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  • 1. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Advertisements in Malaysia Advanced Discourse Analysis ENGL 6106 IhsanIbadurrahman (G1025429) Mohd. Ridzuan Mat Zin (G1126649)
  • 2. I. IntroductionAdvertising is very common in our daily lives nowadays. In Malaysia, advertising abounds; itcould be found almost everywhere such as in mass media, buses, LRT, handrails of escalators,billboards, and wallpapers. However, given this ubiquity, it is strangethat most of us do notrealize that advertising is a form of discourse by the means of languagethat would consciouslyorunconsciously influence our behaviors and thoughts in our daily lives. The use of wordplay, puns, rhymes, pictures, colors and other elements in advertising somehow has its ownrole in order to catch our attention towards it. Thispretty much explains the meaning of theword „advertising‟ itself, derived from the Medieval Latin verb advertere which means todirect one‟s attention to. According to El-daly (2011), advertising is “any type of form ofpublic announcement intended to direct people‟s attention to the availability, qualities, and/orcost of specific commodities or services” (p. 25). It is essential that a critical look to advertising be done so that we, as consumers, arenot fooled by its persuasive power and end up buying the products not because we need it, butwe want it, a process known as commodification (Govindasamy&Hasan Khan, 2007). Onesuch tool to investigate it is Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). CDA is defined as is a multi-disciplinary, problem-oriented approach in investigating the enactment of power abuse,dominance, and inequality that is present in text and talk and thus in its stand, try tounderstand and resist social imbalance (Dijk, 2001). Through CDA, it is possible to examinethe strategies of manipulation and persuasive power that are often implicitly and carefullyused in advertisements. However, not much study has been undertaken to explore criticaldiscourse analysis of advertisements especially in the Malaysian context. This paper attempts to cast some light intoa critical look of the advertisements foundin Malaysian media such as newspaper and TV by using a three-level approach of critical 1
  • 3. discourse analysis: linguistic, social, and cultural analysis. The present study is an extensiontothe studyof adverts in Japan conducted by Esposito (2011) by applying the same approachto critical discourse analysis in a different context, which is in Malaysia.II. Literature ReviewBefore going through a brief survey of literature, it would be imperative to discuss first someof the theoretical underpinnings of critical discourse analysis of advertisements. Unlike theconventional discourse analysis which merely looks at the forms and features of texts, criticaldiscourse analysis delves deeper in that it seeks to reveal the ideological assumption oflanguage use (Esposito, 2011). Van Dijk (1998) defines ideology as a system of ideas, beliefs,and values which provides a limited view of the world. Ideology is rendered effective onlywhen a majority of people deem it to be common sense (Gramsci, 1971 as cited in Esposito,2011). Once things have become a common sense, shared by many people, we would tend toregard it as normal and therefore would never tend to look at them critically. It is thereforecrucial to look back and open ourmind to critically examine how language creates such sharedideologies. It is generally understood that in the discussion of discourse, text and context areclosely intertwined.In the discourse of advertising, text refers to the language itself. Context,on the other hand, is the setting in which the language is used, such as substance or thephysical material of the text, music and pictures, paralanguage, situation, and co-text.Because CDA largely concerns language as social practice, it must take into consideration thecontext of language use (Wodak, 2001). This is supported by Cook (2001), who asserts that astudy of language should always take context into account. He goes on to argue that languagewithout context is like a „journey without destination‟ (p. 5). Text and context are inextricablywoven together to interact in a meaningful way with the observers or participants who see the 2
  • 4. ads.It could be said that discourse of advertisements is inter-discursive and inter-textual innature (Fairclough, 2001). It is inter-discursive because in order to make sense, it needs torelate to other context or features specific to a given culture. It is inter-textual because eachseparate text is at play with other texts in the ad to create meaning. Having outlined sometheories that underpin critical discourse analysis on advertisements, we shall now look brieflyat some of the studies done in the field. There has not been much literature that can be found specifically on critical discourseof advertisement in Malaysian context. However, one study that is closely related to this paperis one that is led by Govindasamy and Hasan Khan (2007) who investigate advertisements onglobal popular culture such as movies, music, reality shows and soap operas using a criticaldiscourse analysis from various electronic, as well as print media that are prevalent inMalaysia. Although the present study focuses more on everyday commodities, the studyconducted by Govindasamy and Hasan Khan hasnevertheless put forward aninteresting factabout advertising in Malaysia. It is revealed