Terminology Terminology Clinical Training Team
Human Anatomy—Definition <ul><li>“ The study of the human body, </li></ul><ul><li>Its organs and structures, & the </li></...
Precise  Terminology <ul><li>Allows i dentification  of anatomical  sites  and  pathology  in relation to anatomical  stru...
Correct Anatomical Position  Body erect standing Eyes open and level Head in mid-position Upper extremities at the sides P...
Anatomical Terminology <ul><li>Anterior (ventral) -  Toward the front, in front of  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The breastbone i...
Anatomical Terminology <ul><li>Medial -  Towards the midline of the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The heart is medial to the ...
Anatomical Terminology <ul><li>External  (superficial) -  Toward or on the surface  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The skin is exte...
Correct Anatomical Positioning <ul><li>RIGHT OR LEFT?  –  CORRECT, NOT RIGHT! </li></ul>Mass. surgeon operated on wrong si...
Abdominal Quadrants <ul><li>The abdomen is divided into four  quadrants. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Divide words into parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Roots:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All words have a foundation, called a  r...
Word Analysis GASTRITIS GASTR  /  ITIS     ROOT   SUFFIX Stomach  Inflammation GASTRITIS is an inflammation of the stomach.
GASTROENTEROLOGY GASTR  / O /  ENTER  / O /  LOGY ROOT  ROOT  SUFFIX STOMACH  INTESTINES  STUDY OF GASTROENTEROLOGY – Is t...
<ul><li>Four General Rules— </li></ul><ul><li>Read the meaning of the word from the suffix first, prefix second, and root ...
Common Prefixes <ul><li>Extra - Outside, beyond   Intra - Inside, within </li></ul><ul><li>Inter - Between, in between </l...
Common Roots – GI (Combining Forms) <ul><li>Oro - Mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Pharyngo - Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Esophago - ...
Common Roots (Combining Forms) <ul><li>Thoraco - Chest </li></ul><ul><li>Laparo - Abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Hepato - Liver...
Common Suffixes <ul><li>Ectomy - removal, excision </li></ul><ul><li>Tomy - cutting into </li></ul><ul><li>Stomy - creatin...
Surgical Abbreviations – Terms <ul><li>Mesentery -   intestinal fatty attachment containing vessels, nerves </li></ul><ul>...
Let’s Exercise— <ul><li>How do we say: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking out part of the colon? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul>...
Basic Surgical Concepts  <ul><li>Surgery is concerned with operative or manual procedures </li></ul>
Medical/Surgical Terminology  <ul><li>Diagnosis   </li></ul><ul><li>Differential Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Symptom   </l...
Division of Perioperative Periods <ul><li>Preoperative Period  </li></ul><ul><li>Intraoperative Period  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Operative Treatment <ul><li>Diagnostic vs. Curative vs. Palliative </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency vs. Elective  </li></ul>
Evaluation of a Surgical Procedure  <ul><li>Morbidity </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrence  </li></ul>
ColonRing TM Detachable Anvil Head Assembly Piercing Trocar Operating Knob ColonRing ™  Housing Cutting Trigger Cutting Ha...
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Combined 01 clinical training--terminology

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  • “ Human anatomy is the study of the human body, its organs and structures and the spatial relationships between them1”. It is extremely important for the medical professional to identify the exact location (and its relation with other anatomical structures) of disease or pathology in order to properly communicate with other health care professionals. The same is true for a medical sales representative who wishes to communicate with a health care professional.
  • In daily life, you may have found yourself asking that question many times. Picture a surgeon or a surgical assistant who is not sure to whose left (or to whose right) he or she should be cutting or retracting. In anatomy and surgery, whenever you say right or left, you refer to the patient&apos;s right or left. This is based on the principle of using the anatomical position for reference. If you want to say something is true, say “correct”, not “right”.
  • In a medical term the root &amp;quot;hepat&amp;quot; (from the Greek hepar) means liver and can be found in the terms hepatitis, hepatomegaly, and hepatectomy. The terms suprahepatic, infrahepatic, and transhepatic, all refer to the liver, but the prefixes applied alter or influence the meaning. Look at the word hepatectomy, where &amp;quot;ectomy&amp;quot; means removal; when combined with the root &amp;quot;hepat&amp;quot; the term means &amp;quot;removal of the liver&amp;quot;
  • When a patient consults with a physician surgeon, he/she has a disease or condition that must be properly identified and classified. Diagnosis is a classification process by means of which a physician clearly identifies a condition or disease. Sometimes the patient presents symptoms and signs that point to two (or more) potential diseases. In this case, the physician must perform a differential diagnosis to identify the disease. A symptom is that subjective expression of a disease to which a patient refers. Itching, pain, and hot flushes are some symptoms that a patient can relate to the surgeon. A sign is an objective, measurable parameter that a physician can observe and record. Heart rate, pulse, blood pressure, temperature are all signs . A syndrome is a specific set of symptoms and signs that define a particular pathology. Sometimes pathology cannot be diagnosed until after the surgeon operates. In this case, the procedure itself is part of the diagnostic process for a proper diagnosis. This is known as a diagnostic procedure . In surgery, this procedure can also known as an exploratory laparotomy . In the cases where the surgeon is confronted with a mass or tumor, he can do a biopsy. An incisional biopsy is where the surgeon extracts only a portion of the tumor by incising it. An excisional biopsy is where the surgeon takes out the whole mass. Based on the information gained from the testing, diagnosis and surgery a physician will try to give a prognosis. A prognosis is a statement of the potential outcome of the patient after surgery or treatment.
