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1. ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012 DATA SECURITY USING CRYPTOGRAPHY AND STEGNOGRAPHY Epuru Madhavarao1,ChikkalaJayaRaju2,Pedasanaganti Divya3,A.S.K.Ratnam4 steganography. This paper presents a technique forAbstract— Steganography and constructing and implementing new algorithm basedCryptography are two popular ways of sending vital on embedding efficiently a large amount of data withinformation in a secret way. One hides the existence high quality of encryption techniques, together withof the message and the other distorts the message steganography, providing authentication anditself. There are many cryptographic techniques electronic documents integrity.available and among them AES is one of the most Index Terms— Cryptography, Stegnography,powerful techniques. The scenario of present day of Authentication, Integrity.information security system includes confidentiality,authenticity, integrity, non-repudiation. This presentpaper focus is enlightening the technique to secure I INTRODUCTIONdata or message with authenticity and integrity. The Cryptography  and Steganography  aresecurity of communication is a crucial issue on well known and widely used techniques thatWorld Wide Web (internet) and within organizations. manipulate information (messages) in order toIt is about confidentiality, integrity and cipher or hide their existence respectively.authentication during access or editing of Steganography is the art and science ofconfidential internal documents. We are using a communicating in a way which hides thenonconventional steganography to increase security, existence of the communication. Cryptographywhich uses the cryptography to encrypt confidential scrambles a message so it cannot bemessage with the public and private keys. These keys understood; the Steganography hides theare generated differently. Then loss-less compression message so it cannot be seen. In this paper wetakes place, which makes possible to hide larger will focus to develop one system, which usesamounts of information and documents using both cryptography and Steganography for better confidentiality and security. Presently we Manuscript received June, 2012. have very secure methods for bothEpuru Madhavarao, Pursuing M.Tech(CSE) from Vignans Lara cryptography and Steganography - AESInstitute of Technology & Science, Vadlamudi, Guntur, A.P., algorithm is a very secure technique forIndia. My research Interests are Data Security and computernetworks. cryptography and the Steganography methods,Chikkala JayaRaju, Pursuing M.Tech(CSE) from Vignans Lara which use frequency domain, are highlyInstitute of Technology & Science, Vadlamudi, Guntur, A.P., secured. Even if we combine these techniquesIndia. My research Interests are Semantic Web and Mobile straight forwardly, there is a chance that thecomputing. intruder may detect the original message.Pedasanaganti Divya, Pursuing M.Tech(CSE) from Vignans LaraInstitute of Technology & Science, Vadlamudi, Guntur, A.P., Therefore, our idea is to apply both of themIndia. My research Interests are computer networks and Mobile together with more security levels and to get acomputing. very highly secured system for data hiding. A.S.K.Ratnam, Assoc.Professor & Head, Department of This paper mainly focuses on to develop a newComputer Science Engineering at Vignans Lara Institute ofTechnology & Science, Vadlamudi, Guntur, A.P., India..My system with extra security features where aresearch Interests includes Image Processing, Mobile Computing, meaningful piece of text message can beNetwork Security. hidden by combining security techniques like 319 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012 Cryptography and Steganography. importance in the byte, this steganographic technique Steganography is a technology that embeds chooses to overwrite the first bit of successive bytesa confidential message or image within a text, or a until the entire secret message is embedded into thedigital picture or digital videos or digital audios. It is original source file, or the cover data. Since we havesometime confused with cryptography, not in name only modified the least significant bits of a portion ofbut in the usage. The simple way to differentiate that the source file, the human eye should not be able tosteganography conceals not only the contents of the detect the degradation in the picture or video .message but also the mere existence of a messagefrom an observer so there is no chances of doubt ofthe existence of the message, where as incryptography the purpose is to secure communicationfrom hackers by converting confidential message into 2.Cryptography:not understandable form. It is observed from previous What does the word crypto mean? It has itsexperience that sending encrypted information may origins in the Greek word kruptos, which meanscreate suspicion while invisible information will not hidden.Thus, the objective of cryptography is to hidedo so. information so that only the intended recipient(s) can Steganalysis is a technology which “unhide” it. In crypto terms, the hiding ofdetermines the presence of a hidden message or information is called encryption, and when theimage in cover image and attempt to disclose the information is unhidden, it is called decryption.Aactual contents of this message .A more cipher is used to accomplish the encryption andsophisticated method of steganography is by decryption. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionarycombining the two technologies to produce more defines cipher as “a method of transforming a text insecurity to confidential data communication such that order to conceal its meaning.”The information that isif hackers detect the presence of data even then being hidden is called plaintext; once it has beendigital pixels are represented by three colors: red, encrypted, it is called ciphertext.The ciphertext isgreen and blue. These colors together form digital transported, secure from prying eyes, to the intendedpictures or video. Each color of every pixel requires 1 recipient(s), where it is decrypted back into plaintext.byte of information, or 8 bits. Since the first bit is the“least significant” or carries the least amount of2.1Cryptography Techniques: symmetric key encryption have, for the most part, After applying the Huffman compression been around for many years and are well known, soalgorithm we need to know about the Cryptographic the only thing that is secret is the key being used.algorithms. There are some specific security Indeed, all of the really useful algorithms in userequirements for cryptography, including today are completely open to the public. A couple ofAuthentication, Privacy/confidentiality, and Integrity problems immediately come to mind when you areNonrepudiation. using symmetric key encryption as the sole means ofThe three types of algorithms are described: cryptography. First, how do you ensure that the(i)Secret Key Cryptography (SKC): Uses a single sender and receiver each have the same key? Usuallykey for both encryption and decryption this requires the use of a courier service or some(ii)Public Key Cryptography (PKC): Uses one key other trusted means of key transport.for encryption and another for decryption Second, a problem exists if the recipient does(iii)Hash Functions: Uses a mathematical not have the same key to decrypt the ciphertext fromtransformation to irreversibly "encrypt" information. the sender. For example, take a situation where the symmetric key for a piece of crypto hardware is2.2.Encryption key types: changed at 0400 every morning at both ends of a Cryptography uses two types of keys: circuit.What happens if one end forgets to change thesymmetric and asymmetric. Symmetric keys have key (whether it is done with a strip tape, patchbeen around the longest; they utilize a single key for blocks, or some other method) at the appropriate timeboth the encryption and decryption of the and sends ciphertext using the old key to another siteciphertext.This type of key is called a secret key, that has properly changed to the new key? The endbecause you must keep it secret. Otherwise, anyone receiving the transmission will not be able to decryptin possession of the key can decrypt messages that the ciphertext, since it is using the wrong key.Thishave been encrypted with it.The algorithms used in can create major problems in a time of crisis, 320 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012especially if the old key has been destroyed. This is cryptography.Asymmetric algorithms use twoan overly simple example, but it should provide a different keys, one for encryption and one forgood idea of what can go wrong if the sender and decryption—a public key and a private key,receiver do not use the same secret key. Asymmetric respectively.Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellmancryptography is relatively new in the history of first publicly released public key cryptography incryptography, and it is probably more recognizable to 1976 as a method of exchanging keys in a secret keyyou under the synonymous term public keysystem.Their algorithm, called the Diffie-Hellman and ease of implementation refers to an algorithm’s(DH) algorithm, is examined later in the chapter. predisposition (if any) to hardware or software usage.Even though it is commonly reported that public key Each algorithm has different strengths andcryptography was first invented by the duo, some drawbacks, and none of them is ideal in every way.reports state that the British Secret Service actually In this chapter, we will look at the five most commoninvented it a few years prior to the release by Diffie algorithms that you will encounter: Data Encryptionand Hellman. It is alleged, however, that the British Standard (DES), AES [Rijndael], International DataSecret Service never actually did anything with their Encryption Algorithm (IDEA), Diffie-Hellman, andalgorithm after they developed it. Rivest, Shamir, Adleman (RSA). Be aware, though, that there are dozens more active in the field.3.Learning