that global texts of popular culture thrive inMalaysia and is disseminated rapidly due to the accessibility of media by consumers. One ofthe ways in which the media is disseminated is generally through the growing number ofavailable TV stations in Malaysia since 1970, and specifically the Malaysian‟s thrivingsatellite TV named ASTRO, in 1996. Another means of how global popular culture isadvertised generously is through the ubiquity of press media industry particularly The Starand New Strait Times, where they include a special section in their paper dedicated to newsrelated to movie celebrities or western pop music entitled. New Strait Timesand the Life &Timessection available in both newspapers particularly deal with reviews of recent moviesshown in TV and Cinemas. The study concludes that the language use in advertising is mostly 3
  • 5. direct and to the point. The lexical choices are simple and comprehensible to those who readthe reviews or watch the show. Another study that is closely related, but done in a different context, is one that iscarried out byEl-Daly (2011) who examines the nature of the discourse of advertising,specifically on consumer advertising which is directed towards the promotion of someproduct or service to the general public in Egypt. By referring to the advertising from theEgyptian media, El-Daly attempts to examine advertising persuasive strategies by looking atthree linguistic theories:pragmatic, psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic. It discusses therelationship between culture or what he called “schemas” and the advertising discourse, whichcannot be separated from each other. El-Daly also explains rhetorical devices used in Arabicadvertising such as parallelism, rhyme and rhythm and alliteration, all of which areabsolutelycrucial in order to analyze the discourse of advertising as it is inseparable from the culture ofthe advertising text. Another recent study on the critical discourse of analysis of advertisements isundertaken by Esposito (2001) who utilizes CDA as a pedagogical means of enhancingcritical thinking skills in a Japanese EFL classroom. Using a multidimensional approach tothe discourse of advertising, the study involves 37 university students taking an electivecourse of Critical Discourse Analysis in their third or fourth year of study. Students are askedto bring their own ads from magazines and analyze them using a three dimensional approach:linguistic analysis, social analysis, and cultural analysis. Linguistic analysis primarily dealswith a careful description of how the language is used in the advertisements. During this stageof analysis, elements such as text and imagery are identified. The social analysis deals with athorough explanation of how ads might appeal to specific audiences. The researcher believesthat because they are part of the target audience, they could relate best to the ad‟s messages. 4
  • 6. The last part of analysis, the cultural analysis, specifically aims to examine how advertisinginfluences modern life. The findings reveal that Japanese ads convey their messages primarilythrough a clever combination of language and imagery. For example, in an advertisement forKewpie Mayonese, the word „SUGAO‟, also translated as sugar, is boldly written in redcapital letters against a white background denoting naturalness for working women wearingno make-up, which are their intended target-audience. Other common features found inJapanese ads are the use of allusions, puns, and metaphors. This research paper extendsEsposito‟s (2010) study mentioned above by using thesame three dimensional approaches to investigate advertisements found in Malaysia. The nextsection shall briefly outline how the present study is conducted.III. MethodologyThe present study employed a qualitative approach as it relies mostly on text and image data,and the focus is on learning the meaning that the participants have on the ads (Creswell,2009). The participants involved in this study were ten post graduate International IslamicUniversity Students majoring in English who are currently taking a course on CriticalDiscourse Analysis (ENGL 6106). The ten students comprised of 3 male participants, and 7female participants. Due to the constraints of selecting samples randomly, the samplingstrategy used for this study was non-probability sampling. In particular, the researchersutilized convenience sampling where the samples were selected as we came across. We chosethe ten participants as they were our classmates and were readily available. This strategy ofsampling granted the researchers an easy and quick way to obtain samples (Neuman, 2011). 5
  • 7. For the purpose of this study, an open-ended 3-page questionnaire was utilized. Aspointed out by Nunan (1992), questionnaires are convenient and thus popular means ofcollecting data. Although it might have been much easier to analyze the data using closedquestions, open-ended ones were chosen instead due to the fact that they may be able toprovide more useful information that would otherwise be inaccessible in closed questionformats. The questionnaire includes the three dimensional approach to critical discourseanalysis of advertisements proposed by Esposito (2011):linguistic analysis, social analysis,and cultural analysis (see Appendix A). Each ten participant were asked toclosely look at thead, and analyze it using the three aforementioned analyses. It roughly took 15 minutes tocomplete the questionnaires, so that participants would