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1. ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2012 Evaluating the Capability of Biometric Technology Sanjay Tiwari, Guangmei Zhai# , Sue A. Carter, and Shikha Tiwari* Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Cruz ,CA 95060 USA #Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, China *State Forensic Science Laboratory, Raipur (CG) 492010 India Abstract: I INTRODUCTION Biometrics is a sparkling word in the worldBiometrics are automated methods of recognizing a of science and technology. Since, after 9/11person based on a physiological or behavioralcharacteristic. “Biometrics is a complex technology biometrics is getting a titanic attention all over thebut when supported by new services and improved world by scientist, researchers and engineers. Nowprocesses, this technology can lead to profound days everywhere in the world, especially in theimprovements.The biometrics methods have seen western part of the world, security is given the topsignificant improvement in performance and priority to counter the possible treats from terroristsrobustness over the last few years, but most of the and hence biometrics and security are the synonyms.systems reported perform well in controlled Biometric systems are spreading rapidly at alloperating scenarios, and their performancedeteriorates significantly under real world operating security prone areas such as airports, banks, officesconditions, and far from satisfactory in terms of also with documentation like passport, identity card,robustness and accuracy, vulnerability to fraud and driving license, etc. Reliable user identification isforgery, and use of acceptable and appropriate increasingly becoming important in the Web enabledauthentication protocols. To address some world today and there has been a significant surge inchallenges, and the requirements of new and the use of biometrics for user identification. Manyemerging applications, and for seamless diffusion ofbiometrics in society, there is a need for corporate heads use laptops and personal digitaldevelopment of novel paradigms and protocols, and assistants (PDAs) loaded with sensitive business andimproved algorithms and authentication techniques. personal information. According to the Gartner group, over 250,000 mobile gadgets are lost or stolen every year, and only 25-30 per cent of these ever make it back to their rightful owners. Such mishaps have created a dire need to ensure denial of access to classified data by unauthorized persons.Among the features measured are face, fingerprints, hand geometry, handwriting, iris, retinal, vein, and voice. Biometric technologies are becoming the foundation of an extensive array of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions. As the level of security breaches and transaction fraud increases, the 18 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2012need for highly secure identification and personal fingerprints are unlike those of any other person,verification technologies is becoming apparent. your eyes, ears, hands, voice, and face are also Business organizations have been unique. Technology has advanced to the point wherehighlighting the importance of ascertaining a users computer systems can record and recognize theidentity before permitting access to confidential patterns, hand shapes, ear lobe contours, and a hostinformation. In a race to improve security of other physical characteristics. Using thisinfrastructures faster than hackers and stealers can biometrics, laptop and other portable devices can beinvent to penetrate passwords and firewalls, new empowered with the ability to instantly verify yourtechnologies are being evaluated to confirm or deny identity and deny access to everybody else.user authentication. Given the pervasive use of passwords and II THE UNDERLYING IDEAidentification codes for user authentication across allaspects of our daily life, attackers have developed Once identified, the physical characteristics can bepowerful password cracking codes. Well, thanks to exactly measured and analyzed. The statistical use ofbiometrics, there is a way. Biometrics modes of the characteristic variations in unique elements ofidentification have been found to be the most living organisms is known as biometrics. Biometricscompelling and intriguing authentication technique. data of human beings can be collected and analyzedBiometrics are automated methods of recognizing a in a number of ways, and has beenperson based on his physiological or behavioural introduced as a mode of personal identification.characteristics. Tokens can be lost, stolen or Biometric systems automatically verify or recognizeduplicated and passwords can be forgotten or shared. the identity of a living person based on physiologicalHowever, biometrics can authenticate you as you. or behavioral characteristics. PhysiologicalThe Timeline of Biometrics is given: characteristics pertain to visible parts of the human body. These include fingerprint, retina, palm geometry, iris, facial structure, etc. Behavioural characteristics are based on what a person does. These include voice prints, signatures, typing patterns, keystroke pattern, gait, and so on. A variety of factors, such as mood, stress, fatigue, and how long ago you woke up, can affect behavioural characteristics. Voice print is a fine series of spectral power density plots that depict how the energy in ones voice at different frequencies varies with time as one vocalizes a word or phrase. Voice experts say that sufficient characteristics of ones voice print remain constant under all circumstances, enabling these plots to reliably verify