Biometrics - The Key for Effective, Secure & Smart Identification


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Biometrics - The Key for Effective, Secure & Smart Identification

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Biometrics - The Key for Effective, Secure & Smart Identification

  1. 1. Th e K e y f o r E f f e c t i v e , S e c u r e a n d S m a rtI d e n t i f i c at i o n : B i o m e t r i c s A Frost & Sullivan White Paper in Partnership with Idex Prepared by Matia Grossi Research Manager, Physical Security
  2. 2. TA B L E O F TABLE OF CONTENTS 2CONTENTS Executive Summary 3 Biometrics 4 Biometrics As The Natural Response To Increased Identity And Credential Theft 4 Fingerprint Biometrics – The Most Deployed Technology 4 - Future Applications 5 - Challenges To Overcome 5 IDEX Solutions 6 About IDEX 6 IDEX’ IP Portfolio 6 Smartfinger ® Film Fingerprint Swipe Sensor Hardware 6 How Does IDEX Swipe Sensor Work 7 Smartfinger ® Key Characteristics 7 Explaining The Techology 9 The Hardware 9 The Software 11 - PC And Laptop Applications 11 - Embedded Development Kit 11 Case Study - Transactional Authentication (Validus) 12 Contact Us 13 Frost & Sullivan 2
  3. 3. Executive Summary This Frost & Sullivan white paper aims to show how:EXECUTIVE - Security concerns in the present world continue to grow ever more complex. IdentitySUMMARY management and the many billions lost every year through fraudulent authentication in financial, banking, retail and corporate environments is pushing for the need for enhanced, secure identification and personal verification technologies. - Biometrics can easily solve the issue surrounding identity management and frauds. - The major applications at the present time are: physical and network/logical access control; in bank vaults and ATM cash points; integrated in biometric passports. - Future applications for biometrics include: huge potential for transactional authentication and online banking and shopping. - There are a number of challenges to overcome for the mass uptake of biometrics especially in the credit cards/transactional verification and consumer electronics segment, such as: size, price, performances. - IDEX’ SmartFinger ® Film sensor is ideally suited to tackle these size/price/performance challenges thanks to its unique combination of small, ultrathin and flexible swipe fingerprint sensors combined with the highly efficient, small footprint authentication software. IDEX’ SmartFinger® Film can be customized for a variety of applications such as One Time Password devices, Smartcards, ID cards, access control devices and biometric tokens; this together with its small hardware and software footprints make it perfect for a number of applications in the transactional (such as online banking, ATM access, online and point of sales purchases), consumer electronics and traditional physical security markets. Frost & Sullivan 3
  4. 4. Biometrics Biometrics As The Natural Response To Increased Identity And Credential TheftBIOMETRICS Biometrics is essentially a way of identifying an individual through his/her unique physiological or behavioral patterns. Biometric technologies offer higher security levels by simply ensuring that the authorized individual is physically present to gain access. Security concerns in the present world continue to grow ever more complex. There are many concerns regarding the threats to identity management measures such as access cards, employees’ identity cards, password protection, personal identification numbers (PINs), passports, and so on; which can be forgotten, lost, disclosed, or changed. The consequences of fraudulent authentication in financial, banking, retail and corporate environments can be disastrous with loss of confidential information, money, and compromised data integrity. In the United Kingdom alone Identify Fraud, costs £1.2 billion each year (source: As the level of security breaches and transaction fraud increases, the need for enhanced, secure identification and personal verification technologies increases proportionally. For these and other reasons, the market for biometric products in Europe is still growing; supported by Banking and Commercial initiatives, on top of the more traditional Governmental ones. Based on Frost & Sullivans research, whilst the adoption of biometrics is concentrated in the government sector; since 2004, an increasing number of biometric products are being developed for commercial markets, in particular for the financial, retail and consumer electronics sectors. Fingerprint Biometrics – The Most Deployed Technology Fingerprint is the most frequently used biometric measure amongst all, with an approximate 62% revenue contribution, as of 2009. Worldwide Biometrics Market: Revenues by Technology, 2009 Voice Sign atu re 3% 1% O th er 1% Han d 5% Ir is 8% Face 20 % Fin ger p r in t 62% Frost & Sullivan 4
