Medical Applications of Biotech

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Medical applications of Biotechnology.

Medical applications of Biotechnology.

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  • 1. MEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY Prof. Madeline A. Villanueva University of San Agustin
  • 2. •There are a wide variety of products that the biotechnology field has produced. •More than 65% of biotech companies in the U.S. are involved in pharmaceutical production (relating to drugs developed for medical use). •1982 - Genentech developed Humulin (human insulin) to treat diabetes. •It was the first biotech drug to be FDA approved.
  • 3. •There are more than 80 biotech drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics with more than 400 biotech medicines in development targeting over 2oo diseases! •Nearly 1/2 of new drugs target cancer
  • 4. Drug Developer Function Betaseron Chiron/Berlex Multiple sclerosis Ceredase Genzyme Gaucher’s disease Engerix B Genentech Hepatitis B vaccine Epiver GlaxoSmithKlein Anti-HIV Epogen Amgen Red blood cell enhancement Genotropin Genentech Growth failure Humulin Genentech Diabetes Intron Biogen Cancer & viral infections Neupogen Amgen Neutropenia reduction Procrit Amgen Platelet enhancement
  • 5. •Most widely used biotech products are recombinant proteins (produced by gene cloning in cell culture) •Cell culture refers to the technique of growing cells in a lab under controlled conditions; similar to in vitro •“in vitro” refers to working in a controlled environment outside of a living organism •Bioreactors (large culturing “containers” where DNA of interest can be mass produced) are also used
  • 6. •In the near future, it may be commonplace for treatments to include the use of gene therapy (attempt to replace “defective” gene with “normal” gene) and tissue engineering (designing & growing tissues for use in regenerative medicines). •1st Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) to produce human protein was E. coli (pictured right) that was given DNA to produce somatostatin (hGH -human growth hormone - 1977)
  • 7. •One of the first genetically engineered (GE) products sold was tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) •tPA is a blood clot dissolving enzyme used immediately after a heart attack or stroke to clear blocked vessels
  • 8. •According to Biotech Industry Organization (2005), New Jersey is the 5th leading state in the U.S. in terms of number of biotech companies •California, Massachusetts, North Carolina, & Maryland are the only higher ranked states
  • 9. • Other biotech products include proteins in: • home pregnancy tests (monoclonal antibodies) • frost-resistant strawberry plants • Although many are focused on medical and agricultural applications, some are for our own fashion interests (specialty apparel)!
  • 10. • Stonewashed jeans use genetically engineered enzymes (amylase & cellulase) to create a faded look • Originally, pumice stones were used (jeans washed with the stones) • This method damaged the machines
  • 11. Before going in-depth with a few areas of biotech research, it is important to gain a brief understanding of the many applications of biotechnological advancements. • Microbial • Environmental • Agricultural • Aquatic • Animal • Medical • Forensic
  • 12. • Bacteria & yeast are the most frequently used microbes • Better enzymes and organisms for making foods, simplifying manufacture and production processes, and making decontamination processes for industrial waste product removal more efficient. • Microbes used to clone and produce batch amounts of important proteins
  • 13. • Molecular pharming is the use of genetically modified plants (or animals) as a source of pharmaceutical products. • These are usually recombinant proteins with a therapeutic value. • This is an emerging but very challenging field that requires: •manipulation (at the genetic engineering level) of protein glycosylation (addition of polysaccharide chain) •subcellular protein targeting in plant cells
  • 14.  New drugs are discovered in one of two ways  Totally new chemical substance  Derived from molecular manipulation of a current drug
  • 15.  Until recently, designing a new drug by changing the molecular structure of an existing drug was a very slow process of trial and error
  • 16.  Aided by computer design and use of enzymes, researchers are able to remove DNA chemically from one organism and transplant into other
  • 17. • Basic research in biotech uses knock-out experiments, which are very helpful for learning about the function of a gene. • A knock-out is created when an active gene is replaced with DNA that has no functional information. • Without the gene present, it may be possible to determine how the gene affects the organism (its function)
  • 18. In 1996, Dolly the sheep became the first cloned animal created by the somatic cell nuclear transfer process. • Born: July 5, 1996 • Announced: February 22, 1997 • Died: February 14, 2003 • Dolly was cloned from a cell taken from a six-year-old ewe • She became the center of much controversy that still exists today
  • 19. •DNA fingerprinting is the classic example of a forensic application. It is used most commonly for law enforcement and crime scene investigation (CSI). •It was first used in 1987 to convict a rapist in England. •Other applications of DNA fingerprinting include: • identifying human remains • paternity tests • endangered species (reduces poaching) • epidemiology (spread of disease )
  • 20. • The major environmental use is for bioremediation. • Bioremediation is the use of biotech to process or degrade a variety of natural and manmade products, especially those contributing to pollution • Therefore, cleaning up environmental hazards produced by industrial progress is a major application of this type of biotechnology. • There is a strong tie to microbial biotech (since many microbes are helpful for this area).