ones identity whileBiometrics is a means of using parts of the human physiological traits are usually more stable thanbody as a kind of permanent password. Just as your behavioural traits; systems incorporating them are 19 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2012typically more intrusive and more expensive to secure electronic banking, investing and otherimplement financial transactions, retail sales, law enforcement, and health and social services are already benefiting from these technologies. Biometric-based authentication applications include workstation, network, and domain access, single sign-on, application logon, data protection, remote access to resources, transaction security and Web security. Trust in these electronic transactions is essential to the healthy growth of the globalIII HIGHER SECURITY COUPLED WITH economy. Utilized alone or integrated with otherCONVENIENCE technologies such as smart cards, encryption keysUsing biometrics for identifying and authenticating and digital signatures, biometrics are set to pervadehuman beings offers unique advantages over nearly all aspects of the economy and our daily lives.traditional methods. Tokens, such as smart cards, Utilizing biometrics for personal authentication ismagnetic stripe cards, and physical keys can be lost, becoming convenient and considerably morestolen, or duplicated. Passwords can be forgotten, accurate than current methods (such as the utilizationshared, or unintentionally observed by a third party. of passwords or PINs). This is because biometricsForgotten passwords and lost smart cards are a links the event to a particular individual (a passwordnuisance for users and waste the expensive time of or token may be used by someone other than thesystem administrators. In biometrics the concerned authorized user), is convenient (nothing to carry orperson himself is the password, as biometrics remember), accurate (it provides for positiveauthentication is based on the identification of an authentication), can provide an audit trail and isintrinsic part of a human being. becoming socially acceptable and cost effective. The biometrics technique can be integrated into More information about biometrics, standardsapplications that require security, access control, and activities, government and industry organizationsidentification or verification of users. Biometrically and research initiatives on biometrics can be foundsecured resources effectively eliminate risks, while throughout this website.at the same time offering a high level of security andconvenience to both the users and the administrators. A number of fascinating biometric applications are already in use, with many more on the drawing IV APPLICATIONS IN USE boards. Banks and financial institutions are experimenting with biometric modes ofBiometric-based solutions are able to provide for authentication in automated teller machines (ATMs)confidential financial transactions and personal data to combat card fraud.privacy. The need for biometrics can be found in Nationwide Building Society, the UK, hasfederal, state and local governments, in the military, incorporated an iris recognition system at ATMs. Aand in commercial applications. Enterprise-wide camera takes a digital record of each users iris. Thenetwork security infrastructures, government IDs, iris print is stored in a database to verify personal 20 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2012identity during transactions. Iris recognition subsystem is also beingincorporated into ATMs in Japan. Keystroke biometrics provides a foolproofauthentication solution. The gap betweenconsecutive keystrokes when typing the access codeand typing rhythm are unique to a user, so even if anunauthorized person discovers the access code, hecan‟t access the system unless he knows the user‟styping rhythm also. A multi application travel card would enable theholders to participate in various frequent flier andborder control systems as well as pay for air ticket,hotel room, etc. all with one convenient token. A biometric chip reader incorporated into a PCcan facilitate secure Internet based onlinetransactions. Applications that are being developedto accept biometric data include computer networks,cars, cellular phones, and hoards of other types ofembedded systems. Biometrics could authenticatee-mail and other documents transmitted viacomputer networks.In hospitals, biometric techniques could replace IDbracelets to establish patients identities, for instance,during blood administration. With existing voice-transmission technology,voice recognition biometric techniques can functionover long distances using the ordinary telephone. Awell-conceived and properly implemented voice .based security system could provide a greater safety V BIOMETRICS ON THE MOVEto financial transactions conducted over thetelephone Immigration and naturalization passenger accelerated service systems (INP ASS) allow international airports to use hand geometry scanners to verify the identity of travelers. Airports are testing face recognition scanners to help weed out terrorists. One of the most hotly pursued applications of biometrics is handheld. Researchers are working on means to integrate eye scanners, fingerprint readers, 21 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2012and voice recognition systems into mobile phones, user. Sensor specifications determine thePDAs, and laptops. Scanners are getting smaller, intrusiveness of the system. Intrusiveness is thecheaper, and more accurate, and can be used in degree to which the user feels that the measurementmobile gadgets without sprucing up the size, cost, process violates his personal