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Appelformer Appelformer Presentation Transcript

  • Ethos – and other styles EOK/IMK November 2010 Ida Borch
  • Last slide from week 43
    • Prior to making a speech:
      • Analyze the rhetorical situation
      • Argument: FOCUS – and find the right proof to support your claims
      • Arrange: Give the speech the right shape
    • Next time:
      • Analyze your own ethos in the situation
      • Use the right words for a fitting response
  • Today’s text
    • Gabrielsen & Christiansen
      • Chapter 6: The art of creating credibility
      • Chapter 8: The art of adapting, shaping, and ornamenting one’s language
    • I will be adding: McCroskey and his concept of ethos + a few other things
  • Aristotle says… Genres Predominant appeal form The informative (forensic) speech Logos og ethos The political speech Logos, ethos og pathos The ceremonial speech Ethos og pathos
  • Cicero…
    • “… insists that to succeed as a speaker, one has to adjust one’s language to all aspects of the given rhetorical situation.”
  • I think we all know by now…
    • That logos is appeal to the intellect
    • That pathos is appeal to the emotions
    • That ethos is appealing through the speakers integrity /personal credibility
  • Let’s look into Theofrast Theofrast, Theophrastos , ca. 372-287 f.Kr., greek scientist, believed to be the founder of botany
    • The grammatical purity of the language
    • The clarity of the language
    • The way the language is ‘dressed for the occasion’
    • The notion that language must meet momentum
  • The Theofrast virtues
    • Puritas
      • What gave you red marks in your essays in school
    • Perspicuritas
      • If you’re incomprehensible, this is what you’re violating
    • Ornatus
      • Equipment – not ornament! When properly equipped, your chance of survival is dramatically improved
    • Aptum
      • Right words at the right time
  • The Theofrast virtues
    • Puritas
      • What gave you red marks in your essays in school
    • Perspicuritas
      • If you’re incomprehensible, this is what you’re violating
    • Ornatus
      • Equipment – not ornament! When properly equipped, your chance of survival is dramatically improved
    • Aptum
      • Right words at the right time
  • Oprust Ornatus!
    • Ornatus is not equivalent to ornament
      • As in filigree and decoration
    • Ornatus is equivalent to equipment
      • As in a soldier must carry the right equipment in order to survive the battlefield
  • That’s a good vending!
    • Quantitative reasoning: The more words and phrases to choose from, the more likely it is that you can find the right words for the context.
    • Qualitative reasoning: Stylistics and metaphors have become very important (and in fashion) in change- and knowledge management because we finally can agree on the fact that not only facts are useful persuasive means.
  • A recent example
  • Aptum Baby
    • Aptum today:
      • Narratives and storytelling (Because of you there is a woman in New Hampshire who…)
      • Analogies (It is like when…)
      • Concrete details (This is not about voting, this is about better schools in your community)
      • Living metaphors (We are a living, breathing organism) (the dead ones passes unnoticed, like ’time flies’ )
      • Repetitions (alliteration, anaphor, epiphor etc)
      • Rhetorical questions/dialogues
  • Clap traps jf. Atkinson
    • Lists of three
    • Build them up and knock them down
    • Antithesis
    • Source: Our Masters Voices, Max Atkinson
  • Which stylistic moves can you identify? http://www.youtube.com/user/barackobamadotcom?blend=1&ob=4#p/a/u/0/3GUHnoz2xFI
  • Quintilian four categories of change
    • Leaving out
      • I came. I saw. I laughed.
    • Adding
      • Firstly I came, and then I saw it, and then I laughed too
    • Replacement
      • I laughed when I came and saw it
    • Interchange
        • On arrival I gaped and smirked
  • Quintilian four categories of change
    • Leaving out
      • I came. I saw. I laughed.
    • Adding
      • First I came, and then I saw it, and then I laughed too
    • Replacement
      • I laughed when I came and saw it
    • Interchange
        • On arrival I gaped and smirked
    A ’condensed’ style A ’chatty’ style
  • Ethos
    • Ethos is more than a ’mere’ style.
  •  
  • Dit ethos?
