Gis introduction

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Gis introduction

  1. 1. OVERVIEW &OVERVIEW & INTRODUCTION to GISINTRODUCTION to GIS OVERVIEW &OVERVIEW & INTRODUCTION to GISINTRODUCTION to GIS Ajaze Parvez KhanAjaze Parvez Khan DehradunDehradun
  2. 2. • London cholera epidemicLondon cholera epidemic 18541854 Cholera deathCholera death Water pumpWater pump SohoSoho + GIS concepts are not new!GIS concepts are not new!GIS concepts are not new!GIS concepts are not new!
  3. 3. This technology has developedThis technology has developed from:from: – Digital cartography and CADDigital cartography and CAD – Data Base Management SystemsData Base Management Systems 1 2 3 ATTRIBID X,Y 1 2 3 ID 1 2 3 CAD SystemCAD System Data Base Management SystemData Base Management System GIS: historical backgroundGIS: historical backgroundGIS: historical backgroundGIS: historical background
  4. 4. GIS: a formal definitionGIS: a formal definition “A system for capturing, storing, checking, integrating, manipulating, analysing and displaying data which are spatially referenced to the Earth. This is normally considered to involve a spatially referenced computer database and appropriate applications software”
  5. 5. GIS is a System of computer software, hardware and data, and personnel to help manipulate, analyze and present information that is tied to a spatial location – • spatial location – usually a geographic location • information – visualization of analysis of data • system – linking software, hardware, data • personnel – a thinking explorer who is key to the power of GIS Geographic Information SystemsGeographic Information Systems A Definition of GISA Definition of GIS Geographic Information SystemsGeographic Information Systems A Definition of GISA Definition of GIS
  6. 6. Hardware + Software + Data ware + Human-ware = GIS What consists “GIS”What consists “GIS”What consists “GIS”What consists “GIS”
  7. 7. What consists “GIS”What consists “GIS”What consists “GIS”What consists “GIS”
  8. 8. What isWhat is NotNot GISGIS ??What isWhat is NotNot GISGIS ?? • GPS – Global Positioning System • A static map – paper or digital – Maps are often a “product” of a GIS – A way to visualize the analysis • A software package
  9. 9. First Step In GIS : Data ForFirst Step In GIS : Data For GIS ApplicationsGIS Applications First Step In GIS : Data ForFirst Step In GIS : Data For GIS ApplicationsGIS Applications • Remote Sensing & Aerial Photography • Surveying • GPS – Global Positioning System – accurate locations • Digitized and Scanned Maps – purchased, donated, free (Internet) – created by user • Data Bases – Tables of data
  10. 10. • Raster FormatRaster Format • Vector FormatVector Format point 1,6 2,5 5,4 4,1 7,10 5,9 4,7 6,6 8,6 9,8 line polygon 2,2 5 10 5 10 as geometric objects: points, lines, polygons as image files composed of grid-cells (pixels) Second Step In GISSecond Step In GIS Information/Geographic/Spatial data storageInformation/Geographic/Spatial data storage Second Step In GISSecond Step In GIS Information/Geographic/Spatial data storageInformation/Geographic/Spatial data storage
  11. 11. RASTER - VECTOR Data ModelsRASTER - VECTOR Data ModelsRASTER - VECTOR Data ModelsRASTER - VECTOR Data Models
  12. 12. Geography-Spatial DataGeography-Spatial DataGeography-Spatial DataGeography-Spatial Data • Spatial data is data pertaining to the location and spatial dimensions of geographical entities • Estimates are that 80% of all data has a spatial component – Data from most sciences can be analyzed “spatially”
  13. 13. Place namePlace nameGrid co-ordinateGrid co-ordinate PostcodePostcode Distance & bearingDistance & bearing DescriptionDescription Latitude / LongitudeLatitude / Longitude Characteristics of spatial dataCharacteristics of spatial dataCharacteristics of spatial dataCharacteristics of spatial data LocationLocation
  14. 14. • The shape of aThe shape of a building or Citybuilding or City • The course of aThe course of a river, the route ofriver, the route of a roada road • The shape of theThe shape of the landscape, relieflandscape, relief Characteristics of spatial dataCharacteristics of spatial dataCharacteristics of spatial dataCharacteristics of spatial data GeometryGeometry