space, and is oftenand power consumption. Not only biometrics correlated to how close the user has to be near therenders handheld and laptops worthless to would-be sensor. For instance, a retinal scan, which requiresstealers, it could also eliminate fraudulent close proximity to the camera, is considered far moretransactions. Mobile manufacturers and wireless intrusive than a voice recognition system.operators are incorporating voice and fingerprint Not all biometric systems process and store datascanning techniques in their devices. on the measuring device. Often measurement is Voice is an obvious preference for mobile made using a relatively simple device to a computerphones. Since it doesnt require any extra hardware or server for processing and/or storage. Dependingin the device, it is naturally integrated into the way on the system, the data may be relatively large andpeople use phones. All the processing is done on the thus would need to be compressed for quick transfer.mobile phone system that stores the reference The compression algorithm needs to be selectedvoiceprints, which are as unique as a fingerprint, carefully, otherwise it may introduce some artifactslooking for particular patterns of tone, inflection, and thatbehaviour in a voice. This ensures that a real person,not a tape recording, is on the line. VI THE BIOMETRIC MODEL A generic biometric model consists of fivesubsystems, namely, data collection, transmission,signal processing, decision making, and data storage.Data collection involves use of sensors to detect andmeasure an individuals physiological or behaviouralcharacteristics. The measured biometric must be unique andrepeatable over multiple measurements. However, In fingerprint scanning systems, wavelet scalartechnical parameters of the sensor, as well as the quantisation is often preferred to JPEG compressionergonomics of the device and the manner in which due to the blockiness that the latter produces at highthe biometric characteristic is presented to effect the compression ratios. The data can also be transmittedmeasurement, could eventually impact the outcome to the database for storage as raw data.of the system. For instance, background noise and The signal processing subunit uses featureacoustics of the environment may impact a speech extraction algorithms to extract true biometricrecognition system, while the pressure applied to a information from the sample in the presence of noisefingerprint scanner might also affect the data. The introduced during data collection and transmission.data collection subsystem most directly impacts the Additional measurements are made if any flaw or 22 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2012corruption is noted, to ensure good quality. IX VULNERABILITY TO ATTACKS Pattern matching involves comparing the feature In a biometrics based authentication system,theresample to a stored sample. (Biometric data can be are fine points vuleranable to attacks by invaders asstored locally on the biometric device, some central shown in the figuredatabase/ server, or on a smart card issued to users.)The result of comparison is sent to the decisionsystem to determine the match. The decision subsystem uses statistical methodsto confirm authentication if the variance between thesample and template data is within a certainthreshold. VII SYSTEM QUALITY: The quality of a biometrics authenticationalgorithm is specified in terms of false rejection rate X INDIAN INITIATIVES(FRR) and false acceptance rate (FAR). FRR In India our security system rely on old fashionedindicates the percentage of instances an authorised system adopted by police and other couple ofindividual is falsely rejected by the system. FAR security agencies like CBI and RAW. With changedstates the percentage of instances an unauthorised world scenario due to continual treats from terroristindividual is falsely accepted by the system. FRR organizations, India is also facing many challengesand FAR are diametrically opposed, therefore including cross border terrorism, drug trafficking,increasing the FAR will lower the FRR, and ill-legal immigrants from neighboring countries.vice-versa. FRRs and F ARs can be adjusted Now slowly but steadily Indian security systems areaccording to the needs of a given security system. also adapting the biometric system. In India not The biometric system should be able to account many institute are involved with their researchfor permanent/semi-permanent changes in activities related with biometrics. Bio Enableauthorized / unauthorized users. For instance, a Technologies, Pune, is a software company thatusers biometric characteristics, even if these are develops biometric products to cater to the toughphysiological, can change over time. People can Indian working conditions and environments. Thegrow beards, injure their hands, change their accent firm has developed intelligent biometric solutionsbecome better typists, change their hairstyles, and so for physical access control, banking transaction,on. Robust biometric systems are able to meet these timing, and attendance applications.contingencies by slightly modifying the template for “With advances inbiometrics technology andaccepted authentication situations. The users profile improvements in IT infrastructure, there is ain the database adapts to changes in the users growing acceptance of biometric recognitionbiometric features. technologies in our daily lives and this acceptance will grow with time. In the coming years, Accenture believes businesses and governments alike will 23 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2012introduce biometric technologies into many of their unique UID