  • 21. •In the 1970s, the first U.S. GMO patent was granted to a scientist for a strain of bacteria capable of degrading components in crude oil. •In 1989, the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska used Pseudomonas species (oildegrading bacteria) to clean up the spill •It was 3x faster & without increased environmental effects
  • 22. • Medical applications of biotech include preventative, diagnostic, and treatment. • The Human Genome Project is very useful within this field. • Gene therapy and stem cell technologies are two up-andcoming fields within the medical area of biotech. • Stem cell technologies include immature cells that have the potential to develop and specialize into a variety of other cell types.
  • 23. • Different chemicals can coax them to develop into different cell types. • Newest, most promising area • Most controversial
  • 24. INGREDIENTS:  Powdered milk ………….. 1/2 gallon  Coconut milk …………….. 1-1/2 gallon  Evaporated milk ………… 1/3 gallon  Sugar ……………………..…. 2 kilo  Corn starch ……………..… 1/3 kilo
  • 25. PROCEDURES:  Mix all ingredients using mixer (or egg beater) until the consistency is foamy. Pour in a stainless steel pan or boiler. Let boil for 15 minutes to kill any microbes or bacteria. Set aside to cool.
  • 26.  Transfer it in round stainless container. Cover, put it in wooden push cart. Put lots of crushed ice and salt between the container. You can use dry ice as an alternative. The icecream will get hard in 20 minutes.
  • 27.  Put desired flavoring (artificial flavors): vanilla, lemon or kalamansi (can be obtain from peels), chocolate, coffee, nuts, cashew and others. You can also use real fruit flavors like mango, ube, macapuno, cheese, etc. Put into freezer for half an hour or until halffrozen. Remove from freezer and mix again (with big wooden spon or egg beater) until the consistency becomes a thick mass.
  • 28.  1/2 Gallon Whole Milk (Goat or Cow)  1/4 cup white vinegar or 1/4 cup Lemon juice  Salt to taste
  • 29. 1. Put milk into stainless steel pot and heat over medium until between 190 and 200 degrees.
  • 30. 2. Slowly stir in vinegar or lemon. Remove from heat and allow to curdle and cool until it’s not too hot to touch.
  • 31. 3. Pour cheese into cloth lined bowl. Pull together the 4 corners of cloth and twist around a spoon. Hang dripping cheese for a few hours.
  • 32. (BTW, it’s not touching the bottom of the bowl. It just looks that way.) 4. Salt to taste and check consistency. I like a fairly hard cheese, so I hang it in the fridge overnight. That’s about the max.
  • 33. 5. Untie, (add any garlic or herbs or more salt, if you like) place in airtight container, and chill. Depending on how long you hung it, it should be about 12-16 oz of cheese.
  • 34. Ingredients Needed: 6 lbs of Malt Extract  2.25 Oz Hops  1 Package of yeast  2/3 cup Priming Sugar – such as corn sugar. 
  • 35. Brewing consists of five simple stages. 1. Brewing the Beer – Pale malt extract and hops are boiled together with water for about an hour to sterilize the extract and release the bittering qualities of the hops. Frequently grains are steeped in the mixture prior to the boil to add additional color and flavor complexity.
