Restoring Degraded Mine Land Using Native Species


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Presentation by Yadi Setiadi on how to restore degraded mine lands by using native tree species in Indonesia.

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Restoring Degraded Mine Land Using Native Species

  1. 1. Restoring Degraded Mine Land Using Native Species Dr. Yadi Setiadi Land Rehabilitation Specialist Faculty of Forestry, IPB Campus IPB, Darmaga, Bogor
  2. 2. Function of Tropical Rain ForestHabitat for flora and faunaGenetic resourcesConserve soil and waterSupporting biodiversityNatural resourcesMaintaining climatic conditionsWater cycle processesCarbon sequestration
  3. 3. Factors Forest DestructionPoor logging operationsIllegal loggingForest firesAgriculture developmentTimber plantationsEstate crops plantationsShifting cultivationTransmigrationMining OperationsOil and Gas operations
  4. 4. Potential Resources Under Forests Nickel Gold and Cupper Coal Tin Oil and Gas Others
  5. 5. Impact of Mining Operations §  Eliminates some part of vegetation; §  Disturbed some of the original ecosystem §  Increases the rate of soil erosion and run-off (sedimentation, contamination) §  Reduces of native species biodiversity §  Damages to wildlife habitat §  Damages of watershed area §  Changes natural landscape
  6. 6. Degraded mined land§  Exposed §  Loss of root and crown function§  No vegetation §  Loss of supporting biodiversity§  No top soil and sub-soil §  Loss of land productivity§  Land stability §  Land slides and erosion§  Poor soil §  Low seedling survival and poor growth
  7. 7. Government Regulations Related to Forest Land Rehabilitation §  UUD No 41, tahun 1999, Tentang Kehutanan. §  PP, No 24, tahun 2010, Tentang Penggunaan Kawasan Hutan. §  PP, No 76, tahun 2008, Tentang Rehabilitasi dan Reklamasi Hutan. §  PerMenHut (revisi) No 18, tahun 2011, Tentang Pedoman Pinjam Pakai Kawasan Hutan. §  PerMenHut (revisi) No 4, tahun 2011, Tentang Pedoman Reklamasi. §  PerMenhut No 60, tahun 1999, Tentang Pedoman Penilaian Keberhasilan Reklamasi Hutan. §  PerMenESDM no 18, tahun 2008, Tentang Rencana Reklamasi dan Rencana Penutupan Tambang
  8. 8. Restoring degraded mined land §  Protection •  Stabilized and cover the exposed land§  No change in the •  Reduce erosion and improve land stability structure and function §  Conservation of the forest •  Enhancing native plant species (biodiversity) •  Conserve potential native species§  Repairing the structure •  Improve wild life habitat conditions and function of the §  Production forest , related to their •  Improved soil fertility (long term) •  Produce non woody products function •  Benefit for local people
  9. 9. Factors to be considered§  Land conditions after mining (derelict)§  Status of forest function (protected, production, conservation )§  Government regulations (Revegetation Planning, successful criteria, follow guide line)§  Post mining land use (multi stakeholder)
  10. 10. Revegetation Activities§  Selection of native trees species§  Planting stock production§  Site preparation§  Soil amendments§  Planting techniques§  Maintenance§  Monitoring and Evaluation§  Training
  11. 11. Species selectionSelect adapted local species which are:1. Relatively fast growing2. Light demanding and low nutrient demanding3. Produces abundance and decomposed litter4. Perform or function as a catalytic5. Easy to propagate and to culture6. Low cost for planting and maintenance7. Easy to manage8. Appropriate to land used (forestry planning)
  12. 12. Using Local Tree speciesAdvantages Disadvantages§  Recommended by the government§  Adapted to local soil and climatic §  Lack information of the utilization conditions §  Lack information of their ecology§  Resistant to pest and diseases and silvicultural techniques§  Maintains local species diversity§  Reduces potential booming of §  The seeds or seedling are not weeds available in the market§  Minimizes genetic identity §  Relatively slow growing contamination§  Promotes conservation program