  15. 15. • Connected toConnected to • Within or NearWithin or Near • Adjacent toAdjacent to For e.g. DEALFor e.g. DEAL • Adarsh vihar or Saraswati viharAdarsh vihar or Saraswati vihar • Raipur RoadRaipur Road • Adjacent to Guru Nanak Academy SchoolAdjacent to Guru Nanak Academy School Characteristics of spatial dataCharacteristics of spatial dataCharacteristics of spatial dataCharacteristics of spatial data TopologyTopology
  16. 16. • Socio-economic dataSocio-economic data – Regional health dataRegional health data – Consumer / lifestyle profilesConsumer / lifestyle profiles • Environmental dataEnvironmental data – Topographic dataTopographic data – Thematic data, soils, geologyThematic data, soils, geology Spatial Data: examplesSpatial Data: examplesSpatial Data: examplesSpatial Data: examples
  17. 17. • Features – Buildings – Road centrelines – Lamp columns – Road surfaces Data Modelling - step 1Data Modelling - step 1
  18. 18. Point Line Polygon Data Modelling - step 2Data Modelling - step 2
  19. 19. Feature: Building Object: Polygon Entity: Tourist Information Bureau Data Modelling - step 3Data Modelling - step 3
  20. 20. Name : ROMA Address: 5 Market Place Town: Kingston Owner: Ms X Tel. No: 0181 547 1245 Floor space 1300 sq m Attributes/ CharactersticsAttributes/ Characterstics
  21. 21. Database “Not Easy to Interpret” Database “Not Easy to Interpret”
  22. 22. States Five Data Layers “Alike” FeaturesFive Data Layers “Alike” Features Roads CapitalsRivers Lakes Visualization “A picture Worth a Thousand Words” Visualization “A picture Worth a Thousand Words”
  23. 23. In the context of GIS, analysis is... “Deriving new information from existing data” Some Techniques... •Simple QuerySimple Query •BufferingBuffering •OverlaysOverlays •Network AnalysisNetwork Analysis •EtcEtc.... GIS - AnalysisGIS - Analysis
  24. 24. • The identification of objects and their attributes either by location or attribute query. MapInfoMapInfo Simple QuerySimple Query
  25. 25. • Creation of an area of interest around an object Buffering/Proximity AnalysisBuffering/Proximity Analysis
  26. 26. Network AnalysisNetwork AnalysisNetwork AnalysisNetwork Analysis Network analysis is used forNetwork analysis is used for identifying the most efficientidentifying the most efficient rr outeoutess or paths foror paths for allocationallocation of servicesof services.
  27. 27. • Overlaying is superimposing two or more mapOverlaying is superimposing two or more map layers to produce a new map layer.layers to produce a new map layer. • Example:Example: • Roads on one layer(Line)Roads on one layer(Line) • Buildings on another layer(Point)Buildings on another layer(Point) • Parks on the third layer(Polygon)Parks on the third layer(Polygon) OverlaysOverlays
  28. 28. 1. ARCGIS 2. ILWIS 3. ERDAS IMAGINE 4. ERMAPPER 5. GEOMEDIA 6. GRASS (Open source) 7. JTMaps (India) & 8. Free software's (TNTMIPS/GRASS/ARCVIEW3.0 Proprietary S/W sProprietary S/W s Open source S/WOpen source S/W Free Software'sFree Software's GIS SOFTWARESGIS SOFTWARES
  29. 29. Some Ways GIS isSome Ways GIS is UsedUsed Some Ways GIS isSome Ways GIS is UsedUsed • Emergency Services – Fire & Police • Environmental – Monitoring & Modeling • Business – Site Location, Delivery Systems • Industry – Transportation, Communication, Mining, Pipelines, Healthcare • Government – Local, State, Federal, Military • Education – Research, Teaching Tool, Administration Wherever Spatial Data Analysis is Needed
  30. 30. 3D Mine with Well Data3D Mine with Well Data3D Mine with Well Data3D Mine with Well Data
  31. 31. Environmental Monitoring ofEnvironmental Monitoring of Toxic PlumeToxic Plume Environmental Monitoring ofEnvironmental Monitoring of Toxic PlumeToxic Plume
  32. 32. Oil Spill and ContaminationOil Spill and Contamination estimationestimation Oil Spill and ContaminationOil Spill and Contamination estimationestimation
  33. 33. Modeling of Future TrendsModeling of Future Trends
  34. 34. Thank YouThank YouThank YouThank You

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