Foster creativity and innovation-the development of new ideasBureaucratic- involving a lot of complicated official rules and processesCorporate venturing and intrapreneurship- a connection between two things thatmakes them affect each other,where employees develop entrepreneurial acitivities withinthe organization,working on their own projects outside the usual frameworksEntrepreneurial- someone who starts a new business or arranges business deals in orderto make money, often in a way that involves financial risksSkunk works-away from the main company sites and outside the usuals structures towork on innovationsNew product development-Research and development-Bring a product to market-First mover advantage-you can influence the way the market developsTrendsetters or innovators- someone who starts a new fashion or makes it popularFollower- someone who believes in a particular system of ideas, or who supports a leaderwho teaches these ideas Pioneers- someone who is important in the early development of something, and whosework or ideas are later developed by other peopleEmerging industry- in an early state of developmentTechnology- new machines, equipment, and ways of doing things that are based onmodern knowledge about science and computersAttractive- someone who is attractive is pleasant to look at, especially in a way thatmakes you sexually interested in themStructure- the way in which the parts of something are connected with each other andform a whole, or the thing that these parts make upEstablished- already in use or existing for a long period of timeDrop out- to no longer do an activity or belong to a groupShakeout and consolidation-leaving the larger companies with the resources todominate the industryDominate- to control someone or something or to have more importance than otherpeople or thingsMature-someone, especially a child or young person, who is mature behaves in asensible and reasonable way, as you would expect an adult to behaveFocus groups-groups of consumers who say what they think of the product –at a veryearly stage in the development processDevelopment process-Anticipate competitors- to expect that something will happen and be ready for it:Social and economic environment-they have to be ready to respond to changes insociety and changes in the economy as a wholeRespond to changes- to do something as a reaction to something that has been said ordoneScenario planning-we imagine ways in which the nergy industry might change andevolve
Evolve- if a type of animal or plant evolves, it changes gradually over a long period oftimeFuturologist or futurist- the activity of trying to say correctly what will happen in thefutureFuturology- the activity of trying to say correctly what will happen in the futureCrystal ball- a glass ball that you can look into, which some people believe can showwhat is going to happen in the futureDelphi method-where a panel of experts make their forecasts about a subjectindependently,and the forecasts are circulated to the other members of the groupPanel of experts-Forecast- a description of what is likely to happen in the future, based on the informationthat you have nowReach a consensus-an agreement about what is likely to happen2The adjectives from ML, Vocabulary C, p.109.p.108 Starting uphome entertainment (n) - things such as films, television, performances etc that areintended to amuse or interest peopleinnovation (n)- a new idea, method, or inventionp.109 Vocabulary A, B, C, Dairbag (n)- a bag in a car that fills with air to protect the driver or passenger in an accidentapply for a patent/ a licence (license) (col)- a special document that gives you the right tomake or sell a new invention or product that no one else is allowed to copybrainwave (n)- a sudden clever idea or an electrical force that is produced by the brainand that can be measuredbreakthrough (n)- an important new discovery in something you are studying, especiallyone made after trying for a long timecell (n)- the smallest part of a living thing that can exist independentlyclone (n,v)- someone or something that looks and behaves exactly the same as someone orsomething else //concept (n)- an idea of how something is, or how something should be donecontroversial (adj)- causing a lot of disagreement, because many people have strongopinions about the subject being discusseddisposable contact lenses (col)-escalator (n)- a set of moving stairs that take people to different levels in a buildingfault (n)- if something bad that has happened is your fault, you should be blamed for it,because you made a mistake or failed to do somethingGM/ genetically-modified (adj)-go back to the drawing board (idm)- if you go back to the drawing board, you start againwith a completely new plan or idea, after the one you tried before has failedheart pacemaker (n)-lone inventor (col)- used to talk about the only person or thing in a place, or the onlyperson or thing that does something
