Analysis of Study Skills Why is there a need to study these skills? Teaching the language itself isn’t sufficient to develop the ability to perform the required tasks of ESP students, in addition of language work – thought process should also come along. Developed from functional-notional in line with communicative language teaching, the growth of needs analysis Priorities one particular skill in a given situation. Example: 1. A class when the medium of instruction is not English 2. International students embarking a study in UK 3. Business people conducting international negotiations
Problem solving The aim of the lesson isactivities where stated clearly in the thought beginning – here the processes are focus of study is on implemented getting the meaning from the context Each activity makes use of group work / pair work, which is in line with the ideas of communicative teaching. Skills are Excerpt taught using general from “Skills carrier content for Learning” (University of Malaya ESP Project)
Analysis of learning needs Early 1980s saw the period of consolidation of ESP, some thought that ESP was dead and needed something that set it apart from General English. Hutchinson and Waters gave some thought to the consolidation of ESP work, particularly in their definition of what ESP should not be: 1. ESP is not just a matter of teaching ‘specialized varieties’ of English 2. ESP is not just a matter of science words and grammar for scientist or hotel receptionists 3. ESP is not different from any other language teaching where effective and efficient learning process are sought after. They also argued that ESP had concentrated too much on the end product rather than the process itself, with this in mind came the concept of learning-centered approach.
Learning centered approach: Is an approach with avowed aim of maximizing potentials of the learning process. (Hutchison and Waters, 1987) Considered the process of learning and student motivation very fully and working out what is needed to reach the end target. Exploited learning skills students may have gained outside the class. Emphasis on groupwork or pairwork
Identify Target Situation Relationship Language-centered approach s involved in Analyze Target Situation the learning centered-Analyze Learning Situation approach A skilled-centered approach (Hutchinson Write Syllabus and Waters, 1984) Write Materials Teach MaterialsEvaluate learners’ A Learning-centered achievement approach
Excerpt from‘Interface’(Hutchinson and Waters,1984) The starter activity provides the context / background knowledge and stimulates interest so that students are engaged into the topic The next activity focuses on language use in a particular context, in this case it’s language related to English for technical communication The rest of the activity typically ask students to drawtheir own personal experience based on the topic given.
Authenticity During its course of development, there was a great deal of controversy for using authentic text. Its unclear meaning – what is meant by authentic text? Authenticity in terms of the material Authenticity in terms of the tasks Authenticity in terms of the level