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  • 1. Assessment of Spinning Reserve Requirements in a Deregulated System by Ifedi K. Odinakaeze April 9 th , 2009 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
  • 2. Introduction
    • A deregulated power system is a horizontally integrated system.
    • Power generation, transmission, and distribution are unbundled, and consumers are allowed to choose their suppliers.
    • Independent system operator (ISO) is responsible for real-time load balancing, congestion management and provision of ancillary services.
    • Ancillary services are additional services required to provide stable and reliable electricity supply to meet the real-time electricity market’s need.
  • 3. Definitions
    • Spinning reserve (SR) is the on-line reserve capacity that is synchronized to the grid system and ready to meet load demand within 10 minutes of a dispatch instruction by the ISO.
    • Spot Market (SM) is a real-time energy market for procuring emergency power when demand exceeds scheduled generation capacity plus reserve.
    • Day-Ahead Market is a market conducted prior to the commencement of each day and location-based hourly prices are set based on generation and energy transaction bids that were offered in advance to the ISO.
  • 4. Test System and Assumptions
      • The test system is a 3-Generating Zone system and all zones must supply energy the next day based on unit commitment.
      • The load forecast uncertainty is a discrete 49-step normal probability distribution with the forecast load as the mean and with a known standard deviation.
      • There are no spot market power limits and the spinning reserve market is independent of the energy market.
  • 5. Load Forecast Uncertainty Model 7-step Normal distribution of the load forecast uncertainty with known % standard deviation, σ .
  • 6. Cost Model
      • The cost model is divided into three scenarios.
    • Scenario A is the surplus part of the load model where the actual load is less than the total scheduled generation capacity that is for s =1...24.
    • Scenario B is the part of the load model where the actual load is equal to the total scheduled generation capacity that is for s =25.
    • Scenario C is the deficit part of the load model where the actual load is less than the total scheduled generation capacity given for s = 26...49.
  • 7.
      • The cost model is a non-linear formula that is developed based on these three scenarios for each hour.
      • The goal is to minimize the hourly total cost of the energy based on certain constraints.
      • The amount of Spinning Reserve required during each hour depends on the constraints and the cost of providing it.
      • For every step in the 49-step model, energy settlement decisions are made based on energy prices and incremental loss for each MW change (either up or down) in the generating capacity schedule.
  • 8. Development of the Cost Model
    • For each value of s, the Actual load is given by the equation:
      • For (s =1,…, 24) such that Forecast load > Actual load, the corresponding cost, sT A is given by:
  • 9.
      • Similarly for s = 25, that is when Forecast load is unchanged on the Actual consumption day, the cost with its corresponding probability is given by:
      • There is no reloading down or up process required in this decision making since the total scheduled generating capacity is equal to the Actual load.
  • 10.
      • The last part is for when the Forecast load is less than the Actual day load and it is for (s = 26,…, 49).
      • The corresponding cost is given as:
  • 11.
      • The optimization problem is formulated for every hour by the combination of the three cost scenarios with constraints to give:
    • subject to the following constraints
  • 12.
      • The hourly P loss equation is given as:
      • The effects of the change in the Spot Market and Spinning Reserve Prices and Zone Reloading Limits on the SR Requirements are analyzed for different % Load Forecast Uncertainty given by σ .
  • 13. Results
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17. Conclusions
    • The amount of SR is affected by the % of the load forecast Uncertainty
    • The Spot Market Price (SMP) affects the amount of SR required in the system
    • The amount of SR is affected by the Spinning Reserve Price (SRP)
    • A change in the reloading limits of the sources also affects the quantity of SR required
  • 18. Future Work
    • Incorporation of generator failure rate data in the cost model.
    • Assessment of the SR requirement based on cost-benefit analysis (EENS and VOLL) considering Load Forecast Uncertainty.
  • 19. Thank you! Any Questions???