make a discovery (col)- a fact or thing that someone finds out about, when it was notknown about beforemammal (n)- a type of animal that drinks milk from its mothers body when it is young.Humans, dogs, and whales are mammals.out-of-date (adj)- if something is out-of-date, it is no longer considered useful oreffective, because something more modern exists// an official document that is out-of-date cannot be used because the period of time for which it was effective has finishedperfect (v)- to make something as good as you are able toPost-it note (n)- a small piece of coloured paper that sticks to things, used for leavingnotes for peopleremote control (n)- a thing you use for controlling a piece of electrical or electronicequipment without having to touch it, for example for turning a television on or offsetback (n)- a problem that delays or prevents progress, or makes things worse than theyweresolution (n)- a way of solving a problem or dealing with a difficult situationtraffic signal (n)-vacuum cleaner (n)- a machine that cleans floors by sucking up dirtworking model (col)- a model that has parts that movepp.110-111 Reading A, B, C, Danti-ageing cream (col)-articulate (v)- to express your ideas or feelings in wordsbe/ lie at the root of sth (col)- be the cause of somethingbuild brands (col)-business unit (n)- a group of people working together as part of a larger groupcelebrate innovators (col)- famouscollect feedback (col)-company-wide (adj,adv) -contend (v)- compete against someone in order to gain somethingconventional method (col)- a conventional method, product, practice etc has been used fora long time and is considered the usual typecore business (n)- the main business or activities of a company or organizationcut down on test-marketing (col)- to cut through the main part of a tree so that it falls onthe groundcut your reliance (on sb/ sth) (col)- when someone or something is dependent on someoneor something elsedeeply involved (col)- involved very muchevenly distributed (col)- to exist in different parts of an area or groupexternal source (col)-fat bonus (col)-frustration (n)- the feeling of being annoyed, upset, or impatient, because you cannotcontrol or change a situation, or achieve somethinggain (n)- an advantage or improvement, especially one achieved by planning or effort(chemicals) giant (n)- a very large successful company//omeone who is very good atdoing somethinggive out (modest) rewards (col)-intuitive (adj)- an intuitive idea is based on a feeling rather than on knowledge or facts
labour in anonymity (col)-learn something insightful (col)- able to understand or showing that you understand what asituation or person is really likemarketer (n)- someone who sells goods or servicesmind you (phr)- saying something that is almost the opposite of what you have just said,or that explains or emphasizes itnew entry (col)-one-on-one (adj)- between only two peopleorganic growth (col)-pay schemes (n)-post sth on a(n) (internal) website (col)- putpresent findings (col)-put out a product (col)-report directly to sb (col)-return on (innovation) investments (col)- profit from their investmentrevamp (v)- o change something in order to improve it and make it seem more modernrigour (rigor) (n)- the problems and difficulties of a situationroll-out (n)- an occasion when a new product is made available for people to buy or usestock option (n)- that a company offers to sell to an employee at a price that is lower thanthe usual pricethe rank and file (idm)- the ordinary members of an organization rather than the leaders:trend-based business (col)- a general tendency in the way a situation is changing ordevelopingvast area (col)- extremely largewashing powder (n)- soap in the form of a powder used for washing clothesbrilliant- excellent// extremely clever or skilfulpointless- worthless or not likely to have any useful resultwasteful- using more of something than you should, especially money, time, or effortbeneficial- having a good effectridiculous- very silly or unreasonablelife-changing-space-saving-silly- not sensible, or showing bad judgment// not serious or practicaltime-saving- designed to reduce the time usually needed to do somethingpractical- relating to real situations and events rather than ideas, emotions etcground-breaking- groundbreaking work involves making new discoveries, using newmethods etclife-saving- life-saving medical treatments or equipment are used to help save peopleslivesannoying- making you feel slightly angrymoney-saving-3The expressions from ML, Useful language box, p.113.