about StandardCryptographic Algorithms: 3.1.Symmetric Algorithms: Just why are there so many algorithms In this section, we will examine several of theanyway? Why doesn’t the world just standardize on most common symmetric algorithms in use: DES, itsone algorithm? Given the large number of algorithms successor AES, and the European standard, IDEA.found in the field today, these are valid questions Keep in mind that the strength of symmetricwith no simple answers. At the most basic level, it’s a algorithms lies primarily in the size of the keys usedclassic case of tradeoffs between security, speed, and in the algorithm, as well as the number of cycles eachease of implementation. Here security indicates the algorithm employs.likelihood of an algorithm to stand up to current andfuture attacks, speed refers to the processing power A)DES Algorithm:and time required to encrypt and decrypt a message, Among the oldest and most famous substitution operations are non-linear, so the resultingencryption algorithms is the Data Encryption ciphertext in no way resembles the originalStandard, which was developed by IBM and was the message.Thus, languagebased analysis techniquesU.S. government standard from 1976 until about (discussed later in this chapter) used against the2001. DES was based significantly on the Lucifer ciphertext reveal nothing.The permutation operationsalgorithm invented by Horst Feistel, which never saw add another layer of security by scrambling thewidespread use. Essentially, DES uses a single 64-bit already partially encrypted message. Every five yearskey—56 bits of data and 8 bits of parity—and from 1976 until 2001, the National Institute ofoperates on data in 64-bit chunks.This key is broken Standards and Technology (NIST) reaffirmed DES asinto 16 separate 48-bit subkeys, one for each round, the encryption standard for the U.S. government.which are called Feistel cycles. Figure 6.1 gives a However, by the 1990s the aging algorithm hadschematic of how the DES encryption algorithm begun to show signs that it was nearing its end of life.operates. Each round consists of a substitution phase, New techniques that identified a shortcut method ofwherein the data is substituted with pieces of the key, attacking the DES cipher, such as differentialand a permutation phase, wherein the substituted data cryptanalysis, were proposed as early as 1990, thoughis scrambled (re-ordered). Substitution operations, it was still computationally unfeasible to do so.sometimes referred to as confusion operations, are DES is a block cipher which takes a fixed-lengthsaid to occur within S-boxes. Similarly, permutation string ofoperations, sometimes called diffusion operations, are plaintext bits and transforms it into cipher text bitsaid to occur in P-boxes. Both of these operations string ofoccur in the “F Module” of the diagram.The security the same length. The key length of DES is 64 bits.of DES lies mainly in the fact that since the 321 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012DES Algorithm uses Fiestal structure which performs factors were speed and ease of implementationthe following operations. (which in this case meant memory footprint).1. Expansion: By duplicating some of the bits, 32-bitblock is expanded into 48 bit block by using the Rijndael was ultimately announced as theexpansion permutation. winner in October of 2000 because of its high2. Key mixing: Expanded block is mixed up with a performance in both hardware and softwaresubstitution key by using an XOR operation. Sixteen implementations and its small memory48-bit sub keys are derived from the main key as one requirement.The Rijndael algorithm, developed bykey for each round. Belgian cryptographers Dr. Joan Daemen and3. Substitution: After Key Mixing is over, the block Dr.Vincent Rijmen, also seems resistant to power-is further divided into 6-bit pieces of eight blocks. By and timing-based attacks. So how does AES/Rijndaelfollowing Non liner transformation, each of the work? Instead of using Feistel cycles in each roundSboxes replaces its six input bits with four output like DES, it uses iterative rounds like IDEAbits. S-boxes plays a important role in determining (discussed in the next section).the security of the algorithm and without them thealgorithm becomes linear and easily breakable. Data is operated on in 128-bit chunks, which4. Permutation: Thus after substitution 32 outputs are grouped into four groups of four bytes each.Thefrom the S-boxes is rearranged by using the concept number of rounds is also dependent on the key size,of permutation such that 128-bit keys have 9 rounds, 192-bit keysB)AES (Rijndael) Algorithm: have 11 rounds and 256-bit keys require 13 rounds. In 1997, as the fall of DES loomed ominously Each round consists of a substitution step of one S-closer, NIST announced the search for the Advanced box per data bit followed by a pseudo-permutationEncryption Standard, the successor to DES. Once the step in which bits are shuffled between groups.Thensearch began, most of the big