  • 36. 2. Cooling and Fermenting – The hot mixture (called wort) is cooled to room temperature and siphoned or transferred to a fermenter where it is combined with additional water to achieve the desired 5 gallon batch size. Once the mixture drops to room temperature, yeast is added to start the fermentation process.
  • 37. Cleanliness and sanitation are very important since the wort can be easily infected by bacteria in this state. An airlock is used to keep the fermenter sealed during fermentation. Your beer will ferment for 1-2 weeks.
  • 38. 3. Priming and Bottling – Once the beer is fully fermented, it is siphoned to another container to prepare for bottling. Here priming sugars such as corn sugar are mixed with the beer. The beer is siphoned into bottles and each bottle is capped with a bottle capping device.
  • 39. 4. Aging – Once the beer has been bottled it needs to age for 2-6 weeks.  During aging the yeast will ferment the remaining sugar you added and create carbon dioxide.  This carbon dioxide will naturally carbonate your beer so it is nice and bubbly. 
  • 40. In addition, undesirable sediments such as excess yeast and proteins will drop out of the beer during aging and this will enhance the flavor of your beer. In may take several months to reach peak flavor, though homemade beer usually drinkable after a month.
  • 41. 5. Drinking – When the beer is properly aged – just put the bottles in the fridge and enjoy! There’s nothing quite like a great beer that you made yourself.
  • 42. This is the five step process for making your own beer. The brewing portion takes a few hours, and bottling and transferring take another hour+ spread out over a few weeks.
  • 43. Overall, brewing a batch of extract beer involves 3-4 hours of your time and about 4 weeks to ferment and age into a drinkable brew. This makes home brewing an attractive hobby for people who lead a busy lifestyle, but enjoy making things from scratch.
  • 44. Overall, brewing a batch of extract beer involves 3-4 hours of your time and about 4 weeks to ferment and age into a drinkable brew. This makes home brewing an attractive hobby for people who lead a busy lifestyle, but enjoy making things from scratch.
  • 45.  A homemade medical ointment is a soothing and cost-effective way to treat wounds.  Proper wound care is essential to promote healing and prevent infection.
  • 46. 1. Pour two to three tablespoons of olive oil into a small bowl. If using coconut oil, it will need to be melted into a liquid consistency so that the herbal can be infused into it. To do this, heat one to two cups of water in a bowl. Measure two to three tablespoons of oil into a small bowl that will fit inside the bowl without having water touch the oil. Avoid direct heat when melting oils. Allow the oil to set and thicken.
  • 47. 2. Puncture five to seven vitamin E capsules with a sharp knife and squeeze the contents into a bowl. Vitamin E will help to soothe skin and prevent scarring. It is an antioxidant that will help preserve the shelf life of the ointment.
  • 48. 3. Chop the herbal into a fine consistency of a finely-milled spice.
  • 49. 4. Infuse one tablespoon of the ground herbal into the coconut or olive oil and vitamin E mixture. The rule for mixing herbs into oil substances is 1:2. For 1,200 mg of oil, the proper amount of herbal would be 600 mg (or one tablespoon herbal into three tablespoons of oil). Stir the mixture vigorously for one to two minutes.
  • 50. 5. Store the mixture in an air-tight container at room temperature away from light.
  • 51.    Ingredients: White Wax…………….. 50 g White Petrolatum…….. 950 g to make…………. 1000 g
  • 52. Procedure: Melt the white wax in a suitable dish on a water bath. Add the white petrolatum, warm until liquefied then discontinue the heating until the mixture begins to congeal. Place in a suitable container and label accordingly.
  • 53.    Ingredients: Yellow Wax …………….. 50 g White Petrolatum…….. 950 g to make…………. 1000 g
  • 54. Procedure: Melt the yellow wax in a suitable dish on a water bath. Add the white petrolatum, warm until liquefied then discontinue the heating until the mixture begins to congeal. Place in a suitable container and label accordingly.
  • 55.     Ingredients: Precipitated Sulfur ……………..….100 g Mineral Oil ………………………..…..100 g White Ointment ……………………. 800 g to make ………………………….1,000 g
  • 56. Procedure: Levigate precipitated sulfur with mineral oil to a smooth paste, and then incorporate with white ointment to make 1,000 g. Place in a suitable container. Label accordingly.