  • The animation will first show the applier and anvil with numbered arrows pointing to named parts. Following the numbers from 1-13, ask the trainee to name the various parts….clicking will then show the names consecutively from 1 to 13, starting counterclockwise around the applier from ColonRing to Detachable Anvil, and then clockwise from Plastic Anvil to Grasping Notch.
  • Combined 01 clinical training--terminology

    1. 1. Terminology Terminology Clinical Training Team
    2. 2. Human Anatomy—Definition <ul><li>“ The study of the human body, </li></ul><ul><li>Its organs and structures, & the </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial relationships between them .” </li></ul>
    3. 3. Precise Terminology <ul><li>Allows i dentification of anatomical sites and pathology in relation to anatomical structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Improves Communication between medical professionals and other health care professionals. </li></ul><ul><li>Improves communication between medical sales representatives and health care professionals. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Correct Anatomical Position Body erect standing Eyes open and level Head in mid-position Upper extremities at the sides Palms facing forward Feet parallel Heels close together
    5. 5. Anatomical Terminology <ul><li>Anterior (ventral) - Toward the front, in front of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The breastbone is anterior to the spine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Posterior (dorsal) - Toward the back, behind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The heart is posterior to the breastbone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Superior (cranial/cephalad) - Above or up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The head is superior to the abdomen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inferior (caudal) - Below or down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The navel is inferior to the chin </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Anatomical Terminology <ul><li>Medial - Towards the midline of the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The heart is medial to the arm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lateral - Away from the midline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The arms are lateral to the chest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proximal - Closer to the origin or point of attachment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The elbow is proximal to the wrist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distal - Away from the origin or point of attachment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The knee is distal to the thigh </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Anatomical Terminology <ul><li>External (superficial) - Toward or on the surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The skin is external to the skeletal muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal ( deep) - Away from the body surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The lungs are internal to the skin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supine - Lying stomach up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place the patient in the supine position </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prone - Lying face down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place the patient in the prone position </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Correct Anatomical Positioning <ul><li>RIGHT OR LEFT? – CORRECT, NOT RIGHT! </li></ul>Mass. surgeon operated on wrong side of patient 2008 The Associated Press
    9. 9. Abdominal Quadrants <ul><li>The abdomen is divided into four quadrants. </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Divide words into parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Roots: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All words have a foundation, called a root . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prefixes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A prefix is a word part that precedes a word, or some form of a word, to influence its meaning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suffixes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ending that follows a word root is called a suffix . </li></ul></ul>The Language of Medicine
    11. 11. Word Analysis GASTRITIS GASTR / ITIS ROOT SUFFIX Stomach Inflammation GASTRITIS is an inflammation of the stomach.
