Idasa Using Radio As A Means Of Communication


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Idasa has been using radio since 1995 to inform, educate and organise citizens. See more about this work in the presentation.

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Idasa Using Radio As A Means Of Communication

  1. 1. Using radio as a means of communication
  2. 2. Characteristics of radio <ul><li>Radio is </li></ul><ul><li>an emotional medium </li></ul><ul><li>intimate and personal </li></ul><ul><li>accessible </li></ul><ul><li>portable </li></ul><ul><li>direct </li></ul><ul><li>immediate </li></ul>
  3. 3. Characteristics of radio <ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>provides a variety of “voices” </li></ul><ul><li>can include the voices of the listeners </li></ul><ul><li>provides specialist programming </li></ul><ul><li>is simple and flexible </li></ul><ul><li>entertains </li></ul><ul><li>is inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>can target a specific audience </li></ul><ul><li>informs and educates </li></ul><ul><li>is SOUND ... </li></ul>
  4. 4. Public radio <ul><li>is owned and controlled by parliament on behalf of the public; </li></ul><ul><li>targets a general audience; and </li></ul><ul><li>serves the interest of the public (in some countries is owned by the government and serves the interest of the state) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Commercial radio <ul><li>is owned and controlled by a private individual or company; </li></ul><ul><li>targets a specific audience to sell advertising; and </li></ul><ul><li>serves the interests of the owners. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Community radio <ul><li>is owned and controlled by the community; </li></ul><ul><li>targets a specific community; </li></ul><ul><li>serves the interests of that community; and </li></ul><ul><li>works for community development and change. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Community radio in South Africa <ul><li>There are over 105 community radio stations and they are divided into two broad categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community of interest (religious, language, social group, etc) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Station Contact List   e.mail : [email_address]   6511 (044) 874 5077 (studio)   HEIDERAND (044) 874 5085 (tel/fax)   P.O.BOX 11165 Morne Peterson Eden 7705 [email_address]   Cape Town (021) 448 5451 (Fax)   Salt River (021) 448 5450 (tel)   330 Victory Road Adrian Louw Bush Radio   [email_address]   7350 086 612 4832 (Fax)   Ardennes (021) 572 4320 (tel)   1 Dolly Business Center, Rachel Visser Radio Atlantis Address Contact Stations
  9. 9. Community in Africa <ul><li>Community radio reaches most people in Africa especially those with low levels of literacy. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Use of radio by IDASA <ul><li>1995/6 IDASA sets up a radio unit or project </li></ul>
  11. 11. Aims <ul><li>disseminate accessible information on national policy issues to communities throughout the country; </li></ul><ul><li>empower “ordinary” South Africans and their organisations by providing a channel for them to intervene or articulate their views, especially around socio-economic issues; </li></ul><ul><li>provide government with an opportunity to interact directly with citizens and their concerns; </li></ul><ul><li>build and service the community radio sector </li></ul>
  12. 12. Partnerships <ul><li>National Community Radio Forum (NCRF) </li></ul><ul><li>65 community radio stations across the country </li></ul>
  13. 13. Programmes and Formats <ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Spots </li></ul>
  14. 14. Features <ul><li>Democracy Radio: Voices and Choices beyond the Ballot Box </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 minute Weekly Current Affairs in English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>includes clips in other 10 official languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on national political and economic issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stations find local angle </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Features <ul><li>Making a Difference: We’re all affected! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 part series on HIV and AIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 minute feature programme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English, Afrikaans, IsiZulu and IsiXhosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on real stories of people living with HIV </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. HIV and AIDS Series Partners <ul><li>Health-e (NGO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>generate content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media for Health (NGO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>coordination and distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democracy Radio Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SACRIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>satellite transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6 Community Radio Stations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>broadcast </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Producing features <ul><li>Feature Stories </li></ul><ul><li>A feature is like a mini-documentary. It tells a story by using the three “C’s” of literature: Characters, Conflict, Change. A feature producer finds strong characters whose personal experiences help us understand the bigger issues at hand. The producer goes on location to record events as they happen, taking listeners on a memorable radio journey. </li></ul><ul><li>Features can be good set-up stories for a talk show, or can be produced as stand-alone reports that can run on-air as long-format advertisements. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Producing features <ul><li>Focus Statements and Production Plans </li></ul><ul><li>When producers fail to focus their ideas, and fail to plan their field efforts, they waste time and have difficulty writing. The process of turning a story idea into a focus statement, and then a production plan, involves four steps. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Producing features <ul><li>IDEA </li></ul><ul><li>RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>FOCUS STATEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCTION PLAN </li></ul>