name cryptography each group is multiplied out in a matrix fashion andplayers submitted their own AES candidates. the results are added to the subkey for that round.Among the requirements of AES candidates were: How much faster is AES than 3-DES? It’s difficult to AES would be a private key symmetric say, because implementation speed varies widely block cipher (similar to DES). depending on what type of processor is performing AES needed to be stronger and faster then the encryption and whether or not the encryption is 3-DES. being performed in software or running on hardware AES required a life expectancy of at least specifically designed for encryption. However, in 20-30 years. similar implementations, AES is always faster than AES would support key sizes of 128-bits, its 3-DES counterpart. One test performed by Brian 192-bits, and 256-bits. Gladman has shown that on a Pentium Pro 200 with AES would be available to all—royalty optimized code written in C, AES (Rijndael) can free, non-proprietary and encrypt and decrypt at an average speed of 70.2 unpatented. Mbps, versus DES’s speed of only 28 Mbps.Within months NIST had a total of 15 different The European counterpart to the DESentries, 6 of which were rejected almost immediately algorithm is the IDEA algorithm, and its existenceon grounds that they were considered incomplete. proves that Americans certainly don’t have aBy 1999, NIST had narrowed the candidates down to monopoly on strong cryptography. IDEA was firstfive finalists including MARS, RC6, Rijndael, proposed under the name Proposed EncryptionSerpent, and Twofish. Standard (PES) in 1990 by cryptographers James Massey and Xuejia Lai as part of a combined Selecting the winner took approximately research project between Ascom and the Swissanother year, as each of the candidates needed to be Federal Institute of Technology. Before it sawtested to determine how well they performed in a widespread use PES was updated in 1991 to increasevariety of environments. After all, applications of its strength against differential cryptanalysis attacksAES would range anywhere from portable smart and was renamed Improved PES (IPES). Finally, thecards to standard 32-bit desktop computers to high- name was changed to International Data Encryptionend optimized 64-bit computers. Since all of the Algorithm (IDEA) in 1992.finalists were highly secure, the primary deciding 322 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012 Not only is IDEA newer than DES, but IDEA symmetric algorithm) across an insecure medium. Inis also considerably faster and more secure. IDEA’s most cases, Diffie-Hellman is not used for encryptingenhanced speed is due to the fact the each round a complete message because it is 10 to 1000 timesconsists of much simpler operations than the Fiestel slower than DES, depending on implementation.cycle in DES.These operations (XOR, addition, andmultiplication) are much simpler to implement in Prior to publication of the Diffie-Hellmansoftware than the substitution and permutation algorithm, it was quite painful to share encryptedoperations of DES. IDEA operates on 64-bit blocks information with others because of the inherent keywith a 128-bit key, and the encryption/ decryption storage and transmission problems (as discussed laterprocess uses 8 rounds with 6 16-bit subkeys per in this chapter). Most wire transmissions wereround.The IDEA algorithm is patented both in the US insecure, since a message could travel betweenand in Europe, but free non-commercial use is dozens of systems before reaching the intendedpermitted. recipient and any number of snoops along the way could uncover the key.With the Diffie-Hellman3.2.Asymmetric Algorithms: algorithm, the DES secret key (sent along with a Recall that unlike symmetric algorithms, DES-encrypted payload message) could be encryptedasymmetric algorithms require more than one key, via Diffie- Hellman by one party and decrypted onlyusually a public key and a private key (systems with by the intended recipient. In practice, this is how amore than two keys are possible). Instead of relying key exchange using Diffie-Hellman works:on the techniques of substitution and transposition,which symmetric key cryptography uses, asymmetric The two parties agree on two numbers; onealgorithms rely on the use of massively large integer is a large prime number, the other is anmathematics problems. Many of these problems are integer smaller than the prime.They can dosimple to do in one direction but difficult to do in the this in the open and it doesn’t affectopposite direction. For example, it’s easy to multiply security.two numbers together, but it’s more difficult to factor Each of the two parties separately generatesthem back into the original numbers, especially if the another number, which they keep secret.Thisintegers you are using contain hundreds of number is equivalent to a private key.Adigits.Thus, in general, the security of asymmetric calculation is made involving the private keyalgorithms is dependent not upon the feasibility of