its intensity and our abilities to directly link brain injury to social behavior. There are three functional systems within the brain that are involved when brain damage occurs, the first functional system is intellect which is the information-handling aspect of behavior. Secondly, we have the emotional functional system which involves the feelings and emotions of the brain. Thirdly, we have control which is how our behavior is controlled.
The picture on the left is what Phineas Gage looked like after the accident and in his hands is the iron rod that was thrust through under his cheek and exited through his skull. The picture on the right is a drawing of how it was assumed that the rod entered the skull and how the skull was cracked in many different places.
This slide allows the reader to see the different types of injuries that result in the brain being injured. There are two types of brain injury a penetrating brain injury where the brain is actually penetrated with an object such as a knife, stick, metal pipe. Then there is the closed head injury where the head is being hit hard enough that causes rapid movement of the head, that causes the nerve fibers and axons to stretch and possibly break within the brain. These types of injuries can cause two different types of brain damage, primary brain damage that takes place at the time of impact and secondary brain damage which occurs over a period of time after the trauma has occurred.
This slide informs the readers of the basic symptoms of brain injuries there are a multitude of other symptoms that are related to brain injuries that affect the persons language, cognitive, developmental, personality and social aspects of a persons life.
Another cause of death in the United States related to brain injuries is the shaken baby syndrome
Assignment 2 Week 7
Ila Ann Kameh Advanced General Psychology Week 7 Assignment 2 October 26, 2008
<ul><li>Brain damage is the impairment caused by an injury to the brain that is “characterized in terms of three functional systems(Gage, 2008) those functional systems are usually involved in combination with each other when brain damage occurs. </li></ul><ul><li> Function Purpose Intellect The information-handling aspect of behavior Emotional Concerns feelings and motivations Control How behavior is expressed </li></ul><ul><li> (Gage, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
<ul><li>On 13th September, 1848, 25-year-old Gage was working on a railroad in Vermont when Gage was “preparing for an explosion by compacting a bore with explosive powder using a tamping iron” that caused sparks to ignite the powder that caused the 3ft. 8 inch rod to be thrust into Gage’s skull, entering under his left cheek and exiting through the top of his head. </li></ul><ul><li>(Mo, 2006) </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Frontal Lobes which are part of the cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain. When injury occurs in one specific part of the brain it may cause a disruption of an activity in another portion of the brain. There is evidence showing that due to the location of the frontal lobes this is the most common area of injury. </li></ul><ul><li>The left frontal lobe is involved in controlling language-related movement, whereas the right frontal lobe plays a role in non-verbal abilities. This is not an absolute rule; it is clinically believed that both lobes are involved in nearly all behaviors. The Frontal Lobes are our human emotional control center, and home to our personality. </li></ul><ul><li>(Gage, 2008) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Social behavior problems are one of the most common effects of frontal lobe damage that involves the individuals personality after suffering from brain injury in the frontal lobe region. </li></ul><ul><li>(Gage, 2008) </li></ul>
<ul><li> Penetrating Brain Injury </li></ul><ul><li>This type of injury is the result of an outside object being thrust into the brain with an impact forceful enough to crack through the skull and penetrate the brain. The damage that has occurred will go along the path of the object thrust into the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Closed Head Injury </li></ul><ul><li>This injury is the result of being struck hard by an object such as a blow to the head, windshield or dashboard during a car wreck. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Personality Higher brain functions: thought, actions Executive Functions Language usage Word association & meaning Reasoning, Planning Parts of speech Problem solving Memory, Judgments Initiation, Spontaneity Emotional response & stability Tracking & Sense of self Reaction to self & the environment Movement, Impulse control Voluntary/Planned motor behaviors Sequence of motor actions Voluntary movement of: eyes, trunk, limbs, several muscles used for speech Social behavior Memory for habits control </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in personality and social behavior Attention - difficulty focusing on tasks Concentration difficulties Impaired strategy formation & planning, Diminished abstract reasoning Difficulty in problem solving Expressive Spoke fewer words (left frontal lesions) or excessive words (right frontal lesions) Perseveration w/o conscious awareness Loss of spontaneity in interacting with others. Loss of flexibility in thinking Mood swings Loss of simple movement of body parts Inappropriate behavior with difficulty using social cues and information to direct, control, or change personal behavior. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Depending upon the area of the brain damaged would determine what symptoms of damage a person would have after the accident. </li></ul><ul><li>Mild bump, bruise (contusion), or cut. </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate to severe in nature due to a concussion, deep cut or open wound, fractured skull bone(s) or from internal bleeding and damage to the brain. </li></ul>
<ul><li>In the United States traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death for persons under age 45. A traumatic brain injury occurs every 15 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover studies show that “approximately 5 million Americans currently suffer some form of disabling traumatic brain disorder. The leading causes of TBI are motor vehicle accidents, falls, and sports injuries. </li></ul><ul><li>(Igou, 2001-2009) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Studies show that patients with brain related injuries can relearn daily tasks performance through the use of mental imagery. The study showed improvements in both the trained and untrained tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Other areas of improvement are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>improvement in task performance </li></ul><ul><li>therapeutic effects on skill relearning, maintenance and generalization. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement of their day-to-day functioning. </li></ul><ul><li>increase in the attention and sequential processing functions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mental imagery appears to be effective at enhancing the task relearning of subjects after brain injury. “he skills acquired under this treatment regime can be retained and then generalized to other tasks. Further research should conduct clinical controlled trials to gather evidence on its efficacy at promoting functional regain in people suffering from neurological disorders (KP, 2004 ) </li></ul><ul><li>.” </li></ul><ul><li>(KP, 2004 ) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Harlow -the left hemisphere had been affected and that the right was 'intact.‘ </li></ul><ul><li>Bigelow was equally clear that there was some right-sided damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Dupuy accepted that the trajectory was left sided but placed it less frontally, claiming that the more posterior motor and language areas should have been destroyed. That Gage had no motor impairment or aphasia was prime evidence for Dupuy's anti-localisation arguments., </li></ul><ul><li>Ferrier- the passage was not so posterior and that both motor and language areas had been spared. He also concluded that the only damage was to the left hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><li>(Macmillan, 2009) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Cobb- both hemispheres were involved with more damage on the left than on the right. </li></ul><ul><li>Damasio -found the damage to be even more frontal and right sided. </li></ul><ul><li>Ratiu damage was limited to the left frontal lobe, did not extend to the right side, and did not affect the ventricular system or vital blood vessels inside the skull. </li></ul><ul><li>(Macmillan, 2009) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Eriksson, B. (2008, June 9). The Methods of Ethics. Conflicts Built to Last . Retrieved October 26, 2009, from http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/archive/00004058/01/Eriksson_Conflicts_built_to_last.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Gage, P. (2008, February 5). Type of Injury . Retrieved October 24, 2009, from Phineas Gage: The Person: http://www.phineaspgagetheperson.com/id28.html </li></ul><ul><li>Igou, S. (2001-2009). HOW CAN THE BRAIN BE INJURED? Retrieved October 21, 2009, from BrainInjury.com: http://www.braininjury.com/injured.html </li></ul><ul><li>KP, L. ( 2004 , November 18). Mental imagery for relearning of people after brain injury. Retrieved October 26, 2009, from PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15545212 </li></ul><ul><li>Macmillan, M. (2009, July 29). The Damage to Phineas Gage's Brain . Retrieved October 27, 2009, from Deakin University: http://www.deakin.edu.au/hmnbs/psychology/gagepage/Pgdamage.php </li></ul><ul><li>Mo. (2006, December 4). The incredible case of Phineas Gage . Retrieved October 26, 2009, from Neurophilosophy at ScienceBlogs.com: http://neurophilosophy.wordpress.com/2006/12/04/the-incredible-case-of-phineas-gage/ </li></ul>