  20. 20. Producing features <ul><li>Idea: This usually comes from the your organisation. Youl want you to build awareness about a particular issue or service. A feature story is a great way to humanize the issue, by including the voices of real people who are directly affected by the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Research: Your organisation can provide you with background materials, but you will need to do more research to develop a focus statement and production plan. The Five W’s and H can help. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Producing features <ul><li>Who is affected by an event or issue and can tell their story in an interesting way? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the underlying issues I should address? </li></ul><ul><li>When is the best time to record scenes and interviews? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the best venue to illustrate the story with sounds and location interviews? </li></ul><ul><li>Why should listeners care? Why is this story important to your target audience? </li></ul><ul><li>How can I make it interesting? How can I craft a compelling story instead of a boring report? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Producing features <ul><li>Focus statement: This is the angle you will take to turn an idea into a story that radio listeners can understand. It is a simple sentence that contains three elements: who, what, why. The statement must be short, and also explain why listeners will want to hear the story. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Elements of a feature story <ul><li>Field Elements vs Script Elements </li></ul>Opinions Facts Sounds Narration Soundbites Scenes
  24. 24. Interviews <ul><li>5 minute interviews with chairpersons of portfolio committees </li></ul><ul><li>commissioned by parliament </li></ul><ul><li>English and one other official language </li></ul><ul><li>focus on current bill before parliament </li></ul><ul><li>highlights what bill seeks to achieve and invites citizens to public hearings </li></ul>
  25. 25. Interviews <ul><li>90 seconds vox pops </li></ul><ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><li>focus on what people want to hear in the budget speech, SON address or what they think of the budget speech, SON address </li></ul>
  26. 26. Radio Spots <ul><li>short dramatised scenario identifies a problem and suggests a solution </li></ul><ul><li>English and other official languages </li></ul><ul><li>30 and 45 seconds </li></ul>
  27. 27. Radio spots <ul><li>appeal to needs and wants of audiences </li></ul><ul><li>three basic appeals based on Aristotle’s three key elements of persuasion </li></ul>
  28. 28. Key elements of persuasion <ul><li>Ethical Appeal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>persuasion by a good person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When a well-known, well-respected person tells us something, we believe it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Testimonials based on ethical appeal </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Key elements of persuasion <ul><li>Logical Appeal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>persuasion based on facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts to convince a potential buyer/user that product/service fills a logical, practical need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. buy a car because it’s small size will make it easier to park </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Key elements of persuasion <ul><li>Emotional Appeal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appealing to non-logical, non-intellectual, feelings rather than reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. power, prestige, good taste </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Writing for Radio <ul><li>Writing for broadcast differs from print because our brains process information differently when it comes from radio. Listeners have only one chance to understand the message. You have to be clear. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all radio writers follow this four-step format on every production. Variety is good. But when you’re facing a production deadline, with too much information to process and too little time to write, the four-step format is a great structure to work with. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Writing for radio <ul><li>Set the Scene: This is the hook that grabs the audience and compels them to listen. It’s where you establish the theme and tone. You can do it with music, or a provocative opening sentence, or an emotional scene that makes listeners care about the people and issues that you are writing about. It doesn’t have to be long, but it has to be strong. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the Problem or Issue: This is the context and information part. In many cases, this is your focus statement. This is where you answer the who-what-when-where-why and how questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the Solution and Reaction: We usually don’t want to tell people what’s wrong with the world without also offering solutions. Here is where you can include important background and analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Look to the Future: A great way to end is to say what’s next. Is there a phone number that people can call for more information? Is there a place people can go to for help? Is there an event people can attend? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Writing for radio <ul><li>Don’t try to tell the whole story, there’s never enough time for that on radio. </li></ul><ul><li>Be specific and use concrete terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on one thing at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Write conversationally. </li></ul><ul><li>Write factually and accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>Write in the active voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Start strong. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Writing for radio <ul><li>Simplify. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep sentences short. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the PRESENT tense </li></ul><ul><li>Paint pictures with words. </li></ul><ul><li>Use small words. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid the cliché. </li></ul><ul><li>No acronyms or technical jargon. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid numbers when possible. If you use numbers, round them off. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid too many details. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Law and ethics <ul><li>Defamation or “libel” — In general, a libelous statement is something that is untrue and damages someone’s reputation or business. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, if you are doing a feature on a rape counseling center, and you interview a woman who has been raped, you can be sued if she names the rapist and he has not been convicted of the crime. That’s true even is she doesn’t use his name but listeners could figure out his identity anyway. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A radio station can be sued even if the damaging statement was made by a source inside a soundbite, or by a caller on a live talk show. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Law and ethics <ul><li>Children – Be careful when using children in soundbites if you don’t have parental permission. This can even be true if you don’t identify the child by name—for example, if the recording is intended to be used in a vox pop. </li></ul><ul><li>Secret Recording ­ – You should let people know when they are being recorded. In many public situations, such as on a street you don’t have to announce that you are recording even if you pick up identifiable voices. There’s no reasonable expectation of privacy in these public situations. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Asante Sana! Siyabonga! Thank you! <ul><li>Questions & Discussion </li></ul>