  5. 5. There are a number of reasons that contribute to the success of the fingerprint technology in themarket. Such as: ■ One of the least expensive amongst all the different biometrics technologies, making it very attractive for high volume applications. BIOMETRICS ■ Small storage space, reduced power requirements, and resistive nature to temperature and background lighting makes it an ideal technology to be deployed in a vast range of applications from the smallest consumer electronic device to the high end physical and logical access control.The major applications at the present time are: ■ Physical access control (applications such as door lock entrance control, safes, and vehicles) and network/logical access control (e-commerce, smart card, and sensing terminals). ■ Significant use in banking and financial industry as means of authentication to prevent identity fraud in on-line banking and ATM cash points. ■ Integrated in biometric passports and implemented in many countries under International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) compliance.Future ApplicationsDue to the increasing number of fraud in applications such as: ■ Transactional authentication: in Europe alone $25.67 billion are “lost” every year (source European Biometric Portal). To combat these fraudulent measures, fingerprint technology is best suited as it is a mature technology and can be cheaply deployed in a large scale and can offer huge advantages for: • Online Banking • Secure Network Access • Secure Online Shopping • National and Governmental ID programs in Africa and Middle East, for example • Manufacturing Technology different from standard SmartCardsChallenges To OvercomeFrost & Sullivan has identified a number of elements that represent key challenges to be overcomefor the long awaited mass uptake of biometrics. If we look then at the credit cards/transactionalverification and consumer electronics segment, these challenges that Frost & Sullivan hasidentified are: ■ Size ■ Price ■ Performances - This element in particular has been one of the major failures when addressing the laptops market in the initial deployments since 2006-2007. For a future real uptake of the technology in the consumer electronics sector, performances need to be improved in order for users experience to be guaranteed. Frost & Sullivan 5
  6. 6. IDEX Solutions About IDEXIDEX SOLUTIONS IDEX ASA (ticker IDEX) founded in 1996 is headquartered in Oslo Norway with representative sales offices in Europe and Asia specialising in fingerprint imaging and authentication. IDEX develops and supplies the patented SmartFinger® Film fingerprint sensor technology and software algorithms which enables on device enrollment, template storage and verification within the very same module. SmartFinger® Film is extremely thin and flexible and can be customised for a variety of applications such as One Time Password devices, Smartcards, ID cards, access control devices and biometric tokens. IDEX has invested heavily in research and development in the development of a solution aimed at the fingerprint market. IDEX has mainly focused on addressing the size, performance and price issues; which, as discussed, represent the key challenges for the successful mass uptake of fingerprint biometrics in the consumer electronics, especially Biometric authentication devices and transactional verification market. SmartFinger® Film raises card security to the next level by incorporating biometric ID within existing systems without having to modify the existing infrastructure. IDEX sells and markets SmartFinger ® products and technology through strategic partnerships globally. Its focus is working with companies who are developing, manufacturing and marketing intelligent biometric ID and transactional cards where the Smartfinger ® film fingerprint swipe sensor meets the needs and requirements for a complete biometric authentication solution within the ISO standard card format. IDEX is also focused on Original Design Manufacturers (ODMs) who are developing peripherals such as memory cards, USB sticks which have or plan to implement fingerprint sensors for additional security. IDEX is also addressing the physical access market segment through industrial distribution partners that provide fingerprint modules to be used in access control devices. IDEX’ IP Portfolio The IDEX IP portfolio includes: • Image reconstruction scheme based on a “single-line” fingerprint sensor • AC capacitive sensing principle • Navigation functionality • Single-chip as well as substrate based sensor modules • Measurement system and live finger detection SMARTFINGER® Film Fingerprint Swipe Sensor Hardware The SmartFinger ® Film sensors are based on state-of-the-art polymer process technologies and offer small, ultrathin and flexible swipe fingerprint sensors compliant with the form factors specified by the ISO/IEC 7810 standards for identity and smart cards. The finger swipe area is only 50 µm thick, while the total thickness of the fingerprint device including ~15 mm2 signal processing chip is less than 0.35 mm. Combined with the highly efficient, small footprint authentication software, the SmartFinger ® Film sensors are ideally suited stand-alone, embedded biometric applications such as biometric tokens, biometric cards, remote controls, USB sticks, PC peripherals, locks, handheld devices etc. Frost & Sullivan 6
  7. 7. How Does IDEX Swipe Sensor WorkThe IDEX SmartFinger® sensor is a swipe-type fingerprint sensor. And it works on 4 main steps: 1. Sensor acquires data. IDEX SOLUTIONS 2. Image reconstruction: The complete fingerprint representation is built up by partial images recorded as the finger is swiped over the “single line” sensor array. The patented, sensor specific image reconstruction principle is the core of IDEX’ IP. 3. Feature or minutiae extraction and generation of fingerprint templates. 4. Verification. During fingerprint verification the extracted template is compared to previously enrolled and stored template, i.e. the matching step. The fingerprint template size is in the order of 150 bytes and hence much less than the fingerprint image itself which is usually not stored. Fingerprint Authentication Y/N Acquire Reconstruct Feature Match fingerprint against data image extraction templateSmartfinger ® ’s Key CharacteristicsThe key characteristics of the Smartfinger® film fingerprint swipe sensor: ■ Ease of Integration • 0.05 mm thick • Compliant with ISO Card form factor • A variety of customizable geometries • Alternative I/O connections (ZIF, ACF and DFN) • On-board micro controller capability The Smartfinger® Filmsensor The SmartFinger® Film Sensor substrate configuration for DFN version ACF or ZIF connector interfaces Frost & Sullivan 7
  8. 8. ■ Embedded Biometric System • Small software footprint REGULATION IS • Minimal hardware resources required PUSHING ENERGY • On Device enrollment, template storage and verification EFFICIENCY • Reference design and development kits available WORLDWIDE • The SmartFinger® Film sensor module is a complete microsystem including a passive Sensor Substrate, an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection and optionally passive components for power supply decoupling etc. The SmartFinger ® ASIC supports sensing arrays with up to 256 imaging channels. Rear side of the SmartFinger® Film showing the ASIC, ESD protection and integrated passive components • Low noise amplification • Finger-on detection • Low power consumption■ Usability: • Swipe speeds up to 60 cm/s • Skew correction, ± 40º • Accepts wet and dry fingers • High Dynamic range signal • High security and Low false rejections with < 0.5% FRR at 0.001% FAR Frost & Sullivan 8
  9. 9. Explaining The Technology The HardwareEXPLAINING THE IDEX Solution - Film Sensor Block Diagram TECHNOLOGY Finger Proximity Finger Proximity Required Not Required Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Optional Optional Substrate Material PCB, Flex, Ceramic External Drive Electrode Discontinuity Discontinuity Discontinuity Sensor Drive Optional Optional Optional Electrode Electrode Signal Transport Signal Transport Signal Transport Signal Distribution Die Interface Die Interface External Interface FC/WB/ACF FC/WB/ACF SPI, I2C, Serial, Solder Interface Proprietary Interface Interface Analog IDEX Proprietary USB SPI Substrate Technology Analog Front Signal Processing ACF Interface End (ASIC) (µC) ZIF Interface USB Connector Minimum HW Optional Customer Configuration Configuration PROPERTY: The sensor can be manufactured in a single substrate material, or segmented into multiple materials. The main distinction is between the IDEX high resolution proprietary substrate and any other, possibly lower cost, substrate technology that may be used for any or all of the segments where finger proximity is not required. This means that: ■ Fingerprint Proximity Required: • Part 1 - IDEX Proprietary Substrate Technology. The high resolution material is required for the sensor array interface to the finger. Typically 50 um via pitch for the electrodes, and 20 um width and separation for routing lines is required. ■ Fingerprint Proximity Not-Required: A lower resolution material can be used for the segments which are not in proximity to the finger. Examples of low resolution materials are standard PCB’s and flexible circuits. • Part 2 - Analog Front End. The SmartFinger® ASIC is designed for applications where ease of integration combined with excellent image quality and low current consumption is required. In addition to analog front end amplifiers and analog to digital conversion, the SmartFinger® ASIC provides a combined serial data and control interface supporting high data rates. Frost & Sullivan 9
