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1. ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012 A New Fragile Approach for Optimization in Invisible Image Watermarking by Using Symmetric Key Algorithms Vandana TehlaniAbstract- In the information technology and This approach consists of following terminologies:communication, the most important factor has 1. Plaintext: The original data that has to bebeen the security of information and one of the communicated to the recipient.methods is watermarking. The Watermarking 2. Cover Image: An Image which is acts as a coveraims to validate the host and the undeniable in which the secret message is to be concealed.identity of the legal owner. In this paper, we will 3. Embedding Process: The process of embeddingconcentrate on hidden watermarks. At one time, or inserting the secret text into the cover imageit deals with two different images in BMP to with the help of any suitable algorithm.hide information. The message will be dividing 4. Watermark Image: The image resulted after theevenly in both images to maximize the security completion of embedding process which looks asof image watermarking. It utilizes the LSB exactly as the cover image without any suspicion ofmanipulation method and the images addresses the presence of secret text inside it.used as key are also encrypted for performance 5. Extraction Process: The process of extracting orimprovement with existing Symmetric key revealing the original message from a receivedalgorithms. There are two options to choose watermark image by using the same algorithm thateither DES or AES algorithm to get optimized the sender has chosen.output. We are using spatial domain for hiding 6. Optimization: It is a collection of methods andactual information inside images. techniques to design and make use of engineering systems as perfectly as possible with respect toThis paper gives a brief idea about the new specific parameters. image watermarking approach that make use ofLSB algorithm for embedding the data into the II. TYPES OF WATERMARKINGbit map images (.bmp) which is implementedthrough the Microsoft .NET framework. Digital watermarking is the process of Embedding information into a digital signal which may be used to verify its authenticity orKeyword: DES, AES, LBS method, Invisible the identity of its owners. There are two types ofImage Watermarking. digital watermarking as follows-I. INTRODUCTION 1) Visible Watermarking 2) Invisible WatermarkingThe information can be encrypted in several forms.There are many different methods have been In visible digital watermarking, the informationdeveloped to encrypt and decrypt data in order to is visible in the picture or video. Typically, thekeep the message secret. For securing the secrecy information is text or a logo, which identifies theone of the advanced method is Watermarking. owner of the media. The image on the right has a visible watermark. When a television broadcaster Watermarking is the art of hiding and adds its logo to the corner of transmitted video, thistransmitting data through apparently innocuous also is a visible watermark.carriers in an effort to conceal the existence of data.In this method the data which is to be sent is In invisible digital watermarking, information isconcealed in any multimedia file like image, video added as digital data to audio, picture, or video, butor an audio file. it cannot be perceived as such (although it may be possible to detect that some amount of informationWe are going to deal with Image Watermarking is hidden in the signal). The watermark may beand hence hereafter if we refer Watermarking it intended for widespread use and thus, is made easyactually keeps points to image Watermarking. to retrieve or, it may be a form of watermarking, All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET 167
ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012where a party communicates a secret message and use the RGB colour model, also known as trueembedded in the digital signal. In either case, as in colour. When using a 24-bit image, a bit of each ofvisible watermarking, the objective is to attach the red, green and blue colour components can beownership or other descriptive information to the used, since they are each represented by a byte. Insignal in a way that is difficult to remove. It also is other words, one can store 3 bits in each pixel. Anpossible to use hidden embedded information as a 800 × 600 pixel image, can thus store a totalmeans of covert communication between amount of 1,440,000 bits or 180,000 bytes ofindividuals. embedded data. Watermarking techniques are used to decide thedomain, there are two types of techniques forimages, and they are- 1) Frequency Domain Watermarking 2) Spatial Domain Watermarking • Frequency Domain Watermarking: First convert the image to the frequency domain and then apply the watermark in the low frequency regions. • Spatial Domain Watermarking: Just change some of the values of the pixels in the lower bit plane; e.g., Change some of the bits from 1 to 0 or 0 to 1.  