    12. 12. GASTROENTEROLOGY GASTR / O / ENTER / O / LOGY ROOT ROOT SUFFIX STOMACH INTESTINES STUDY OF GASTROENTEROLOGY – Is the study of the stomach and intestines. Word Analysis
    13. 13. <ul><li>Four General Rules— </li></ul><ul><li>Read the meaning of the word from the suffix first, prefix second, and root last. </li></ul><ul><li>Combine root words from proximal to distal. </li></ul><ul><li>Drop the combining vowel before a suffix beginning with a vowel. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the combining vowel between two roots. </li></ul>Word Analysis
    14. 14. Common Prefixes <ul><li>Extra - Outside, beyond Intra - Inside, within </li></ul><ul><li>Inter - Between, in between </li></ul><ul><li>Supra - Above, superior Sub - Below </li></ul><ul><li>Infra - Below, inferior </li></ul><ul><li>Pre - Before, anterior Retro - Behind, posterior </li></ul><ul><li>Ante - Before (in time) Post - After (in time) </li></ul><ul><li>Hyper - Above, more than normal </li></ul><ul><li>Hypo - Below, less than normal </li></ul><ul><li>Anti - Away from Para - Beside, near </li></ul><ul><li>Per - Through Peri - Around </li></ul><ul><li>Endo - Within, inner Ecto - Outside, outer </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudo - False Dys - Abnormal </li></ul><ul><li>Uni - One Bi - Two </li></ul><ul><li>Tri - Three Quad - Four </li></ul><ul><li>Hemi - Half </li></ul>
    15. 15. Common Roots – GI (Combining Forms) <ul><li>Oro - Mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Pharyngo - Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Esophago - Esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Gastro - Stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Pyloro - Pylorus, outlet of stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Entero - Small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Duodeno - Duodenum </li></ul><ul><li>Jejuno - Jejunum </li></ul><ul><li>Ileo - Ileum </li></ul><ul><li>Ceco - Cecum </li></ul><ul><li>Colo - Colon </li></ul><ul><li>Sigmoido - Sigmoid colon </li></ul><ul><li>Procto - Rectum </li></ul><ul><li>Ano - Anus </li></ul>
    16. 16. Common Roots (Combining Forms) <ul><li>Thoraco - Chest </li></ul><ul><li>Laparo - Abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Hepato - Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Spleno, Lieno - Spleen </li></ul><ul><li>Nephro, Reno - Kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Dermo - Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Myo, musculo - Muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Osteo - Bone </li></ul><ul><li>Lumbo - Lumbar Sacro - Sacrum </li></ul><ul><li>Ilio - Ilium (bone) Ischio - Ischium </li></ul><ul><li>Angio - Vessel </li></ul><ul><li>Arterio - Artery </li></ul><ul><li>Phlebo, Veno - Vein </li></ul><ul><li>Cysto, Vesico - Sac, bladder </li></ul>
    17. 17. Common Suffixes <ul><li>Ectomy - removal, excision </li></ul><ul><li>Tomy - cutting into </li></ul><ul><li>Stomy - creating an opening between two structures </li></ul><ul><li>Lysis - breaking down, reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Pexy - fixation, tacking </li></ul><ul><li>Rrhaphy - surgical repair </li></ul><ul><li>Rrhea - flow, discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Plasty - repair, surgical formation of </li></ul><ul><li>Scopy - to view </li></ul><ul><li>Logy - to study </li></ul><ul><li>Itis - inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Sis - state of, abnormal condition </li></ul><ul><li>Oma - tumor </li></ul>
    18. 18. Surgical Abbreviations – Terms <ul><li>Mesentery - intestinal fatty attachment containing vessels, nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Meso - mesentery covered by double layer of peritoneum </li></ul><ul><li>Lap - laparotomy (root) or laparoscopic (prefix) </li></ul><ul><li>Expl Lap exploratory laparotomy </li></ul><ul><li>Lap Appy - laparoscopic appendectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Lap Colect - laparoscopic colectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Lap Chole - laparoscopic cholecystectomy </li></ul><ul><li>AR - anterior resection (usually above 10-12 cm) </li></ul><ul><li>LAR - low anterior resection (usually below 10-12 cm) </li></ul><ul><li>TME - total mesorectal excision </li></ul><ul><li>TEM - transanal endoscopic microdissection </li></ul><ul><li>HARTMAN - sigmoid resection with sigmoidostomy & rectal pouch </li></ul><ul><li>ADJUVANT - additional treatment given following surgery </li></ul><ul><li>NEOADJUVANT - treatment given before surgery </li></ul>
    19. 19. Let’s Exercise— <ul><li>How do we say: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking out part of the colon? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colectomy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the liver? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hepatitis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewing the stomach? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gastroscopy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgical repair of the small intestine? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enterorrhaphy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating an opening between the ileum and the rectum? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ileoproctostomy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Basic Surgical Concepts <ul><li>Surgery is concerned with operative or manual procedures </li></ul>
    21. 21. Medical/Surgical Terminology <ul><li>Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Differential Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Symptom </li></ul><ul><li>Sign </li></ul><ul><li>Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Exploratory Laparotomy </li></ul><ul><li>Biopsy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>incisional biopsy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>excisional biopsy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prognosis </li></ul>
    22. 22. Division of Perioperative Periods <ul><li>Preoperative Period </li></ul><ul><li>Intraoperative Period </li></ul><ul><li>Postoperative Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>immediate postoperative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>late postoperative </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Operative Treatment <ul><li>Diagnostic vs. Curative vs. Palliative </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency vs. Elective </li></ul>
    24. 24. Evaluation of a Surgical Procedure <ul><li>Morbidity </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrence </li></ul>
    25. 25. ColonRing TM Detachable Anvil Head Assembly Piercing Trocar Operating Knob ColonRing ™ Housing Cutting Trigger Cutting Handle Colon Ring TM Applier Locking Spring Purse String Notch Grasping Notch Plastic Anvil Ring Anvil Shaft 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

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