  10. 10. The SmartFinger® ASIC provides on-chip digital signal processing features for optimized performance and reduced host processor load, together with automatic wake up functionality and various other programmable features for power-saving purposes. EXPLAINING THE TECHNOLOGY Both data and control is supported by a single SPI interface enabling simple integration to a dedicated host controller or microprocessor. The SmartFinger® ASIC is configured as a slave device for communication speeds up to 48 Mbit/s, depending on I/O supply voltage. The data rate on the SPI interface during transmission of image data can be adjusted within a wide range, enabled by an integrated data buffer. In a typical application, the SmartFinger ® Film ASIC is powered by a low noise 3.0 V-3.3 V single supply voltage and requires a 12, 13, 16, 24 or 32 MHz system clock from the host controller. IO supply voltage can be set from 1.8 to 3.3V. The line rate of the ASIC, which means how many lines with pixel data that are generated per second, is programmable, allowing for customizing the transfer rate of fingerprint data to the host processor. Furthermore, program- mable scanning frequency allows for further optimization of current consumption and adjusting the implementation to the actual application. The integrated, programmable Wake-Up function enables for reduced current consumption in that the image mode is not activated until the presence of a finger is detected on the surface of the sensor. Decoupling capacitors can be mounted onto the sensor substrate as an integrated part of the SmartFinger ® Film sensor or externally. • Part 3 - Signal Processing. Silicon dies such as ASIC’s and microcontrollers can be mounted on any segment of the sensor by various standard processes such as wire bonding, eutectic flip chip, or ACF flip chip. • Part 4 - Interface To External Systems. Interfacing the module to external systems is possible through numerous standard processes. Examples are flex connectors, solder, wire bond, ACF, and conductive glue. Additional segments are possible to closer integrate host system function- ality. A Zigbee or NFC etc, radio interface could be mounted next to the micro- controller, or the substrate may be extended with an additional segment to accommodate the area needed for such a device.■ Special Notes: • SmartFinger® Film is similar to any other flex circuit or PCB with respect to assembly technology. It can be provided with Flip Chip or Wire Bond interfaces for ASIC’s and microcontrollers, standard SMT footprints for soldering, or bond pads for ACF. Frost & Sullivan 10
  11. 11. • Wide selections of system configurations are possible ranging from; sensor array only, to fully functional embedded fingerprint verification systems. EXPLAINING THEThe Software TECHNOLOGYPC and Laptop ApplicationsIDEX offers a hardware module and an accompanying software development kit in order tosupport PC applications. The development kit includes a USB development module (UDM), asoftware development kit, demo software, USB driver and sample code. The UDM implements thefunctionality of an SPI-to-USB bridge. The PC/laptop development kit offers software that runson the PC host processor. ■ The USB driver and the driver interface. The USB Development Module (UDM) is connected to the PC over USB. It uses the USB 2.0 Full Speed protocol and adds a custom interface for communicating with the fingerprint sensor on top. The interface consists of two parts, • Fingerprint sensor USB Driver interface on the host side, • Device specific parts handling communication with the fingerprint sensor, over SPI ■ Software Development Kit (SDK). IDEX provides a Microsoft Windows based software development kit (SDK) allowing writing applications (based on the UDM) and also to capture images only and using 3rd party algorithms for extraction and matching.Embedded Development KitIDEX offers also a software kit to enable customers to develop embedded fingerprintauthentication solutions or add fingerprint authentication to existing products. IDEX biometricalgorithms run on an external controller, performing the functions of real-time imagereconstruction, feature extraction, and matching. They are highly optimized to minimize therequirements for processing capacity and memory (both RAM