and the previous two public numbers. Thebrute force attacks, but the feasibility of performing result is sent to the other party.This result isdifficult mathematical inverse operations and effectively a public key.advances in mathematical theory that may propose The two parties exchange their publicnew “shortcut” techniques. In this section, we’ll take keys.They then privately perform aa look at RSA and Diffie-Hellman, the two most calculation involving their own private keypopular asymmetric algorithms in use today. and the other party’s public key.The resulting number is the session key. EachC)Diffie-Hellman Algorithm: party will arrive at the same number. In 1976, after voicing their disapproval of The session key can be used as a secret keyDES and the difficulty in handling secret for another cipher, such as DES. No thirdkeys,Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman published party monitoring the exchange can arrive atthe Diffie-Hellman algorithm for key exchange.This the same session key without knowing onewas the first published use of public key of the private keys.cryptography, and arguably one of the cryptography The most difficult part of the Diffie-Hellmanfield’s greatest advances ever. Because of the key exchange to understand is that there areinherent slowness of asymmetric cryptography, the actually two separate and independentDiffie-Hellman algorithm was not intended for use as encryption cycles happening. As far asa general encryption scheme—rather, its purpose was Diffie-Hellmanto transmit a private key for DES (or some similar is concerned, only a small message is being Diffie-Hellman’s greatest strength is that anyone cantransferred between the sender and the recipient. It know either or both of the sender and recipient’sjust so happens that this small message is the secret public keys without compromising the security of thekey needed to unlock the larger message. 323 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012message. Both the public and private keys are algorithm, named for the last initials of theactually just very large integers. researchers. RSA shares many similarities with the Diffie-Hellman algorithm in that RSA is also based The Diffie-Hellman algorithm takes advantage on multiplying and factoring large integers. However,of complex mathematical functions known as RSA is significantly faster than Diffie-Hellman,discrete logarithms, which are easy to perform leading to a split in the asymmetric cryptographyforwards but extremely difficult to find inverses for. field that refers to Diffie-Hellman and similarEven though the patent on Diffie-Hellman has been algorithms as Public Key Distribution Systemsexpired for several years now, the algorithm is still in (PKDS) and RSA and similar algorithms as Publicwide use, most notably in the IPSec protocol. IPSec Key Encryption (PKE). PKDS systems are used asuses the Diffie-Hellman algorithm in conjunction session-key exchange mechanisms, while PKEwith RSA authentication to exchange a session key systems are generally considered fast enough tothat is used for encrypting all traffic that crosses the encrypt reasonably small messages. However, PKEIPSec tunnel. systems like RSA are not considered fast enough to encrypt large amounts of data like entire filesystemsD)RSA Algorithm: or high-speed communications lines. In the year following the Diffie-Hellman Because of the former patent restrictions onproposal, Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard RSA, the algorithm saw only limited deployment,Adleman proposed another public key encryption primarily only from products by RSA Security, untilsystem.Their proposal is now known as the RSAthe mid-1990s. Now you are likely to encounter break through the encryption of the input data andmany programs making extensive use of RSA, such confuse steganalysis too. Various encryptionas PGP and Secure Shell (SSH).The RSA algorithm techniques like cryptography,digital water marking.has been in the public domain since RSA Security 5.Data Security Servicess:placed it there two weeks before the patent expired inSeptember 2000.Thus the RSA algorithm is nowfreely available for use by anyone, for any purpose. 1)confidentiality: information is available for reading only to authorized parties.4.Stegnography: 2)Authentiction: Steganography is a technique used to embed Data source authentication: the data issecret information into non-secret information, coming from an authorized party.preventing the message from being detected by non- Entity authentication: the entity is who itauthorized people.The purpose of steganography is to says it is.hide the very presence of communication by 3)Integrity:data was not modified from the source toembedding messages into innocuous-looking cover the destination.objects, such as digital images. To accommodate a 4)Non-repudiation:neither the sender, nor thesecret message, the original cover image is slightly receiver of a message are able to deny themodified by the embedding algorithm to obtain the transmission.stego