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It's Not About Working Software After All!

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This lecture was given by Mary Poppendieck, Lean software development expert, in the recent AgileTour 2010 (Haifa Israel) which was organized by Ignite and was held on Nov 11 2010 in the Technion, …

This lecture was given by Mary Poppendieck, Lean software development expert, in the recent AgileTour 2010 (Haifa Israel) which was organized by Ignite and was held on Nov 11 2010 in the Technion, the leading academic institute for technological studies in Israel

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  • 1. lsoftware development e a n It’s Not About Working Software First Build the Right Thing mary@poppendieck.com Mary Poppendieck www.poppendieck.com
  • 2. Gróf András (Andrew Grove) Business goes on to new heights Strategic Inflection Point 10x change in an element of the business. What worked before doesn’t work now. The executives are the last to know. Business declines 2 November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC l e a n From: Only the Paranoid Survive, by Andy Grove,
  • 3. Is Agile Development At An Inflection Point? Version 1.0 – Contract Focus Version 2.0 – Development Focus Version 3.0* - Customer Focus  Processes and tools  Individuals and  Team vision and  Comprehensive interactions initiative documentation  Working software  Validated learning  Contract negotiation  Customer collaboration  Customer discovery  Following a plan  Responding to change  Initiating Change Inflection Point: Customer Focus 2000 2004 2008 2012 3 November 10 l e a n *Kent Beck, Startup Lessons Learned – April 23, 2010 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC http://www.justin.tv/startuplessonslearned/b/262656520
  • 4. Team Vision and Initiative There is nothing so useless as doing efficiently that which should not be done at all. – Peter Durcker Most product failures are caused by a lack of Customers. Not this: But this: P R I O R I T I Z E D l e a n ! 4 November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC
  • 5. Validated Learning Consider the Entrepreneur – The Objective: Starts out with no customers Minimum Viable Product  Does it do the job? Assembles a business team:  Will customers pay for it?  Marketing  What do we need to learn next?  Development Repeat......multiple times  Quality Assurance  Experiment – Learn – Adjust  Operations First be sure that you are  Support building the right thing,  Finance then be sure that you are  Others? building the thing right. 5 November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC l e a n
  • 6. Customer Discovery Ethnography Ideation Brilliant Systems are the result of a matching of mental models between those developing a system and those who will be using the system. 6 November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC l e a n
  • 7. Initiating Change WebSphere® Service Registry and Repository  10 month deadline – didn’t know the details  Solution: Get customer feedback  Early Access Program  Customers download new version each month  User feedback on discussion forum  Direct developer-customer interaction  Changed course midstream  User feedback beat marketing input  Phenomenal sales the first day of release  Customers knew they would get what they needed  Support Calls down by an order of magnitude  Mental model of users and developers matched 7 November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC l e a n
  • 8. Build the Right Thing – Systems Engineering 1. Control projects by quantified critical-few results: 1 page! 2. Make sure those results are business results, not technical. 3. Give developers the freedom to discover how to deliver those results. Tom Gilb “The worst scenario I can imagine is when we allow real customers, users, and our own salespeople to dictate ‘functions and features’ Quotes From: Value- to the developers, carefully disguised as ‘customer requirements’. Driven Development Maybe conveyed by our product owners.” Principles and Values – Agility is the Tool, “If you go slightly below the surface of these false ‘requirements’… Not the Master; you will immediately find that they are not really requirements. by Tom Gilb, –Agile They are really bad amateur design for the ‘real’ requirements.” Record, July 2010 4. Estimate the impacts of designs on the quantified goals. 5. Select designs with the best value impacts for their costs, do them first. “Focus on value estimates, not effort estimates.” 8 November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC l e a n 6. Involve stakeholders every week. “There are many stakeholders with changing priorities. The team needs to keep a line open to all of them.”
  • 9. Build the Right Thing – Less is More Features / Functions Used in a Typical System Cost of Complexity Often / Always Rarely / Never Used: 20% Used: 64% Sometimes Rarely 19% 16% Cost Often 13% Always 7% Never 45% Standish Group Study Reported at XP2002 by Jim Johnson, Chairman Time The Biggest Opportunity to Increase Software 9 Development Productivity is to Write Less Code! November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC l e a n