  • 57.       Ingredients: Cetyl Esters Wax …………… 125 g White Wax …………………… 120 g Mineral Oil ………………….. 560 g Sodium Borate …………….. 5g Purified Water ……………… 190 g to make ……..…….1,000 g
  • 58.   Procedure: Reduce the cetyl exters wax and the white was to small pieces. Melt them on a water bath with mineral oil, and continue heating until the temperature of the mixture reaches 70 degress C. Dissolve the sodium borate in the purified water, warmed to 70 C, and gradually add the warm solution to he melted mixture, stirring rapidly and constinuously until it has congealed. Place in a suitable container. Label accordingly.
  • 59.      Ingredients: Iodine crystals ………………….. 50 g Potassium iodide …………… 100 g Purified Water, a sufficient quantity, to make ……………………1,000 mL
  • 60.  Procedure: Dissolve 50 g iodine in 100 mL of purified water containing 100 g of potassium iodide. Sufficient purified water is then added to make 1,000 mL of solution. Place in a suitable container and label accordingly.
  • 61.      Ingredients: Cherry juice …………………….. 475 mL Sucrose …………………………… 800 g Alcohol ……………………………. 20 mL Purified Water, a sufficiently quantity to make ……………….1,000 mL
  • 62.  Procedure: Dissolve the sucrose in cherry juice by heating on a water bath, cool, and remove the foam and floating solids. Add the alcohol and sufficient water to make 1,000 mL and mix. Place in a suitable container and label accordingly.
  • 63.    Ingredients: Arnica in moderately coarse powder …. 200g Alcohol ( 3 volumes) Purified Water ( 1 volume), aa, q.s. ……1,000 mL
  • 64.   Procedure: Note: Use a mixture of 3 volumes of alcohol and 1 volume of water as a menstruum Mix the arnica with a appropriate quantity of the prescribed solvent or mixture of solvents, to make it evenly and uniformly damp.
  • 65.  Allow to stand for 15 minutes then transfer to a percolator (a narrow coneshaped vessel, open at both ends) and pack firmly. Pour enough of the prescribed menstruum to saturate the drug.  Place the top on the percolator, and when the liquid is about to drip from the percolator, close the lower orifice.
  • 66.  Allow the drug to macerate for 24 hours. If no assay is directed, allow the percolation to proceed slowly, gradually adding sufficient of the solvent used to produce 1,000 mL. Place in a suitable container and label accordingly.
  • 67.     Ingredients: Calamine ….……………..…….. 80 g Zinc Oxide ………………..…….80 g Glycerin ………………….…….. 20 ml Bentonite magma …………250 mL
  • 68. Procedure:  Dilute the Bentonite magma with an equal volume of calcium hydroxide topical solution. Mix the powder intimately with the glycerin and about 100 mL of the diluted magma, triturating until a smooth, uniform paste is formed. Gradually incorporate the remainder of the diluted magma.
  • 69.  Finally add enough calcium hydroxide topical solution to make 1,000 mL. and shake well. If a more viscous consistency in the lotion is desired, the quantity of Bentonite magma may be increased to not more than 400 mL. Place in a suitable container and label accordingly.
  • 70.     Ingredients: Sugar ……………………….. 3 g Tragacanth……………….. 2 g Volatile Oil Extract q.s. Purified Water q.s.
  • 71. Procedure:  Triturate the sugar to a fine powder. Add the tragacanth powder in 3 quarts of water to form a uniform mass. Add the volatile oil extract then flatten to uniform thickness. Divide the mass until it weighs approximately 1 gram. Dry in an oven. Place in a suitable container and label accordingly.
  • 72.    Ingredients: Rose Oil ………….…… 2 mL Purified Water, a sufficient quantity to make …………..1,000 mL.
  • 73. Procedure:  Thoroughly incorporate 2 mL of Rose water with 1.5 g of talc or with a sufficient quantity of purified siliceous earth or pulped filter paper. Transfer to a graduated cylinder. Add 1000 mL of purified water, and thoroughly agitate the mixture several times during 10 minutes.