not have to deal with unwarrantedintrusion to regular class activities. The tenselected ads were taken from three different sources: newspapers, magazines,and YouTube. For newspapers sources, two ads were taken from Sunday and one from TheStar. Magazines that were used in this study included ads from Men’s Fitness, Galaxie,Digital camera, and Cleo, where one ad from each was taken except Galaxie where we tooktwo samples. Additionally, two short video clips were downloaded directly from high-qualityYouTube videos; this is to ensure that the quality of the ads that were shown in TVcommercials was captured in their glory. It is feared that the use of our conventional digitalcameras would result in loss of quality and may hamper the analysis of these ads wheredetailed use of colors and symbols are of paramount concern. The selections of the ads werecarefully weighed to ensure that they represent a wide variety of products. The followingchart illustrates the variety of products presented in the ads in this study: 6
  • 8. Various types of ads used 11% 11% Camera Digital (Nikon 1) Beauty Products (Oxy clearing wash and Maybelline ColorSensational) Watch (Oris ProDiver Col Moschin) 22% 23% Food and Drink (Marigold Juice and McDonald Fillet O Fish) Housing (Menara 238) Car (Hyndai Elantra and New Honda Jazz) 11% 11% Event Celebration (Guinness St. Patrick Day 2010) 11% Chart 1: Variety of advertisements used in this study. After gathering the data, each response from the questionnaires were carefullyanalyzed to see if there were any emerging patterns from the three different dimensionalapproaches.It is to be noted that only the most salient points from the responses were takeninto consideration. The answers were then cross-checked with the information gathered fromthe book specifically Cook‟s (2001) book entitled The Discourse of Advertising, sources fromthe internet, and researchers‟ own opinion about the product. The next section shall elaboratethe findings of the study. 7
  • 9. IV. Results and DiscussionThe first ad is the new Nikon 1 compact digital camera. In the ad, there‟s a picture of a younggirl standing in the middle of the jungle while holding the Nikon camera with the capital word“I AM YOUR SMART PARTNER”. Based on that picture, it infers that the product (Nikoncamera) can be a person‟s best friend as it can be taken anywhere, anytime. This is due to thefact that the camera is a compact digital camera which is compatible, small, lightweight, andcan be used to take pictures in order to preserve good memories. . The ad is also smart in asense that the idea of “I am your partner” might also imply the girl in the picture herself.Either way, the ad strongly represents the idea that those who buy the camera do not need tohave other friends, implying that the camera (or the girl) would never disappoint you. That iswhy in the ad of the new Nikon 1, there is only a picture of a beautiful girl holding the cameraand no one else. Thus, it‟s also promoting individuality and promoting people to engage in theuse of new technology, in this case, a compact digital camera. The second ad is the Oxy Blackhead Clearing Wash, a facial cleansing gel to get rid ofblackheads. The ad uses an image of a young couple of teenagers who are holding the productand the skin of both of them are so fair and clean, without blackheads. Thus, due to the use ofimage of a young couple of holding the product, the ad is targeted for young adults andadolescences. This is because young adults and adolescences are the one who typically haveproblems with blackheads. In the ad, it uses a strong parallelism in order to distinguishbetween the product and the blackhead problem; “Say NO to BLACKHEADS, Say YES toOXY”. With this parallelism, it somehow also gives the idea that if you did not use theproduct, you cannot encounter you blackhead problem and if you use the product (Oxy), youwill get rid of the blackhead and get a fair skin. It is also worth mentioning that the overall 8
  • 10. background for the ad is extremely white in order to show a contrasting theme with the„black‟ background, which is the very idea of the ad, that is to say no and get rid of blackhead. Our next ad is OrisProdiver Col Moschin watch. In the ad, the watch is presented in abeautifully colored and enlarged image to emphasize the watch and to show that the watch isso beautiful and elegant. It also promotes the product by selling the name of the country„Swiss‟ which is known for its high quality watches. By mentioning that the watch is a Swiss-made watch, the product automatically gains its own credibility as an exceptional quality andbeautiful watch. Swiss are known for its quality watches and people are willing to paythousands of Ringgit for its quality and precision. The choice of word that are used in the ad,“Real watches for Real people” signifies that the product is meant for people who strive forperfection in life just like the watch itself. Besides that, the word “For” in the slogan “Realwatches for Real people” is printed in red color to further signify an equation or equal to.Thus, real watch = real people. The fourth ad is Marigold 100% Juice. It can be argued that the capital word “PURE”used in the ad correlates with the name of the product which is 100% juice without any otherartificial ingredients are added into the juice. The image of freshly peeled Orange surroundingthe product connotes the idea that the drink was freshlysqueezed from the orange itself. Basedon that, the ad is trying to connote the idea that the drink is healthier and „purer‟ than anyother products because it contains no added sugar and artificial coloring like other products.However, the info that is given regarding the juice can be quite deceiving as it is impossiblethat such delicious and sweet juice do not contain any sugar or artificial coloring andingredients in order to make it more delicious, or to evenmake the color of the juice brighterand look more natural, and most importantly to preserve it so that people can enjoy it from 9