  13. 13. Soil problemsSoil Physical Properties }  Soil texture (grain size distribution) }  Porosity (aeration) }  Depth to hard-pad or impervious layer }  Soil compaction (water-logged, root inhibition) }  Soil moisture content, surface temperatureSoil Biology }  Vegetation cover and carbon content }  Microbial population and activities Soil Chemical }  Poor soil nutrients }  Soil reaction (pH) }  Low cation exchange capacity (CEC) }  Mineral toxicity
  14. 14. Soil ProblemsConstraints Oil/Gas Coal Mining Nickel Mining Sand TailingpH 3.4-5.6 2.8-5.5 4.2-7.3 5.8-6.4Compaction Fair High High LowWHC Low Low Low Very LowNutrients Low Very Low Very Low DeficientCEC Low Low Low Very LowAl High High High LowFe High Very High High LowEC High Low Low Very LowOthers Hydrocarbon Pyrite Ca<Mg Drought
  15. 15. Soil improvementsSoil amendments Functions §  Improves root development§  Top soil, Fertilizer, Compost, lime, §  Solubilizes fixed minerals§  Humic acid, (phosphate)§  Bio-enzim, §  Increases cation exchange§  Bio-remedy, Mycorrhizae capacity§  Active compost (TeraRemed) §  Increases water-holding- capacity§  TeraBuster §  Improves chelation of heavy§  Tera-Brik (Soil breaker) metals §  Improves nutrient uptake §  Improves potential microbes §  Provides macro-nutrients
  16. 16. Species planted on mined sitesNo Tailing Remark Species Coal Nickel Gold Oil/ Gas1. Casuarina equisetifolia V V V V V2. Paraserianthes falcataria V V V V V3 Acacia mangium V V V V V4 Acacia auriculiformis V V V5 Acacia crassicarpa V6 Sena siamea V V V7 Casia turangensis V8 Glyricidia sepium V V V V V9 Leucaena leucocephala V V V V V10 Erytrhina spp V V V V V11 Hibiscus tiliacues V V V12. Anthocephalus cadamba V V13 Tectona grandis V V14 Gmelina arborea V V V V V15 Vitex pubecens V V16 Macaranga hypoeleuca V V17 Mallotus spp V V18 Trema orientalis V V V V19 Nauclea spp V V V20 Cratoxylon spp V21 Syzigium spp V V V22 Tricospermum burretii V23 Melalueca leucadendron V V V V
  17. 17. 24 Ficus spp V V V V V26 Alstonia scholaris V V V V27 Enterolobium sp V V V V28 Duabanga mollucana29 Cananga odorata30 Michelia champaka V31 Octomeles sumatrana V V32 Casuarina equisetifolia V V V V V33 Fragea fragrans V V34 Peronema canesten V V V V V35 Dyera constulata V36 Shorea spp V V V37 Eusideroxcylon swagerii V38 Mangeris39 Ficus benyamina V V V V40 Eugenia spp V V V V41 Melastoma spp V V42 Antidesma bunius V V43 Syzigum spp V V V44 Aleurites mollucana V V V V V45 Artocarpus V V V V46 Arenga pinata V V47 Parkia roxburgii V V V48 Agathis spp V V49 Hevea braziliensis V V V V50 Fruit Tress V V V V
  18. 18. Revegetation approaches }  Minimize application of top soil }  Minimize application of pesticides }  Enhance native tree biodiversity }  Create closed nutrient cycle system }  Domesticate potential native tree species }  Reused local and non toxic organic waste }  Involved and contribute for local people§ 
  19. 19. Success Criteria for restored mined land }  The rate of seedling survival is high }  Plant growth performance is normal and continuous }  Root extension can passed on mine soil }  Crown closure is fast, stratified and diverse }  The system produces abundant litter and decomposition }  The system is diverse and naturally regenerates through native tree colonization }  The system creates habitat suitable for wildlife }  Land form (safe, stable and with limited erosion)
  20. 20. Success criteria§  Adaptability }  Survival >80% }  Growth performance (normal, and progressive) }  Root development (across mined land)§  Sustainability }  Biodiversity (Shannon index , Species richness) }  Natural colonization (abundance) }  Nutrient retention (decomposed litter) }  Wild life status (species richness)§  Stand structure }  Plant density (800-1000/ha) }  Crown structure (3-5 layers) }  Crown coverage (60-70%) }  Species composition (Pioneer (40 %),Primary (50%), Wildlife (10%)§  Land Form }  Slope (leveling <30o) }  Erosion status (below threshold level) }  Land stabilization (controlled)
  21. 21. THANK YOU andLET S KEEPS OUR PLANETGREENgood for the planet, good for us