  • 74. Procedure:  Filter the mixture, returning the first portions, if necessary, to obtain a clear filtrate. Add purified water through the filter to make the product measure 1000 mL. Place in a suitable container. Label accordingly.
  • 75. HERBAL HAIR SHAMPOO INGREDIENTS AND MATERIALS:   Liquid castile soap ……………… 2 tbsp Spring water …………………….… 1 cup Fresh herbs …………………….…. ¼ cup (2 tbsp dried) Almond or apricot kernel oil .. 1 tsp Essential oil ……………………….. 2 drops
  • 76. Procedure:  Place herbs in a clean 10-ounce glass jar with a lid.  Boil the spring water and pour over the herbs.  Cover and let steep for 10 to 20 minutes.  Strain the liquid from the herbs into a bowl.  Add the liquid castile soap and almond or apricot kernel oil and mix thoroughly.  Scent with essential oil and mix again.  Bottle in a plastic container with a spout or a clean recycled shampoo bottle. Yield: Approximately 24 shampoos
  • 77. HERBAL HAIR CONDITIONERS Jojoba Conditioner Ingredients rose floral water ……………. 1 cup jojoba oil ………………………. 1 tbsp vitamin E oil …………………. 10 drops
  • 78. Procedure:    In the top of a double boiler, gently warm the rose water. Once rose water is warm, add jojoba oil. Pour the mixture in a blender and add the vitamin E. Blend at high speed for 2 minutes.
  • 79. How to use:      Wet hair with warm water. Pour the conditioner onto your hair and scalp, massaging in thoroughly. For damaged hair or extra conditioning, leave on for several minutes, perhaps while bathing. Rinse thoroughly with warm water. Shampoo lightly and rinse again with cool water.
  • 80.             INGREDIENTS AND MATERIALS: Distilled Water …………… 1/4 cup Orange Flower Water …. 1 tbsp Lemon Oil …………………. 10 drops Orange Oil ………………… 2 drops Glass Container (with a lid) Funnel Distilled Water 1 oz. Glycerin Eyedropper Paper Towels Essential Oils
  • 81. PROCEDURE:  Take a saucepan and combine vodka, distilled water and orange flower water in it. Place it over heat and bring the mixture to boil. After the mixture boils, remove it from heat and add lemon and orange oil into it. Stir the mixture, until the ingredients are mixed well.  Allow it to cool at room temperature and pour in the spray bottle for use.
  • 82. ESSENTIAL OILS BASED COLOGNE PROCEDURE:  Wash the glass container and its lid thoroughly. The container should have a tight lid to hold the scent in the bottle.  Place the funnel on the top of the bottle and add 1 pint of distilled water, unscented rubbing alcohol/vodka and glycerin. The first two ingredients make the liquid of the cologne and provide a solvent. Glycerin is required as a fixing agent, which helps the cologne scent to last for long.
  • 83.   Now, you have to decide what type of fragrance you want for the cologne. With the help of eyedropper, drop different combinations of essential oils on folded sheets of paper towel. Sniff the paper towel and determine the best fragrance. One needs to note here that the scent will smell stronger on the paper towels than in the cologne. After you have decided on the type of fragrance, add 4-8 drops of essential oils in the water mixture. Cap the bottle and shake it gently to mix the essential oils with the rest of the ingredients.
  • 84. Smell the cologne. Add more oil, if the scent is too weak, and if it is too intense, add more distilled water. The fragrance of the cologne will become intense over time.  Rest the cologne bottle in a cool and dark place for about two weeks. Shake the bottle gently before using. Caution :  Testing the homemade cologne is important before beginning to use it. Check for any allergic reactions by applying a small amount of cologne on a small patch of skin on the back of your arm. Wait for 24 hours to see if there is any reaction. 
  • 85. FOOT SOAK  Enough water to fill up whatever you are going to be using (not to full, give it some room for your feet to go in without overflowing)  5-10 mint leaves1 cup of sea salt or kosher salt  1 lemon or lime sliced and placed in the water  Let your feet soak for awhile and relax. Soak for around 10 minutes.