Cards will make it possible for manyoperations to enable secure access to services, drive more Indians to gain easy access to all kinds ofefficiencies, and increase public safety and security.” benefits. The UID could eventually turn into theThere is talk of using ATM machines in India’s world‟s largest biometric database.rural areas, where a user can conduct a transactionby simply pressing his or her thumb on the senor, Bio Enable has introduced a fingerprint-basedpushing appropriate, colour-coded button for desired identification terminal for use in factories, defencedenominations and walking away with cash and a installations, public Kiosks, offices, retail outlets,receipt. “The latest commercially viable biometric etc.The fingerprint system translates illuminatedsolution is the ‘car seat’ developed by the scientists images of fingerprints into digital code. The digitalof ‘Advanced Institute of Industrial Technology code is subjected to system software code for„which can identify a person who is sitting on it. verification/ authentication of requested users andThe success rate is 98 percent. Now we are hearing enrollment/registration of new users fingerprints.that some researchers are conducting research on the CMOS image sensors capture high-contrast,dog‟s heightened olfactory ability,” high-resolution fingerprint images that are virtuallySocial sector schemes in India are also planning to distortion-free. Powerful algorithms developed byuse biometric devices for ensuring Bio enabled extract minutiae data from the images toproper identification of those who are entitled to map the distinguished characteristics of fingerprinttheir payments. The government of ridge ends, bifurcation, loops, splits, and upper andIndia’s MNREGA initiative for creating jobs in the lower cores. The data is then converted into arural areas has made use of ICT devices and template and stored in the database.biometric databases in some pilot projects. At timessuch projects have been plagued with the problemof ghost workers and of the local leadershipsappropriating the job cards. But with the use ofbiometric and GPS enabled ICT devices on worksites, it will become possible to conduct biometricattendance of the workers.The UIDAI initiative of the government isusing biometric systems for providing uniquedigital identity toIndia’s billions of people,including the poor andunderprivileged communities. As the poor in thiscountry often lack the documents to prove that theyare entitled to government schemes, they are forcedto pay bribe for obtaining benefits. The foolproof . To identify or verify, the algorithm compares thebiometric systems like retina scan, face scan and new template with the extracted minutiae pointsfingerprinting that are being used for creation of from the stored sample. The entire matching process 24 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2012takes roughly one second. card, integrating voice and handwritten functions, Siemens Information Systems Ltd (SISL), incorporates the appropriate biometric template toBangalore, has developed a text independent deliver the final match and authorization.autonomous speech recognition system to identify The company plans to incorporate capture,and authorize a speaker by analyzing his voice. manipulation, enrollment, and extraction features inCentral Forensic Science Laboratories, Chandigarh, the smart card reader also.uses this system to track down and identify criminals Biometric smart cards. Polaroid and Atmel haveby comparing their voice samples using SISL developed secure identity cards that mergesoftware. Other innovations of SISL include ultra-secure smart cards, fingerprint verification,fingerprint identification and management system biometric identification, and digital imaging. These(FIMS, language-independent speech recognition cards will be used in e-commerce, online, remotesystem, and optical character recognition system. access, and any IT environment where authenticationSISL is developing low-cost chips that can be fitted is required.into cars and toys. These chips will store fingerprint The information stored in the card is protected byof the user and allow selective access to devices and circuits inside the card that performhomes. encryption/decryption of the data in the card. The tiny smart card circuits in these ID cards are actuallyAxis Software, Pune, deals in fingerprint, iris, and integrated circuits, called smart card ICs, supplied byface recognition technology and is planning to add Atmel. Atmels smart card ICs can perform criticalvoice recognition technology to its range of encryption; decryption functions within the card andauthentication products and systems. The Axis are able to securely identify the person or systemsystem stores biometric records in an record by itself reading the card.is of no use to a stealer and cannot be reconstructed Biometrics cellulars. Fujistu Microelectronicsto reveal , persons identity to someone else. has developed an innovative fingerprint Biometric Society of India (INBIOS), affiliated to identification system that combines sweep sensorthe International Society of Computational Biology technology with advanced algorithms to provide a(ISCB), provides innovative professional solutions powerful, dependable, easy-to-use authentication forand services dedicated to bioinformatics. PDAs, cell phones, and other mobile devices. The sensor measures just 1.28xO.20 cm and is powered XI GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTS by sophisticated algorithms that generate unique. minutiae templates that correspond to specific Internet security.Litronix, USA, a leading fingerprint features. A single-fingerprint