  • 11. time to time by keeping the juice in their fridge. This is when costumers need to be judiciousin carefully selecting a product based solely on its ad. The fifth ad is Menara 238, a building designed for company to run their business thatis situated at the heart of Kuala Lumpur. The ad also makes use of parallelism to sell theproduct: “BIG BOYS NEED BIG SPACE FOR BIG PRESENCE”. The words „Big Boys‟,„Big Space‟, and „Big Presence‟ are emphasized through the use capitalization. Only „FOR‟and „NEED‟ words are not enlarged in order to give prominence to the aforementionedparallelism. This parallelism is an instance of rhetorical device that is particularly effective inorder to reinforce the quality of the product (El-Daly, 2011). The rhetorical device that is usedalso catches the attention of anyone who catches a glimpse of the ad and they might stop andread the ad as a whole in order to find out what the rhetorical words really mean. Anotherinteresting point to discuss here is the beautiful view of Kuala Lumpur at night seen from thewindow of the room. The use of this beautiful image is used to attract the potential buyer andcan be quite deceiving because sometimes the view in the ad only shows the best part of thebuilding and does not truly represent all the views seen from the room in the building. The useof scenic views are often used in the advertising of property such as houses and buildings inorder to attract buyers and to make it look more beautiful, whereas the reality is that the viewis not that beautiful and breath-taking compared to what being portrayed in the ad. Lastly, inthe ad, it says „Make your move, space is limited‟ which is a very smart choice of word topush people to buy the property immediately. The next ad is Hyundai Elantra, a car that is manufactured by Hyundai. In the ad, onlypositive words are used in order to project the good image of the car; “Small car fuelefficiency, spaciousness, premium touch, dynamic design” enhanced with the word“IMPOSSIBLE”. As is understood, it is almost impossible to have a small car with fuel 10
  • 12. efficiency that is spacious, with a premium touch and dynamic design. That‟s why the ad usesthe phrase “Hello Impossible!” to indicate that the dream car has become a reality and isavailable now, and that car is the brand new Hyundai Elantra. Analyzing at all the words usedin the ad, there are all together 28 words used in the ads, but there‟s only one verb: Imagine.The use of only one verb in the ad makes the reader to ponder and to visualize about all thealmost impossible characteristics that can be found in the only one car, the new HyundaiElantra, thus attempts to catch people‟s interest with the car and to buy it. The inclusion ofawards in the ad also further promotes the good quality of the car. The ad mentions that theHyundai Elantrais the winner of forty-two renowned awards and accolades and that HyundaiElantra won the 2012 North America Car of The Year and also the ALG‟s 2012 ResidualValue Awards for the best compact car. By adding more information regarding all the awardsthat the car has won, it will simply make the potential buyers to feel excited and eager to ownthe car as the car has proven to be of high quality and remarkable performance by winning allthose awards mentioned in the ad. The seventh ad under our scope of analysis is the ad for Maybelline ColorSensationallipstick. In the Maybelline ad, there is a clever use of very strong words printed in bold;SEXY, SOFT, SENSUOUS and STRIKING. All these four words are alliterations of theinitial „S‟ and each corresponds to the name of the product itself,which is Sensational. At thetop of the ad, there are four rose petals with honey oozing from them to depict the perfect lipsthat are bright in color while at the same timethey are fresh and moisturized. All of thosepetals have been neatly arranged in order, with the honey each trickling down to the words itcorresponds to. By doing this, the ad somehow attempts to emphasize all of the four wordsprinted in bold which is also alliterations of the initial „S‟. 11
  • 13. The eight ad is about Guinness, a brand of a beer inits attempt to promote two things:the beer itself and also the St. Patrick Festival 2010. In trying to accomplish these two goals,it uses many symbols such as the smiley, the St. Patrick flower symbol and also fireworks toresemble the fiesta, which is going to be fun and full of laughter from diverse group of people.The use of green background color conforms that of St. Patrick‟s celebration, which isculturally known to symbolize the greenery of the country Ireland. Based on the images ofpeople that can be seen from the ad, the ad somehow promises to bring laughter and joy to thelife of people regardless of their race. This enhances the idea that the festival is for everyone,not just for one particular group of people or race. The next ad is a short clip of video on McDonalds Fillet-O-fish burger that was takenfrom