  • 86. FOOT SCRUB INGREDIENTS:  Sugar……………………………….... 3 tbsp  Lemons or limes ( crushed)….. 3 pcs.  Sweet almond oil ………………… 1 tbsp  Mint leaves ( cut up) ……………. 10 -15 pcs.  Baking soda …………….……..…… 1/4 cup
  • 87. PROCEDURE: Crush the lemon or lime up well using leaving of course all the pulp. Mix all the ingredients together. Massage the scrub all over your feet and work it in well. Rinse with water or a washcloth emerged in water. Apply lotion to your feet
  • 88. INGREDIENTS AND MATERIALS:  Emulsifying wax …………... 1/4 cup  Olive oil ……………………….. 1/8 cup  Water …………………………. 1 1/4 cup  Vitamin E liquid capsules..1 pc  Scented oils (optional) ….. 5 drops  Large pot …………………….. 1 pc  Small pot …………………….. 1 pc  Measuring cups  Small containers
  • 89. PROCEDURES:  Prepare double boiler. Place a small amount of water in a large pot, then place a smaller pot in the water bath. Turn the stove on to medium heat. Prepare the lotion base. Measure 1/4 cup of the emulsifying wax and add to the heated pot. Stir continuously. As emulsifying wax slowly melts, stir continuously.
  • 90.  Slowly add 1/8 cup olive oil and 1 1/4 cup water. Stir until ingredients are thoroughly blended. Add extra ingredients. Break a vitamin E capsule into the mixture for added moisture. If you prefer, add at least 5 drops of scented oil. Stir until all ingredients are blended well.  Remove from heat. Divide. Before lotion begins to solidify, pour into the desired containers. Recycled travel size shampoo bottles work great for storage.
  • 91. TIPS & WARNINGS:  Because the lotion does not contain any preservatives, it does not have an extensive shelf life. Unused lotion should be stored in the refrigerator. Never close the lid to the container after pouring heated lotion. Always allow lotion to cool completely before closing containers.
  • 92. INGREDIENTS AND MATERIALS:  Distilled water ………………. 3 tbsp  Baking soda ………………..… 1/4 tsp  Rose water …………………….. 3 tbsp (orange water or distilled water)  Witch hazel, vodka or gin …. 1 tbsp  Small mixing bowl  Spoon or spatula  Bottle with lid  Funnel  Cotton balls
  • 93. PROCEDURE:  Measure three tablespoons distilled water into mixing bowl. Add baking soda and stir well. Let the mixture stand until the baking soda is completely dissolved. Add the remaining water and witch hazel or alcohol. Stir well to combine the ingredients thoroughly.
  • 94. PROCEDURE:  Pour the mixture into the bottle using the funnel. Use the astringent by pouring a small amount to a cotton ball and wiping it onto your face. Allow it to dry completely, and do not wash it off. Store your astringent in a cool, dry place.
  • 95. TIPS & WARNINGS:  You can use Borax powder in place of the baking soda. You can add a squeeze of lemon juice for a fresh scent and additional astringent properties. This is a nice touch, especially if you are only using plain distilled water. Do not ingest astringent!
  • 96. INGREDIENTS:  Coconut Oil (solid state) …. 6-8 Tbsp  Baking Soda ………………...... 1/4 Cup  Corn Starch ………………..….. 1/4 Cup
  • 97. PROCEDURE:  Put the coconut oil, baking soda, and corn starch in a bowl. Mix the ingredients together with a fork (this step is a lot easier if you warm up the “oil” until it becomes soft and mixes easily). Place your finished product in a jar for storage.
  • 98. TIPS:  Since coconut oil begins to melt above 75°F, if you live in a warmer climate (or it’s Summer), it’s best to store it in a cooler area (like your fridge). If you have no choice but to keep it in an area above 75°F, you can still use it without issue—it’s just a bit messier. To use,     simply dip a couple of finger tips into the homemade deodorant and apply to your underarms.
  • 99. INGREDIENTS AND MATERIALS:  Apricot kernel oil …….. 1 cup  Coconut oil ………..... 1/4 cup  Beeswax ……………... 1/4 cup  Essential oil ……….... 3-4 drops  Vegetable base color (optional)  Saucepan  Stove  Bottle
  • 100. PROCEDURE:  Turn your stove burner on to a low heat and place a small saucepan over it. Combine the apricot kernel oil and coconut oil in the saucepan and heat gently. If desired, the apricot kernel oil can be replaced by different lightweight, non-scented oil. You can use sweet almond oil, safflower or even canola oil. Coconut oil can be replaced by cocoa butter.
