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Sharing experiences in landscape approaches
 

Sharing experiences in landscape approaches

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Presentation by Cora van Oosten on the concept of ‘landscape’ and the landscape approach

Presentation by Cora van Oosten on the concept of ‘landscape’ and the landscape approach

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Sharing experiences in landscape approaches Sharing experiences in landscape approaches Presentation Transcript

  • Sharing experiences in landscape Approaches Yogyakarta, December 2009) Cora van Oosten, Cora.vanoosten@wur.nl
  • What is a landscape?
    • Imagine a landscape...
  • Reading landscapes
  • Reading landscapes
  • Reading landscapes
  • Reading landscapes
  • Reading landscapes
  • Reading landscapes
  • Reading landscapes
  •  
  • “ Mind” scape
  • “ Mind” scape
  • “ Mind” scape
  • “ Mind” scape
  • Definition of a landscape
    • “ scape” or “schap”:
    • View, appearance, shape, creation
    • Social construct which changes over time
    • Property, archaic form of governance
  • Definition of a landscape
    • Neef (1967): "a landscape is a concrete part of the earth's surface shaped by uniform structure and same process pattern"  
  • Definition of a landscape
    • Turner (2001): “ spatially heterogeneous geographic areas characterized by diverse interacting patches or ecosystems, ranging from relatively natural terrestrial and aquatic systems such as forests, grasslands and lakes to human-dominated environments including agricultural, urban    (   and industrial   )   settings" .  
  • Multi-functional mosaics
    • Defined by its core, not by its boundaries
    • Its definition lies in the eyes of the beholder (Maginnis, 2004)
    • Concept of “space” rather than “place”
    • Characterised by its internal processes
    • Influenced by external factors (change drivers)
    • Processes steered by stakeholders, and their drivers behind
    • Not necessarily co-incides with administrative boundaries
    Elements to take into account
  • Does the landscape approach offer something new?
    • Response to:
    • Previous attempts to plan development
    • Withdrawal of central states, new scope for local stakeholders
    • Search for stronger regional identities
    • Climate change: shorter production chains
  • Landscape approach
    • Making use of existing experiences:
    • Decentralised NRM
    • Participatory land use planning
    • Community forestry
  • See the bigger picture
  • Taking a landscape
  • Which are the options? Well forested catchment Rich biodiversity High value timber Attractive scenery, tourism Ancestral homeland Subsistence farm land Commercial farm land Biofuel production Grazing land Human settlement Sub-soil richness
  • Which are the options? Well forested catchment Rich biodiversity High value timber Attractive scenery, tourism Ancestral homeland Subsistence farm land Commercial farm land Biofuel production Grazing land Human settlement Sub-soil richness What are the claims?
  • Which are the options? Well forested catchment Rich biodiversity High value timber Attractive scenery, tourism Ancestral homeland Subsistence farm land Commercial farm land Biofuel production Grazing land Human settlement Sub-soil richness What are the claims? Who are the claimants?
  • What drives them? District policy Need for money Power relations education Empowerment Need for firewood Local Market prices Food needs Ability to invest Land ownership Land pressure Labour force
  • What drives them? District policy Need for money Power relations education Empowerment Need for firewood Local Market prices Food needs Ability to invest Land ownership Land pressure Labour force Population growth Climate change Demand for (bio)fuels Increased Interest in biodiversity Growing demand Animal feed Increased mobility Globalisation Need for minerals Commodity prices up Increased exploitation Direct foreign investments Land grabbing Growing food demand
  • What drives them? District policy Need for money Power relations education Empowerment Need for firewood Local Market prices Food needs Ability to invest Land ownership Land pressure Labour force Population growth Climate change Demand for (bio)fuels Increased Interest in biodiversity Growing demand Animal feed Increased mobility Globalisation Need for minerals Commodity prices up Increased exploitation Direct foreign investments Land grabbing Growing food demand Competing claims
  • Drivers at multiple levels and multiple scales Giller et al, 2008
  • Glocalisation
  • Exercise
    • Go back to your “own” landscape
    • What is the major change process?
    • What are the major drivers behind?
    • What are the major impacts of this change?
    • Which are the responses to this change?
    • Change – Driver – Response
    Landscape dynamics From destruction to restoration?
  • What is the difference?
  • Simple and complex systems Cooking Simple Predictable Recipe Landscape Complex Not predictable Research Social learning Scenarios Adaptive management Puzzle Simple Predictable Single solution Trial & error Machine Complicated Not predictable Guidelines Problem tree Planning
  • Complicated Complex Chaotic Simple Source: Cognitive Edge ( www.cognitive -edge.com) Cynefin Framework
  • Mismatches in levels and scales Bio-geographical scales governance scales juridical scales Individual family Community Country Region Municipality Local provincial National International Province/district department municipal
    • Not easy to understand
    • Cannot easily be controlled or planned
    • Can be influenced
    • By addressing the entire system
    • From planning to emergence
    • Co-design
    A landscape is...
  • From planning to co-design Planned Co-design Emergent
  • From planning to co-design
    • participatory
    • Flexible and adaptive
    • Creating synergies across boundaries
    • Searching for “win-win” options
    • Creating positive environment to learn
  • From planning to co-design Describe Resources, stakeholders, institutions Discover Processes, driving factors, scales, changes, responses Deliver Implement, monitor, learn Design Multi-stakeholder process Mediation, negotiation & trade-offs
  • Governance Conflict Protection Production From planning to co-design Describe Resources, stakeholders, institutions Discover Processes, driving factors, scales, changes, responses Deliver Implement, monitor, learn Design Multi-stakeholder process Mediation, negotiation & trade-offs
  • What is new about this?
    • Introducing new understanding
    • Introducing new planning perspectives
    • Introducing new forms of collaborative action
  • Planning....
  • Co-design....
  • Thinking in systems
  • Thinking in systems
  • Thinking in systems
  • Thinking in systems
  • Thinking in systems – “systems thinking”
    • Flows and feedback loops
    • Perspectives
    • Inter-relationships
    • Boundaries
    • Systemic interventions
    Dynamic aspects Non-linear aspects Entangled inter-relations Delay
  • Flows and feedback loops
  • Perspectives
  • Inter-relations
  • Perceptions
  • P erceptions
  • Boundaries
  • Boundaries
  • Boundaries
  • Systemic interventions
  • Systemic interventions Dynamic aspects Non-linear aspects Entangled inter-relations Delay
  • Expect the unexpected....