image. The embedding process usually 5)Acess Control: only authorized parties can useincorporates a secret stego-key that governs the specific resources.embedding process and it is also needed for the 6)Availability: resources/services available toextraction of the hidden message . authorized parties. There are three basic views behind hidinginformation. The first is capacity, which is theamount of information that can be embedded within 6.conclusion:the cover file. An information-hiding algorithm has The work accomplished during this paper can beto be able to compactly store a message within a file. summarized with the following points:Next is security, which refers to how a third-party 1.In this paper we have presented a new system forcan detect hidden information within a file. the combination of Compression, cryptographyIntuitively, if a message is to be hidden, an ideal and Steganography using three keys which couldalgorithm would store information in a way that was be proven a highly secured method for datavery hard to notice. High security layers have been communication in near future.proposed through three layers to make it difficult to 324 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 5, July 20122.Steganography especially combined withcryptography and compression is a powerful toolwhich enables people to communicate withoutpossible eavesdroppers even knowing there is a formof communication in the first place.The proposedmethod provides acceptable image quality with verylittle distortion in the image.7.Referencess: Domenico Daniele Bloisi , Luca Iocchi: Image  Marvel, L.M., Boncelet Jr., C.G. & Retter, C.,based Steganography and cryptography, Computer “Spread Spectrum Steganography”, IEEEVision theory and applications volume 1 , pp. 127- Transactions on image processing, 8:08, 1999134 .  N. F. Johnson and S. Katzenbeisser, .A survey of D.R. Stinson, Cryptography: Theory and Practice, steganographic techniques., in S. Katzenbeisser andBoca Raton, CRC Press, 1995. ISBN: 0849385210 F. Peticolas (Eds.): Information Hiding, pp.43-78. Mamta Sharma, S.L. Bawa D.A.V. college: Artech House, Norwood, MA, 2000.Compression Using Huffman Coding, IJCSNS  Currie, D.L. & Irvine, C.E.,“Surmounting theInternational Journal of Computer Science and effects of lossy compression on Steganography”, 19thNetwork Security, VOL.10 No.5, May 2010 National Information Systems Security Conference, Kharrazi, M., Sencar, H. T., and Memon, N. 1996(2004). Image Steganography: Concepts and practice.  G., Derrick, (2001), Data watermarkingIn WSPC Lecture Notes Series Steganography and watermarking of digital data, DAVID A. HUFFMAN+, ASSOCIATE, A Computer Law & Security Report, 17 (2), 101-104.Method for the Construction of Minimum-  Ross J. Anderson, Fabien A.P. Petitcolas, “OnRedundancy Codes, PROCEEDINGS OF THE IRE. The Limits of Steganography”, IEEE Journal of Daemen, Joan; Rijmen, Vincent. AES Proposal: Selected Areas in Communications, 16(4): 474-481,Rijndael. ijndael.pdf May 1998. Special Issue on Copyright & Privacy Provos, N. and Honeyman, P. (2003). Hide and Protection. ISSN 0733-8716.seek: An introduction to steganography. IEEE http://www.codeproject.com/KB/library/SECURITY & PRIVACY ArisFFTDFTLibrary.aspx Owens, M., “A discussion of covert channels and Authors:steganography”, SANS Institute, 2002 Epuru Madhavarao, Pursuing M.Tech(CSE) from Chandramouli, R., Kharrazi, M. & Memon, N., Vignans Lara Institute of Technology & Science,“Image Steganography and steganalysis: Concepts Vadlamudi, Guntur, A.P., India. My researchand Practice”, Interests are Data Security and computer networks.Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Chikkala JayaRaju, Pursuing M.Tech(CSE) fromDigital Watermarking, October 2003 Vignans Lara Institute of Technology & Science, Jamil, T., “Steganography: The art of hiding Vadlamudi, Guntur, A.P., India. My researchinformation is plain sight”, IEEE Potentials, 18:01, Interests are Semantic Web and Mobile computing.1999 Pedasanaganti Divya, Pursuing M.Tech(CSE) from Stefan Katznbeisser, Fabien.A., P.Petitcolas Vignans Lara Institute of Technology & Science,editors, Information Hiding Techniques for Vadlamudi, Guntur, A.P., India. My researchSteganography and Digital Watermarking, Artech Interests are computer networks and MobileHouse, Boston. London, 2000. computing. Wang, H & Wang, S, “Cyber warfare: A.S.K.Ratnam, Assoc.Professor & Head,Steganography vs. Steganalysis”, Communications of Department of Computer Science Engineering atthe ACM, 47:10, October 2004 Vignans Lara Institute of Technology & Science, Dunbar, B., “Steganography techniques and their Vadlamudi, Guntur, A.P., India..My researchuse in an Open-Systems environment”, SANS Interests includes Image Processing, MobileInstitute, January 2002 Computing, Network Security. C.E., Shannon, (1949), Communication theory ofsecrecy systems, Bell System Technical Journal, 28,656-715. 325 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
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