The Spatial Domain Watermarking is Fig- Least Significant Bit manipulation classified in different classes. Its best that we work with a true color image. This In this paper, we are using Spatial Domain way, we can manipulate the LSB of a pixel-colorWatermarking with the invisible watermarking without the human eye understanding theImages with the best known watermarking method difference. Specifically, the blue color of pixels isthat works in the spatial domain is the LSB (Least chosen because its the most unnoticed for theSignificant Bit), which replaces the least significant human eye. This method is very fragile. It will failbits of pixels selected to hide the information. The holding the watermark even with the slightest"LSB watermark" options save the final images in manipulation of the image. This is why this methodBMP format as it is a format with no compression. can be used for image authenticity and maximizes the robustness of the hidden data.III. LSB MANIPULATION IN IMAGES This paper will focus on hiding information in images by LSB manipulation. At the time of In the digital representation, images are the encryption, the message will be hiding in twomost popular cover objects for watermarking. different images evenly. Inverse of same processApplied in the spatial domain, this method of follows at decryption, LSB manipulated first imagewatermarking is very effective method for hiding gives half message and another half message willactual information inside images. In this be given by second image. We can use more thanmanipulation, the information to be watermarked two images to hide information further. These(simple text in this case) is converted to bits [0-1]. images information will be optimally secured byThen "random" chosen pixels are ANDed with the using symmetric key algorithm such as DES andnumber 254 ["00000001"] so the LSB is turned to AES.0. Finally, the information is inserted by adding thewatermark info bits to the luminance value of the IV. WORKING ALGORITHMchosen pixels.The least significant bit (in other words, the 8th bit) A. Data Encryption Standardof some or all of the bytes inside an image ischanged to a bit of the secret message. Digital DES is an algorithm that takes a fixed-length stringcolour images are typically stored in 24-bit files of plaintext bits and transforms it through a series of complicated operations into another ciphertext All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET 168
ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012bitstring of the same length. In the case of DES, the AES operates on a 4×4 column-major order matrixblock size is 64 bits. DES also uses a key to of bytes, termed the state (versions of Rijndael withcustomize the transformation, so that decryption a larger block size have additional columns in thecan supposedly only be performed by those who state). Most AES calculations are done in a specialknow the particular key used to encrypt. The key finite field.ostensibly consists of 64 bits; however, only 56 ofthese are actually used by the algorithm. Eight bits The AES cipher is specified as a number ofare used solely for checking parity, and are repetitions of transformation rounds that convertthereafter discarded. Hence the effective key length the input plaintext into the final output ofis 56 bits, and it is never quoted as such. Every 8th ciphertext. The numbers of cycles of repetition arebit of the selected key is discarded, that is, as follows:positions 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64 are removedfrom the 64 bit key leaving behind only the 56 bit 10 cycles of repetition for 128 bit keys.key. 12 cycles of repetition for 192 bit keys.The algorithms overall structure is shown in 14 cycles of repetition for 256 bit keys.Figure: there are 16 identical stages of processing,termed rounds. There is also an initial and final Each round consists of several processing steps,permutation, termed IP and FP, which are inverses. including one that depends on the encryption key.Before the main rounds, the block is divided into A set of reverse rounds are applied to transformtwo 32-bit halves and processed alternately; this ciphertext back into the original plaintext using thecriss-crossing is known as the Feistel scheme. same encryption key. V. PROPOSED WORK &Figure: The process of DES algorithm METHODOLGY B. Advanced Encryption We effectively using LSB method and DES and AES algorithm and derived a watermarked model. Standard There are only two functions, one for embedding and one for detecting the watermark. This approachAES Originally called Rijndael.It is based on a will surely enhance the performance and securitydesign principle known as a substitution- and the steps are to be taken place in the followingpermutation network. It is fast in both software and order,hardware. Unlike its predecessor, DES, AES doesnot use a Feistel network. 1. Getting the images are loaded from the user.AES has a fixed block size of 128 bits and a key 2. Now filling the information for encryptingsize of 128, 192, or 256 bits, whereas Rijndael is message accompanied that will be encryptedspecified with block and key sizes in any multiple in two images which are divided evenly.of 32 bits, both with a minimum of 128 and amaximum of 256 bits. 3. These will be manipulating the LSB of a All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET 169
ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012 pixel-colour without the human eye watermarking techniques. The main objectives of understanding the difference by using true the project are colours. Using of different symmetric key 4. The encrypted images data location is treated algorithms and more than one image for as key that will be again encrypted by either hiding them in means of security and DES or AES algorithm. quality of hiding. 5. After insertion process complete, the new Increasing the efficiency and accuracy of images are saved as a bitmap format (.bmp). hiding the data through algorithms using Microsoft .NET framework. 6. Now the images are ready to be watermarked. 