sweepprovider of public key infrastructure (PKI)based across the sensor captures fingerprint features toInternet security solutions, has developed biometric rapidly authenticate users of cell phones and PDAs.identification techniques for use in electronic data Cyber security. Cyber SIGN, USA, has built-inapplications such as digital networks and smart signature security management features of Adobecards. Apart from iris, voice and handwritten Acrobat 4.0 software. This software enables thesignature recognition can be used for authentication handwritten signature to be included as an electronicpurposes when digitally signing a document or signature in any Acrobat portable document formatobtaining access to secure WebPages. The smart 25 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2012(PDF) file on the Web. Anyone can online use hishandwritten signature to authorize and sign CONCLUSIONelectronic Acrobat documents. Costs involved in Different modes of biometrics have individualbusinesses are reduced, as signed documents and advantages suiting specific applications. Because offorms are available online, and productivity and their security, speed, efficiency and convenience,security are increased when vendors and suppliers biometric authentication systems might soon becomecan quickly access signed, secure, and trusted the standard for access control. For the success of aelectronic documents. particular biometric in a given application, one has toRecently the leading technology company,IBM, consider factors like performance in terms of falsepresented its forecast for 2012 in a blog, which acceptance and False Rejection Rates, scalability,carried this interesting quote, “Biometric data – user privacy and system security. Adequatefacial definitions, retinal scans and voice files – will consideration should be given to the aspect of socialbe composited through software to build your acceptance, system cost and ease of use as well. WithDNA unique online password.” The technology the increased use of computers as vehicles ofthat can be used to identify oneself without using information technology, it is necessary to restrictpasswords and IDs is already there. “Fingerprint access to sensitive/personal data. The unauthorizedreader, Face recognition, Iris access to or fraudulent use of ATMs, cellular phones,scanning, Voice recognition, Palm Scanners and smart cards, desktop PCs, workstations, andRetina Scanners have been deployed according to computer networks may be prevented by replacingthe sensitivity and security needs of the respective PINs by biometric techniques. PINs and passwordsorganizations,” . In times to come you might not may be forgotten, and token-based methods ofeven need to use your debit card for withdrawing identification like passports and drivers licensesmoney from ATM. You will only have to look into may be forged, stolen, or lost. The increased need ofthe camera at the ATM booth and speak your name privacy and security in our daily life has given birth to this new area of science. It will be interesting to watch the future impact that they will have on our XII MULTIBIOMETRICS day-today lives. Multibiometrics is a system, which implementstwo or more biometric systems and performs thefunction of verification or identification. For REFERENCESinstance, mutibiometrics can combine fingerprint 1. A. Rattani, B. Freni, G. L. Marcialis and F.recognition and hand geometry with iris recognition Roli, "Template update methods in adaptiveand speaker verification to give foolproof biometric systems: a critical review," 3rdidentification. In fact, a multimodal biometric International Conference on Biometrics, Alghero,system has been introduced, which integrates face Italy,2009, pp. 847-856,recognition, fingerprint recognition, and speaker 2. M. McConnell"KeyNote Address.".verification in making a personal identification. XIII Biometric Consortium Conference. Tampa Convention Center, Tampa, Florida,2009 26 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 2, April 20123. . B. J. Teoh, A. Goh, and D. C. L. Ngo,"Random Multispace Quantization as an AnalyticMechanism for BioHashing of Biometric andRandom Identity Inputs," Pattern Analysis andMachine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on,2006,vol. 28, pp. 1892-19014. M. Savvides, B. V. K. V. Kumar, and P. K.Khosla, ""Corefaces"- Robust Shift Invariant PCAbased Correlation Filter for Illumination TolerantFace Recognition," presented at IEEE ComputerSociety Conference on Computer Vision and PatternRecognition (CVPR04), 2004.5. M. A. Dabbah, W. L. Woo, and S. S. Dlay,"Secure Authentication for Face Recognition,"presented at Computational Intelligence in Imageand Signal Processing, 2007. CIISP 2007. IEEESymposium on, 2007.6. A.K. Jain. And A.Ross "Introduction toBiometrics". In Jain, AK; Flynn, P; Ross,A. Handbook of Biometrics. Springer.2008,pp. 1–22. .Dr. Sanjay Tiwari is a US Fulbright Scholar and SeniorAssociate ICTP Trieste Italy, post graduated from Indiaand joined Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge,UK as Visiting Fellow for Post-doctoral advanced researchon Fabrication and Physical simulation of Organic Lightemitting Diodes for Display applications. He has beenconferred ,UKIERI Award of British Council, London,Commonwealth fellowship and SAARC Fellowship,UGCResearch Award and Best Young Scientist Award of India forhis research contributions. He has been at University ofCalifornia, Santa Cruz as Visiting Professor and DistinguishedVisiting Fellow at IBM Almaden Research Center, San JoseCalifornia. 27 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
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