the YouTube. This video was once advertised through the television by McDonalds inorder to promote their product, which is Fillet-O-fish burger. In the ad, there is an emphasison the word “EASY” as it is used repeatedly throughout the ad as a parallelism in order toreinforce the quality and efficiency of getting the product regardless of who you are, whereyou are, and how much money you earn. This can be seen from the text that appears in the ad;“Easy to enjoy, Easy on the wallet, Easy on the go, Easy happiness and Easy fishing fromRM4”. The same also applies to the fish symbol which is used to portray the product, theFillet-O-fish burger whereas the patty is made from fresh fish. In the ad, people who eat theburgers are portrayed as happy people, smiling, enjoying life and are content with what theyhave. It somehow connotes the idea that if you eat the burger, you will be happy, laughing,smiling and content with your life. The fast-paced music that are used as the musicbackground for the ad resembles busy urban people living in a bustling city, wanting to havesomething that is „easy‟ and quick so that it doesn‟t disturb the pace of their hecticlife. 12
  • 14. The last ad that is analyzed in this research is a short clip on the brand new Honda JazzHybrid. In the ad, the green car is used to contrast with the white background color of theoverall video of the ad conveying the „environmental friendly‟ car that itpurports to sell. Otherthan that, the images of birds and clouds that as seen reflected on the car and also theblooming flowers are used to further illustrate the „naturalness‟ of the product. This is due tothe fact a hybrid car is an environmental friendly car that does not use normal fuel as its maincombustion energy and do not release harmful gas to the environment. All the words in theads are presented in question format using parallelism: “Who says green can‟t be the color ofpassion? Who says you can‟t make angry birds happy? Who says saving the planet is only forsuperheroes?”.The use of parallelism, especially the last question in the ad, is a brilliant wayof selling the product. It simply means that because it is an environmental friendly car, anyonecan save the planet by buying and using the car, not just superheroes. Interestingly, the use ofsuperheroes is another smart way of catching the attention of urban people, the targetedaudience of this ad. Based on the findings of all the ten ads that were analyzed for this research, one of themost salient feature of language used in the ten ads is parallelism which specifically serves toforeground the linguistic units, and thus render the quality of the product more effective(Cook, 2001; El-Daly, 2011). This suggests thatads in Malaysia tendto use of parallelism tosell their products. The use of parallelism can also make the wordingpresented in the adssound catchier. For instance, in the McDonald ad, the repeated use of the word „EASY‟emphasizes that the burger is „easy‟ on every aspect; easy to enjoy, easy on your wallet, easyon the go as you can just grab it even if you are in a hurry, easy happiness as you can makeyourself and someone else happy by eating and enjoying the burger and easy fishing fromRM4 to indicate that the price is reasonable for such delicious burger. 13
  • 15. The analysis of the ads also entails not only human cognitive process but also featuresspecific to a given culture. Culture is very important in order for us to understand the waysociety lives, in order for us to fully understand a certain group of people, on how they think,react and so on. Cook (2001) mentions that culture is inseparable component in the task ofdiscourse analysis in advertisement because it is needed to describe the phenomenonthatoccurs in the text and context of a discourse. A prime example of this would be GuinnessSt. Patrick‟s ad which uses the green color and the symbol of the leaf in promoting the event.In the Guinness St. Patrick‟s ad, the use of a specific color is very significant and cultural-related because the green color is a trademark for the St. Patrick‟s celebration whereas duringthe St. Patrick Day, people from all around the world will wear green clothes and decoratetheir houses or buildings in green. The same goes with the use of the symbol of the leaf. Thesymbol of the leaf are also related with the celebration of St. Patrick Day as we can see thatleaf symbol everywhere whenever there is a celebration of St. Patrick Day. In other words, ifwe did not know the Irish culture and about their celebration of St. Patrick day, the leafsymbol and the color green will means nothing and there‟s nothing unusual or significantabout it. It their valiant attempt to promote the products, ads tends to have certain impacttowards the people or towards the audience who see these ads. As pointed by Cook (2001),ads can make people feel dissatisfied with what they have and thus consume more. Bylooking at the ads, people will think that what they have now are inferior to what they havenow and thus would be tempted to buy more or buy a new one. This is done by the use ofclever words or pictures such as picturesque view of Petronas Twin Tower building of theMenara 238‟s advertisement, which as we have suggested, can be deceiving. In the ads ofOris‟s watch for example, the use of clever words, “Real watch for real people”, may suggest 14
