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Public speaking, rhetoric and practical argumentation
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Public speaking, rhetoric and practical argumentation


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  • 1. Public Speaking And how to work with it in a rhetorical perspective Ida Borch
  • 2. Plan • An introduction to rhetoric • 30 old school slides with a distilled version of 2000 years of accumulated knowledge on how to get your audience to agree with you • Most of all: An appetizer • Second of all: An awareness that improvisation is grand - especially when based on solid craftsmanship
  • 3. Who am I? • Ida Borch • Cand.mag in rhetoric, psycho linguistics and teaching, KU • Associate professor at CBS in personal branding and intercultural communication • Owner of Orator – Retorik & Rådgivning – Rhetoric – Social media – Qualitative market analysis
  • 4. Toolbox • Context awareness – The Rhetorical Pentagram • Composing awareness – Rhetorical Canon • Style awareness – The three artistic proofs: Ethos, Logos, Pathos • Argumentation awareness – Toulmin’s model for practical argumentation • Coaching awareness – Constructive criticism
  • 5. Context awareness
  • 6. The Rhetorical Pentagram Audience Topic Speaker Constraints Language
  • 7. Composing awareness • The Rhetorical Canon
  • 8. The rhetorical canon There are five phases you will eventually go through Inventio when you compose text – Dispositio both for oral and literal contexts. You might not Elocutio follow them in a lineary way – but you cannot avoid Memoria crossing each of them: Actio
  • 9. The anatomy of a speech Disposition Stating the Argumentation facts Finale Intro 1 2 3 4 5
  • 10. Style Awareness
  • 11. The three artistic proofs You can approach your audience in various ways. Ethos The ancient Greek and Romans believed that there were three ways of Logos appealing to an audience. Persuasion lies in your ability to use an adequate Pathos artistic proof – or stylistic level:
  • 12. Logos • Appeal to the intellect • Logical argumentation • Used in law and science • The most prevalent and preferred style in academic contexts • Advantage: derived of emotion • Disadvantage: Heavy and potentially boring
  • 13. Pathos • Appeal to the emotions • Emotional argumentation • Used in literature and poetry and contexts that calls for emotions (i.e. sorrow and happiness) • Vivid language with metaphors and tropes • Advantage: Powerful persuasive potential • Disadvantage: Bears an immanent risk of rejecting audience – if they do not want to share the emotions projected, the persuasive potential is very limited
  • 14. Ethos • Appeal through the speaker and the speakers integrity • Ethos is not something the speaker has, but something that is in the mind of the audience • Used in every context – but very visible in politics and literature. And popular science • Advantage: If you (manage to) establish a credible ethos that alone provides you with a very persuasive potential • Challenge: If you do not believe the man, you do not trust his words
  • 15. Argumentation awareness • Practical argumentation
  • 16. Logical cc rhetorical proof • Logical proof: • Rhetorical ’proof’: Syllogism Enthymeme – Valid conclusion – Tentative from the truth of conclusions based its premises on probable – Based on reason premises – Must be true – Based on common sense – Can be true
  • 17. Valid logical argument - a valid syllogism All men are mortal Socrates is a man Socrates is mortal
  • 18. Toulmin model of argumentation Data Claim Warrant Qualifier Backing Reservation
  • 19. Socrates is mortal Socrates is a human being All men are mortal
  • 20. Socrates is wildly mortal! Socrates is a human being All men are mortal
  • 21. Socrates is wildly mortal! Socrates is a human being All men are mortal Even though Plato immortalized him through his Reservation dialogues
  • 22. Socrates is wildly mortal! Socrates is a human being All men are mortal Even though Plato immortalized him through his At the end of the dialogues day, it’s a Backing biological fact
  • 23. Socrates is wildly mortal! Socrates is a human being All men are mortal Even though Plato immortalized him through his At the end of the dialogues day, it’s a biological fact
  • 24. Toulmins argumentmodel • Claim • Data Data Claim • Warrant Warrant Qualifier • Qualifier • Reservation Backing Reservation • Backing
  • 25. Prospect AIESEC members in the model It is good for You should your career join AIESEC One should always make career moves Perhaps It’s highly recommended by Unless you’re way the SDU board behind schedule with your studies
  • 26. Prospect AIESEC members in the model We’re getting drunk You should every weekend join AIESEC Having fun is a human right Totally And social networking Unless you’re way benefits relations behind schedule with your studies
  • 27. Important rule in argumentation •It’s not always a logical argument that’s the most logical thing to use in practical argumentation
  • 28. Remember • What you claim is not the most important thing in argumentation • How you substantiate the claim and which data you use to support the claim is however extremely important • If the target group do not share the basic assumption in the warrant, they are hardly liable to follow your claim
  • 29. Books….in Danish and English • Jørgensen og Onsbergs: – Praktisk argumentation • Gabrielsen og Christiansen: – Talens Magt – Academica 2009 • Atkinson: – Our Masters Voices – Routledge 1984 • Steensbech Lemée & Lund – Troværdighed – tal godt for dig – Fydenlund