and flash). Everything is provided inre-locatable library files that are independent of operating system, compiler and developmentenvironment. Software libraries for imaging, enrollment and verification are available for ARM7 andCortex M3 cores and have already been compiled for controllers supplied by Atmel, NXP andSTMicroelectronics.The low-level software interface to the fingerprint sensor is specific to the microcontrollerversion. IDEX provides specifications and guidelines in order to establish this.The development kit is based on standard development boards supplied by the microcontrollervendor, and a plug-on module with the fingerprint sensor and the software libraries will beprovided by IDEX. Frost & Sullivan 11
  12. 12. Case Study - Transactional Authentication (Validus) CASE STUDY - Frost & Sullivan expects the market for transactional authentication to triple its present value, inTRANSACTIONAL 2010, by 2015. Because of its versatility and ease-of-use, fingerprint biometrics is increasinglyAUTHENTICATION being used for this application. (VALIDUS) World Biometrics Market: Revenue Forecast, Transactional Authentication 400 350 300 $ Million 250 200 150 100 50 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Year A few examples of this can already be found in: ■ Some prisons worldwide use fingerprint biometrics for their inmates using food coupon credits, this segment is expected to grow. ■ There is also a trend in using transactional authentication to order new medicines in pharmacies using face biometrics. This is mandatory in the United States currently and is likely to be adopted in Europe. Future trends offer immense opportunities in terms of potential addressable markets for biometrics: ■ Biometric powered cards such as the ValidCard developed and designed by Validus offers an unsurpassed solution for identity verification in many different types of scenarios, by leveraging the simple concept of One Time Password (OTP). Frost & Sullivan has identified a number of factors expected to influence a strong uptake of biometrics in the transactional authentication market. The strongest ones are: • The end-users need to feel that the transaction and network are secure. • The protection of their identity is guaranteed as the most important element within the transactional authentication segment. Frost & Sullivan 12
  13. 13. Validus and IDEX are able to guarantee that both every transaction is authenticated and that thebiometric and personal data of the card owner are protected, as the end-user’s biometric data arekept on the card and not in any remote database “somewhere” on the internet. CASE STUDY - TRANSACTIONAL VALIDcard™ Presentation – Use Case Scenarios AUTHENTICATION (VALIDUS) ATM Access User inserts ATM Card. User generates One-Time User enters OTP into Password (OTP) by swiping ATM keypad. finger on VALIDcard™. Point of Sale Purchase User swipes Debit/Credit User generates One-Time User enters OTP into card. Password (OTP) by swiping POS keypad. finger on VALIDcard™. OTP is authenticated and access is granted. Online Purchase User inputs Debit/Credit User generates One-Time User enters OTP into information. Password (OTP) by swiping field on checkout page. finger on VALIDcard™. Online Bank Login User enters username. User generates One-Time User enters OTP. Password (OTP) by swiping finger on VALIDcard™. Frost & Sullivan 13
  14. 14. Oxford 4100 Chancellor Court Oxford Business Park Oxford, OX4 2GX, UK Tel: +44 (0) 1865 398600 Fax: +44 (0) 1865 398601 London 4, Grosvenor Gardens, London SWIW ODH,UKC O N TAC T Tel 44(0)20 7730 3438 US Fax 44(0)20 7730 3343 Silicon Valley 331 E. Evelyn Ave. Suite 100 Mountain View, CA 94041Beijing Tel 650.475.4500 Fax 650.475.1570Bengaluru San AntonioBogotá 7550 West Interstate 10, Suite 400, San Antonio, Texas 78229-5616Buenos Aires Tel 210.348.1000 Fax 210.348.1003Cape TownChennaiDelhi enquiries@frost.comDubai http://www.frost.comFrankfurtKolkataKuala LumpurLondonMelbourneMexico CityMilanMumbaiNew YorkOxfordParisSan AntonioSão PauloSeoulShanghai ABOUT FROST & SULLIVANSilicon Valley Frost & Sullivan, the Growth Partnership Company, enables clients to accelerate growthSingapore and achieve best-in-class positions in growth, innovation and leadership. The companysSydney Growth Partnership Service provides the CEO and the CEOs Growth Team withTel Aviv disciplined research and best-practice models to drive the generation, evaluation, and implementation of powerful growth strategies. Frost & Sullivan leverages 50 years ofTokyo experience in partnering with Global 1000 companies, emerging businesses and theToronto investment community from over 40 offices on six continents. To join our GrowthWarsaw Partnership, please visit