  • 16. that other watches are phony, and those who do not buy Oris‟s watch are not real people. Andas such,it is deceiving in a sense that it merely persuades people to buy the watch for the sakeof wanting to be called „real‟, and it also makes other watches inferior thusit tempts people tobuy these watches.V. ConclusionFrom the 10 analyzed ads, it can be concluded that in discussing adverts, we cannot separatetext with its context. This means that in order to critically analyze adverts, one must look intothe substance, pictures, music, paralanguage (font color and size), intertextuality and inter-discursivity that prevail in the text (Fairclough, 2001). Such complexity means that“advertising always holds more to be analyzed, leaves more to be said”. (Cook, 2001: 5). Thestudy also suggests that we should be vigilant of the persuasive power of ads which results incommodification, where we buy the product not because we need it but want it(Govindasamy& Khan, 2007). Costumers should be judicious in buying the products from theads they see. By critically analyzing the discourse in adverts using the three dimensionalapproach proposed by Esposito (2011), these persuasive power in creative language use couldbe demystified. Due to the paucity of research done in the area, similar studies should be conductedmore. Future studies may address some of the limitations found in this study by having moresamples, or by using a more robust research instrument. A more specific research topic couldalso be conducted for future studies, as our research scope of ads is quite broad. This could bedone by narrowing the area down only to newspaper ads, or TV ads. 15
  • 17. ReferencesCook, G. (2001). The Discourse of Advertising (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.Creswell, J. (2009). Research Design. California: SAGE Publication.El-daly, H. M. (2011). Towards an Understanding of the Discourse of Advertising: Review of Research with Special Reference to Egyptian Media. African Nebula, Issue 3, pp. 25-47.Esposito, J. (2011). A Critical Approach to the Analysis of Advertisements.The Linguistics Journal, Vol. 5, pp. 197-219.Fairclough, N. (2001). Critical discourse analysis as a method in social scientific research.In R. Wodak.& M. Meyer, Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis (pp. 121-138). London: Sage.Govindasamy, S. & Khan, M. H. (2007).Selling the Global Popular: Reading Adverts in Malaysia. In P. Krish, Discourses on culture and identity: an interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 47-70). Selangor: Pearson Malaysia.Neuman, L. (2011) Social Research Methods, Boston: Pearson.Van Dijk, T.A. (2001). Multidisciplinary CDA: a plea for diversity. In R. Wodak.& M. Meyer, Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis (pp. 121-138). London: Sage.Wodak, R. (2001). What CDA is about – a summary of its history, important concepts and its developments. In R. Wodak.& M. Meyer, Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis (pp. 1- 13). London: Sage. 16
  • 18. Appendix A: Open-Ended Questionnaire Critical Discourse Analysis of Advertisement: A Mini SurveyFollowing are three approaches to the analysis of Advertisement taken from a study by Esposito(2011). Please kindly answer the following questions based on the product advertisement that hasbeen chosen for you. Thank you for your time and kind help in filling up the survey.Name of the product : _________________________________________________Level One (Linguistic Analysis)1. What information is given about the product? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________2. How is the product presented in terms of words and images? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________3. What symbols are used to promote the product? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________4. What associations are made with the product? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________5. What is the relationship between the product and people? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 17
  • 19. Level Two (Social Analysis)1. Who is the main audience for the product?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2. Why should the product be purchased?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3. What evidence is given to support the ad‟s claims?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________4. What values does the ad reflect and/or promote?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________5. How is the ad designed to make one feel?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 18
  • 20. Level Three (Cultural Analysis)1. What are the most salient messages found in advertising?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2. How does advertising create particular identities?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3. What stories do advertisements tell about the world?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________4. What influence does advertising have on cultural behavior?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________5. What type of lifestyle(s) does advertising promote?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Adopted from Esposito (2011).„A critical approach to the analysis of advertisement‟, thelinguistics Journal, Vol. 5, pp.197-219. 19
  • 21. Appendix B: Samples of the AdvertisementThe following CD as attached to this paper contains all the ten advertisements used in thisstudy, including the two short video clips of The New Honda Jazz and McDonalds Fillet-O-Fish, which would otherwise be difficult to include as a printed appendix. 20