Ifedi.Seminar Presenatation


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Ifedi.Seminar Presenatation

  1. 1. Assessment of Spinning Reserve Requirements in a Deregulated System by Ifedi K. Odinakaeze April 9 th , 2009 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>A deregulated power system is a horizontally integrated system. </li></ul><ul><li>Power generation, transmission, and distribution are unbundled, and consumers are allowed to choose their suppliers. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent system operator (ISO) is responsible for real-time load balancing, congestion management and provision of ancillary services. </li></ul><ul><li>Ancillary services are additional services required to provide stable and reliable electricity supply to meet the real-time electricity market’s need. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definitions <ul><li>Spinning reserve (SR) is the on-line reserve capacity that is synchronized to the grid system and ready to meet load demand within 10 minutes of a dispatch instruction by the ISO. </li></ul><ul><li>Spot Market (SM) is a real-time energy market for procuring emergency power when demand exceeds scheduled generation capacity plus reserve. </li></ul><ul><li>Day-Ahead Market is a market conducted prior to the commencement of each day and location-based hourly prices are set based on generation and energy transaction bids that were offered in advance to the ISO. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Test System and Assumptions <ul><ul><li>The test system is a 3-Generating Zone system and all zones must supply energy the next day based on unit commitment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The load forecast uncertainty is a discrete 49-step normal probability distribution with the forecast load as the mean and with a known standard deviation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are no spot market power limits and the spinning reserve market is independent of the energy market. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Load Forecast Uncertainty Model 7-step Normal distribution of the load forecast uncertainty with known % standard deviation, σ .
  6. 6. Cost Model <ul><ul><li>The cost model is divided into three scenarios. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scenario A is the surplus part of the load model where the actual load is less than the total scheduled generation capacity that is for s =1...24. </li></ul><ul><li>Scenario B is the part of the load model where the actual load is equal to the total scheduled generation capacity that is for s =25. </li></ul><ul><li>Scenario C is the deficit part of the load model where the actual load is less than the total scheduled generation capacity given for s = 26...49. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>The cost model is a non-linear formula that is developed based on these three scenarios for each hour. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal is to minimize the hourly total cost of the energy based on certain constraints. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of Spinning Reserve required during each hour depends on the constraints and the cost of providing it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For every step in the 49-step model, energy settlement decisions are made based on energy prices and incremental loss for each MW change (either up or down) in the generating capacity schedule. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Development of the Cost Model <ul><li>For each value of s, the Actual load is given by the equation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For (s =1,…, 24) such that Forecast load > Actual load, the corresponding cost, sT A is given by: </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>Similarly for s = 25, that is when Forecast load is unchanged on the Actual consumption day, the cost with its corresponding probability is given by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no reloading down or up process required in this decision making since the total scheduled generating capacity is equal to the Actual load. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>The last part is for when the Forecast load is less than the Actual day load and it is for (s = 26,…, 49). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The corresponding cost is given as: </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>The optimization problem is formulated for every hour by the combination of the three cost scenarios with constraints to give: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>subject to the following constraints </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>The hourly P loss equation is given as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The effects of the change in the Spot Market and Spinning Reserve Prices and Zone Reloading Limits on the SR Requirements are analyzed for different % Load Forecast Uncertainty given by σ . </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Results
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  17. 17. Conclusions <ul><li>The amount of SR is affected by the % of the load forecast Uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>The Spot Market Price (SMP) affects the amount of SR required in the system </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of SR is affected by the Spinning Reserve Price (SRP) </li></ul><ul><li>A change in the reloading limits of the sources also affects the quantity of SR required </li></ul>
  18. 18. Future Work <ul><li>Incorporation of generator failure rate data in the cost model. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of the SR requirement based on cost-benefit analysis (EENS and VOLL) considering Load Forecast Uncertainty. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Thank you! Any Questions???