  • 10. Build the Right Thing – Simple Design 1. No internal changes required of a network Simple Design = Focus in order to be connected to the Internet. 2. Communications on a best-effort basis. It’s only by saying ‘no’ that you 3. No information retained by black boxes (gateways) connecting the networks. can concentrate on the things that 4. No global control at the operations level. are really important. – Apple CEO: Steve Jobs More features make a product forgettable. – Apple Designer: Johnathan Ive The worst thing you can do is to do what the customers ask. You have to understand their problem and solve it. – Tandberg Founder: Per Haug Kogstad And finally: Don’t – ever – automate 10 November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC l e a n a process without simplifying it first!
  • 11. Build the Right Thing – Whole Team Case Study: Large, Successful Web Site  Six Vertical Markets  1 team / market  Web analytics – tied to revenue  Most Product Managers struggled to produce stories.  “Product Owners” were added to keep up with the workload.  These teams faltered.  A few Product Managers negotiated overall objectives with the development team, which figured out how to develop features to meet the high level goals.  Web analytics were displayed and updated in real time.  Team members quickly adjusted the system to improve key metrics. 11 November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC l e a n  These teams were highly engaged; their business was very successful.
  • 12. Build the Right Thing – Optimize the Whole Optimizing a part of a system will always sub-optimize the overall system. Beware of Layer Teams! “The” Business F F F F F Process e e e e e a a a a a Software t t t t t u u u u u Operations r r r r r e e e e e Support 12 November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC l e a n
  • 13. Case Study: Amazon.com It’s all about scale. 2000 – Hit the wall 2001 – Started transition to services  Each Owned by a 2PT  All functions – including operations!  Encapsulate data and business logic  Basic Services and Consolidator Services 2009 – Completed Transition. Conway’s Law Organizations which design systems are constrained to produce designs 13 November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC l e a n which are copies of the communication structures of these organizations.
  • 14. Cost Center Disease Focus on cost reduction instead of delivering value. Where is the disease most likely?  IT departments  Government Organizations  Outsourcing Companies What’s Wrong with Cost Centers?  No way to focus on superior customer outcomes  No basis for trade-off decisions  No engagement  No passion 14 November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC l e a n
  • 15. People Strive to Reach Their Full Potential Remember the times when: Factors that Lead to  You are deeply engaged Better Performance &  Distractions disappear Personal Satisfaction:  Time evaporates Autonomy: This is called FLOW.  The desire to be self-directed. Mastery: Anxiety  The urge to Challenges get better. Purpose:  The aspiration to make a Boredom contribution to something 15 November 10 Skills Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC l e a n larger than ourselves.
  • 16. An Inflection Point? Mark Shuttleworth Open Source  Born in Welkom, South Africa; went to school in Cape Town. “The impossible public good.”  Started Thawte in 1995; purchased by VeriSign in  Incredibly stable 1999 for ~$575million.  Impossibly complex  Became a cosmonaut in 2002, @ ~$20 million and 18 months of training.  No monetary rewards/sanctions  Founded Canonical in 2004 to support the  No central authority development of a Linux distribution for desktops and laptops – to make computers (in the traditional sense) more affordable for all. This defies known social  Ubuntu* has won the hearts and minds of open source developers and economic theory. and has gained significant laptop/ desktop market share.  Markets and hierarchies are  Mark bet a fortune that Ubuntu no longer the only organizing would be a successful volunteer *Ubuntu means: effort – and he’s winning the bet.  Respect l e a n mechanisms available. In fact,  Helpfulness  This is a new economic landscape.  Sharing  Community peer networks can work better.  Caring  Trust 16 November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC  Unselfishness
  • 17. Upgrade to Version 3.0 Economics 3.0 Motivation 3.0 The new scarcity: Autonomy The time, energy & brainpower Mastery of bright, creative people. Purpose Teamwork 3.0 Passion 3.0 Semi-autonomous teams Know why. with internal leaders. Follow your passion. End-to-end responsibility. Be great at what you do. The Next Generation 17 November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC l e a n
  • 18. lsoftware development e a n Thank You! More Information: www.poppendieck.com mary@poppendieck.com Mary Poppendieck www.poppendieck.com