pp.111-112 Language review A, B, Cgrant approval (col)- when a plan, decision, or person is officially acceptedconsortium (n)- a group of companies or organizations who are working together to dosomethingenhance an ability (col)- to improve an abilityknight (sb for sth) (v)- to give someone the rank of knightmake modifications (col)-make a small change made in something such as a design, plan,or systemprestigious award (col)- admired as one of the best and most important awardtest-drive (v)- an occasion when you drive a car so that you can decide if you want to buyitthinker (n)- someone who thinks carefully about important subjects such as science orphilosophy, especially someone who is famous for thinking of new ideas or a person whothinks in a particular waytrial (n)- legal process in which a judge and often a jury in a court of law examineinformation to decide whether someone is guilty of a crimep.112 Listening A, Bback-up plan (col)- plan that you can use to replace something that does not work or islostbuild a rapport (col)- friendly agreement and understanding between peoplegrab attention (col)- to take hold of attention with a sudden or violent movementjargon (n)- words and expressions used in a particular profession or by a particular groupof people, which are difficult for other people to understand - often used to showdisapprovalquestion and answer session (col)-seating arrangement (col)- the places where people will sit, according to an arrangementstriking image (col)- unusual or interesting enough to be easily noticedthe KISS principle (keep-it-short-and-simple) (n)- the idea that products or processesshould be kept as simple as possible because they will be more effective and easier touse. KISS is an abbreviation of keep it simple, stupid.vary (v)- if several things of the same type vary, they are all different from each otherpp.112-113 Skills A, B, C, D, Ebrief (adj)- continuing for a short time or using very few words or including few detailscareers evening (col)-distinctive (adj)- having a special quality, character, or appearance that is different andeasy to recognizefoil (n)- metal sheets that are as thin as paper, used for wrapping food or paper that iscovered with very thin sheets of metalhigh (visual) impact (col)- the effect or influence that an event, situation etc has onsomeone or somethingnationwide (adj,adv)- happening or existing in every part of the countryperks (n)- something that you get legally from your work in addition to your wages, suchas goods, meals, or a carpromising (adj)- showing signs of being successful or good in the future
script (n)- the written form of a speech, play, film etc or the set of letters that are used inwriting a languageshortly (adv)- soon or speaking in an impatient and unfriendly waytest launch (n)- to start test, usually something big or importantthoroughly (adv)- completely or carefully, so that nothing is forgottenpp.114-115 Case studyall too often (phr) - used to say that something sad, disappointing, or annoying happenstoo muchbriefcase (n)- a flat case used especially by business people for carrying papers ordocumentsbroadcast (v)- a programme on the radio or on televisioncanvas (n)- strong cloth used to make bags, tents, shoes etc or a painting done with oilpaints, or the piece of cloth it is painted onembroidery (n)- a pattern sewn onto cloth, or cloth with patterns sewn onto it orimaginary details that are added to make a story seem more interesting or excitingfibre (n)- the parts of plants that you eat but cannot digest. Fibre helps to keep youhealthy by moving food quickly through your bodyflick a switch (col)- very quickly and easily, by pressing a switchget away with sth (phr v)- to not be caught or punished when you have done somethingwrongleather (n) - animal skin that has been treated to preserve it, and is used for making shoes,bags etclook out for sth (phr v)- to pay attention to what is happening around you, so that you willnotice a particular person or thing if you see themmock (adj)- not real, but intended to be very similar to a real situation, substance etc orsurprise etc that you pretend to feel, especially as a jokepanel of judges (col)-printed fabric (col)-reflect light (col)- if a person or a thing is reflected in a mirror, glass, or water, you can seean image of the person or thing on the surface of the mirror, glass, or waterrunner-up (n)- the person or team that comes second in a race or competitionslick (adj)- if something is slick, it is done in a skilful and attractive way and seemsexpensive, but it often contains no important or interesting ideasspace-age (adj)- very moderntailored (adj)- a piece of clothing that is tailored is made to fit very well or made or donespecially for someones particular need or situationtelevise (v)- to broadcast something on televisiontension (n)- a nervous worried feeling that makes it impossible for you to relaxtextured (adj)- having a surface that is not smooththing of the past (idm)- something that does not exist any morethread (n)- DCTIM a long thin string of cotton, silk etc used to sew or weave cloth or anidea, feeling, or feature that connects the different parts of an explanation, story etc