  • 101.  Chop the beeswax chunk into small pieces with a knife, or use a vegetable grater to grate it into fine pieces. Put the beeswax into the saucepan with the oil ingredients. Stir gently over low heat until the beeswax is melted in completely. The wax will help your homemade body lotion hold together and provide more soothing for your skin.
  • 102.  Remove the oils and melted wax from the heat and pour them into a smooth-sided bowl. Add the water while you stir continuously to combine them together.
  • 103.  You can also use an electric mixer on a low speed to whip the lotion together if you desire. The amount of water you use will depend on how thick and creamy you want the lotion. A lightweight, every-day lotion will have more water. Use less for a more intensive treatment. Add 3 or 4 drops of your favorite essential oil to scent the lotion.
  • 104.  You can also create your own by steeping various flowers, herbs or fruit peels in clear, non-scented oil for a period of at least a month. Use any scent you like for your lotion, or match the scents with aromatherapy ideas: citrus for energy, lavender for calming and eucalyptus for clarifying. Stir the essential oil in until totally combined.
  • 105.  Add a couple of drops of vegetablebased food coloring if desired. This does not effect the way you use the lotion, it just makes it look more like store-bought ones.
  • 106.  If you make multiple types of homemade lotion, coloring them can help keep track of each type or scent. Use a funnel if necessary and pour the finished lotion into a clean glass bottle. It is now ready for use. Homemade lotion without preservatives can last several months in a cool place. TIPS & WARNINGS:  Add water a little at a time to avoid lumpiness.
  • 107.            INGREDIENTS AND MATERIALS: Concentrated shampoo base. 1/4 cup Salt …………………………………. 1 tsp. Coconut oil ……………………….1 tbsp. Jojoba oil ………………………… 2 tsp. Vanilla fragrance oil …………. 10 drops Coconut fragrance oil ……..… 10 drops Plastic squeeze bottle …….…. 12 oz. Medium saucepan Wire whisk Small funnel
  • 108. PROCEDURE:  Bring 3/4 cup water to a boil in a medium saucepan. Remove from the heat, add the unscented shampoo base, and stir until well combined. Add the salt, coconut oil and jojoba oil to the soap and water mixture. Stir vigorously with a wire whisk until the ingredients are well combined.
  • 109.  Store the coconut shampoo in the shower, and use about 1 tbsp. per application. Massage into the hair and scalp thoroughly, and rinse with warm water.
  • 110. TIPS AND WARNINGS  Purchase concentrated shampoo base at local craft and hobby stores, or order online. If unavailable, use unscented baby shampoo or liquid castile soap instead. Janice Cox, author of "Natural Beauty for All Seasons," recommends rinsing your hair with a coconut milk hair rinse after shampooing.
  • 111.   For best results, simply pour fresh coconut milk over your hair as the final rinse. Purchase virgin coconut oil for use in homemade cosmetics if possible. Virgin oil is made from fresh coconuts and experiences less processing and refining. This leaves more of its healing properties intact, according to Bruce Fife in his book "Coconut Cures."
  • 112. INGREDIENTS AND MATERIALS:  Milk ………………………..… 1/2 cup  Salt ………………………..…. 1/2 tsp.  Honey ……………………….. 1 tsp.  Fuller's earth …………..... 1 tsp.  Instant oatmeal ………….1 tbsp.  Lemon juice …………….….1 tsp.  Chickpea powder …………1/2 tsp.  Turmeric …………………... 1 pinch  Yogurt …………………….... 1 tsp.  Orange juice  Papaya or avocado  Cotton balls
  • 113. PROCEDURE:  Stir together 1/2 cup cold milk and 1/2 tsp. of salt. Soak a cotton ball and gently dab all over your face. After the milk dries in 2 to 3 minutes, dip a cotton ball again in the mixture and rub lightly in a circular motion and wash off with water. Milk removes dirt from deep pores and salt exfoliates dead skin resulting in instant brightness.