7. The detection process is exactly opposite to The proposed method will help to secure the get the output. content with in the images and encryption of image files address with help of symmetric key algorithm Now, User needs to run the application. The to make the document much securer because evenuser has two tab options in dot net framework. If though if the unauthorized person succeeds inuser selects Encoding, application gives the screen being able to hack the image, the person will notto select image files, information for adoption to able to read the message as well as acquire thesave in the image file and one symmetric key whole information which is hidden in two images.algorithm to choose. If user selects Decoding, Hence, unauthorized will not make any type ofapplication gives the screen to select only image changes.file and ask same chosen symmetric key algorithmto display the secrete information. VI. APPLICATIONS This project has two methods – Encrypt and There are various watermarking applications forDecrypt. The model for encryption and decryption images, as follows-of images are designed with the objectives to file. 1. Copyright protection is probably the mostIn encryption the secrete information is hiding in common use of watermarks today. CopyrightBMP images only to save without any compression owner information is embedded in the image inin image files. Decryption is getting the secret order to prevent others from alleging ownership ofinformation have confidentiality and security in the image.transmission of the image based data as well as 2. The fingerprint embeds information about thestorage, with the help of suitable symmetric key legal receiver in the image. This involvesalgorithms. embedding a different watermark into each distributed image and allows the owner to locate and monitor pirated images that are illegally obtained. 3. Prevention of unauthorized copying is accomplished by embedding information about how often an image can be legally copied. 4. In an image authentication application the intent is to detect modifications to the data. 5. Medical applications Names of the patients can be printed on the X-ray reports and MRI scans using techniques of visible/invisible Watermarking. VII. EXPERIMENTAL RESULT This paper has an aim to prevent the information byFigure4: Block Diagram of Image Watermarking hiding in images from intruders and people who dont have the permission. We apply the LSB insertion by encrypting into two images for hidingI primarily concentrated on the data security issues one secret message whose half data encrypt in onewhen sending the data over the network using image and next half data encrypt in second image. Symmetric key (DES or AES) algorithm as choice All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET 170
ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012for image address encryption to get optimization. this optimized method can be used for imageThe experiment will show, encrypted images can authenticity.not show real view until these images are decryptedby user key. Finally, these decrypted images can be Watermarking, like cryptography, will play anidentified by secret message on the images. increasing role in the future of secure communication in the “digital world”. ThisTo be able to compare the performance of this approach of secure communication will beimprovement on the LSB method, the images on enhancing by using both types, visible and invisibleFigures will be used as cover with BMP (Bit watermarking which is known as dualMapped Picture) format and watermarked images watermarking.named as stego-image. These are so similar that noone would ever think to examine the contents of the IX. REFERENCESfile.  G. Manikandan, M. Kamarasan, P. Rajendiran, R. ManikandanA Hybrid Approach for Security Enhancement by Modified Crypto-Stegno Scheme,EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2011  Digital watermarking of images, SGN-1650/1656 Signal ProcessingLaboratory,http://www.cs.tut.fi/~selinumm/watermar king/watermarking.pdf   Russell K. Meyers and Ahmed H. Desoky, An Implementation of the Cryptosystem Signal Processing and Information Technology, IEEE International Symposium, Dec. 2008  T. Morkel 1, J.H.P. Eloff 2, M.S. Olivier 3 An Overview of Image Stenography,(ICSA) Research Group Department of Computer Science, University of Pretoria, 0002, Pretoria, South Africa July 2005Fig: Blue hills and sunset bitmap images before and after data  Keshav S Rawat, Dheerendra S Members, IEEE,hiding. Digital Watermarking Schemes for Authorization Against Copying or Privacy of Color Images, Indian Journal of Computer Science and Engineering.  Diaa Salama Abdul. Elminaam, H M Abdul Kader and M M Hadhoud3, Performance Evaluation of Symmetric Encryption Algorithms, in IJCSNS I, vol.8, Dec 2008.  Nadeem, A. and Javed, M.Y., A Permance Comparison of Data Encryption Alhorithms, IEEE Information and Communication Technologies,05,First International Conference, February,2006, pp.84-89  Tingyuan Nie Chuanwang Song and Xulong Zhi Performance Evaluation of DES,(ICBECS), 2010 International Conference, IEEE, Apr. 2010  “Digital watermarking” definition from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Digital_ watermarking [10 ] R.Chandramouli and Nasir Memon,Analysis of LSB Based Image Stegnography Techniques, IEEE 2001Fig: Water lilies and winter bitmap images before and after data  Yamuna Govindarajan, Yamuna Govindarajan. Quality -hiding. Security uncompromised and Plausible Watermarking for PatentVIII. CONCLUSION Infringement. International Journal of Image Processing  Ms.Soniya Vijayakumar, Image Stegnography Based On Polynomial Function JGRCS, march 2011In this work, we have taken a rigorous approach  Ravi Sharma, Digital Watermarking Article, paperthat arriving at the watermarking is an effective presentation, http://www.slideshare.net/ravi33s/watermark-way to obscure data and hide sensitive information. 12641562 april 2012.We have explored the limits of watermarking Author:theory and practices with less security. We printedout the enhancement of the image watermarkingsystem using LSB approach to provide a means ofsecure communication. Applied in the spatialdomain, this method of watermarking based onMicrosoft .Net framework is the optimized method Vandana Tehlani,for hiding actual information inside two images Engineer, M.Tech Student (CSE) from TIT, RGPVwith two algorithms i.e., DES and AES for University, Bhopal.increasing security. This method is very fragile. Itwill fail holding the watermark even with theslightest manipulation of the images. This is why All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET 171