Pronouns Generally (but not always) pronouns stand for (pro + noun) or refer to a noun, an individual or individuals or thing or things (the pronoun's antecedent) whose identity is made clear earlier in the text.
Examples of Pronouns: Common types of pronouns found in the world's languages are as follows: Personal pronouns stand in place of the names of people or things: Subjective pronouns are used when the person or thing is the subject of the sentence or clause. English example: I like to eat chips, but she does not. Second person formal and informal pronouns (T-V distinction). Inclusive and exclusive "we" pronouns indicate whether the audience is included. There is no distinction in English. Intensive pronouns, also known as emphatic pronouns, re-emphasize a noun or pronoun that has already been mentioned. English uses the same forms as for the reflexive pronouns; for example: I did it myself (contrast reflexive use, I did it to myself).
Objective pronouns are used when the person or thing is the object of the sentence or clause. English example: John likes me but not her. Direct and indirect object pronouns. English uses the same forms for both; for example: Mary loves him (direct object); Mary sent him a letter (indirect object). Reflexive pronouns are used when a person or thing acts on itself. English example: John cut himself. Reciprocal pronouns refer to a reciprocal relationship. English example: They do not like each other. Prepositional pronouns come after a preposition. No distinct forms exist in English; for example: Anna and Maria looked at him. Disjunctive pronouns are used in isolation or in certain other special grammatical contexts. No distinct forms exist in English; for example: Who does this belong to? Me.
Possessive pronouns are used to indicate possession or ownership. In a strict sense, the possessive pronouns are only those that act syntactically as nouns. English example: Those clothes are mine. Often, though, the term "possessive pronoun" is also applied to the so-called possessive adjectives (or possessive determiners). For example, in English: I lost my wallet. They are not strictly speaking pronounsbecause they do not substitute for a noun or noun phrase, and as such, some grammarians classify these terms in a separate lexical category called determiners.
Demonstrative pronouns distinguish the particular objects or people that are referred to from other possible candidates. English example: I'll take these. Indefinite pronouns refer to general categories of people or things. English example: Anyone can do that.
Distributive pronouns are used to refer to members of a group separately rather than collectively. English example: To each his own. Negative pronouns indicate the non-existence of people or things. English example: Nobody thinks that. Relative pronouns refer back to people or things previously mentioned. English example: People who smoke should quit now.
Indefinite relative pronouns have some of the properties of both relative pronouns and indefinite pronouns. They have a sense of "referring back", but the person or thing to which they refer has not previously been explicitly named. English example: I know what I like. Interrogative pronouns ask which person or thing is meant. English example: Who did that? In many languages (e.g., Czech, English, French, Interlingua, and Russian), the sets of relative and interrogative pronouns are nearly identical. Compare English: Who is that? (interrogative) to I know who that is. (relative).