  • 114.  Mix a tablespoon of honey and fuller's earth with a few drops of orange juice and apply it liberally over your face. Rinse it off after a minute for an instant glow from the orange juice. Also, apply a few drops of plain orange juice on your forehead and cheeks and wash it off for a natural shine.
  • 115.  Take 1 tbsp. of instant oatmeal and add 1 tsp. of honey and lemon juice to make a loose paste. Apply it all over forehead, face and neck. When it begins to dry, rub using brisk, firm movement to remove dead cells and stimulate the skin. Wash it off with lukewarm water.
  • 116.  Blend 1/2 tsp. of chickpea powder along with a pinch of turmeric and honey. Blend this well with milk for dry skin or yogurt for oily skin and apply on your face. Massage in circular motion and wash away. The chickpea powder exfoliates your skin and honey moisturizes. Mash together the flesh of papaya or avocado along with 1 tsp. each of honey and yogurt. Apply on the face and rinse after two minutes.
  • 117. TIPS & WARNINGS  Always use lukewarm water to open the pores before applying the face wash. Wash with cold water to close the pores afterward. Do not exfoliate your skin more than twice a week.
  • 118. INGREDIENTS AND MATERIALS:  Ethyl alcohol ……………………..… 4 tbsp.  Distilled water ………………….….. 2 cup  Bergamot essential oil …………… 10 drops  Lavender essential oil ………..….. 10 drops  Bottles
  • 119. PROCEDURES:  Mix all the ingredients.  Find a dark, airtight bottle. For the purpose of making homemade perfume, a glass bottle will work best.
  • 120.  Fill your bottle with the distilled water. Then add in the ethyl alcohol, the bergamot essential oil and the lavender essential oil. Shake the bottle gently until all the contents fully mix. The order in which you mix in the contents doesn't matter.
  • 121.  Store the bottle in a cool, dry place for 48 hours. Avoid letting sunlight get in contact with the bottle. Once the 48 hours are up, again gently shake the bottle. Use a small dab to test out your new perfume. If you are satisfied, use it as you would any other type of perfume. If you are not satisfied, you can make another batch and adjust the level of lavender oil.
  • 122. TIPS & WARNINGS:  Add rose petals or other flowers to the oil to add different scents.
  • 123. INGREDIENTS AND MATERIALS: Olive oil………………….……. 2 lb 10 oz  Solid-type vegetable shortening .……………………... 1 lb 7 oz  Coconut oil ………………….. 1 lb  Lye (sodium hydroxide) … 10-1/4 oz  Water ………………………..… 2 pints  Glycerine (glycerol) …….... 1-1/2 oz 
  • 124. Alcohol (Vodka or food-quality ethanol, Do not use methanol.) …………………. 1/2 oz  Castor oil ………………………………... 1-1/2 oz  Essential oils (optional), such as peppermint, rosemary, lavender, for fragrance and therapeutic properties 
  • 125. PROCEDURE:  In a large pan, mix together the olive oil, shortening, and coconut oil. In a wellventilated area, preferably wearing gloves and eye protection in case of accidents, mix the lye and water. Use a glass or enameled container. This is an exothermic reaction, so heat will be produced.
  • 126.  Warm the oils to 95°F-98°F and allow the lye solution to cool to the same temperature. One of the easiest ways to accomplish this is to set both containers into a large sink or pan full of water that is at the correct temperature. When both mixtures are at the proper temperature, stir the lye solution into the oils. The mixture will turn opaque and may darken.
  • 127.  When the mixture has a creamy texture, stir in the glycerine, alcohol, castor oil, and any fragrance oils or colorants. You have a couple of options here. You can pour the shampoo into soap molds and allow it to harden. To use this shampoo, either lather it with your hands and work it into your hair or else shave flakes into hot water to liquefy it.
  • 128.  The other option is to make liquid shampoo, which involves adding more water to your shampoo mixture and bottling it. You may have noticed that many shampoos are pearlescent. You can make your homemade shampoo glittery by adding glycol distearate, which is a natural wax derived from stearic acid. The tiny wax particles reflect light, causing the effect.