    • Transplantationsgruppen og Sundhedsstyrelsen 2008
    When two people say the same, it does not make the same impression
  • Who will make you feel like paying tax?
    • Skatteministeriet 2004
  • Interesting ethoses in politics Very fast moving ethos (Lack of well known terminal ethos – yet a winner Very strange moving ethos (quite a lack of phronesis, yet a winner)
  • Basic Ethos term
    • The reception of your ethos is the privilege of the audience
    • (in other words: It’s for you to know but for them to decide or Beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder)
  • Indirect appeal: Showing
    • Everything that shapes an ethos without direct reference to the speakers
      • Proof (ex statistics)
      • Examples and anecdotes
      • Style (logos, pathos, (ethos))
  • Direct appeal: Saying
    • When not shaping the audience by showing who you are, but when you directly make references to yourself.
      • I have done this, I have tried that...
      • My personal conviction is, I strongly feel that....
      • Remember: Never forget to include it, but handle with care!
  • The three Aristotle virtues
    • Phronesis
    • Areté
    • Eunoia
  • Phronesis: Knowledge
    • To appear knowledgeable
    • Wisdom and practical sense in relation to the subject matter in question
    • You need to have a legitimate reason to deal with the subject
    • You need to establish some authority (ex by direct appeal in the beginning)
    • Is more or less equal to ‘a skilled person’ (DA: faglig dygtighed)
  • Areté: Virtue
    • A speaker whose motives and values are considered sympathetic in the eyes of the audience is more likely to be received as credible
    • Indirect: To appear sympathetic
    • Direct: To say you are sympathetic
    • Is more or less equal to social competence
  • Eunoia: Benevolence
    • The opposite of paranoia: The speaker wants the best for the audience and takes them seriously
    • The impression that you will give and not expect anything in return
    • Proper use of direct appeal projects eunoia
    • Prerequisite: Genuine interest in the audience
  • McCroskey og ’the cycle of ethos’
    • Initial Ethos
      • before and when you enter the stage
    • Derived Ethos
      • while you speak
    • Terminal Ethos
      • the sum of the former and latter
    • Source: McCroskey (1968): Ethos: A dominant Factor in Rhetorical Communication. From: An Introduction to Rhetorical Communication
  • Ethos according to McCroskey
    • Ethos is actually not something the speaker has
    • Ethos is created in the mind of the audience
    • Thus: Master the context. And if you break any rules, be aware that it is ‘a calculated risk’
  • Inital Ethos
    • The height of the bar before you open and right when you open your mouth is determining how much you can move the audience in your direction
    • Means:
      • Sponsorship effect
      • Background
      • Personal attributes
      • Appearance
  • Derived ethos
    • The withdrawal of your personal ethos account while you speak.
      • High credit balance: You will not face bankruptcy
      • Low credit balance: Handle with care!
    • Means
      • Goodwill
      • Rhetorical style
      • Proof/evidence
      • Ethos-loan from qualified sources
      • Delivery
  • Terminal ethos
    • The sum of 1 + 2
    • ” Todays terminal ethos is tomorrows initial ethos”
  • Ethical considerations
    • Vir bonus dicendi peritus, Qvintilian said
    • It is a good man that speaks well = hopefully you are a good person that want the good, the true and the beautiful to happen. Or else …
  • Analyzing audience
    • Hvad ved de om emnet
    • Hvilke informationer bliver jeg nødt til at give
    • Hvilken interesse kan jeg forudsætte
    • Hvilke værdier deler vi
    • Hvad er vi enige om
    • Hvad er vi potentielt uenige om
    • Hvad er deres håb og mål
    • Hvad frygter de
  • Exercise
    • 2 X 2 (or small groups of 3): Compose a short speech in one of the appeal forms, using the right style for the form:
    • Front rows: Ethos
    • Middle rows: Pathos
    • Back rows: Logos
    • Context: This!
    • ‘ Problem’: Persuade us that Nexus is the best bar in town. DOING IT IN DANISH IS OK!
    • One version of each appeal form will be presented up here
    • Be inventive (funny is ok) and we will discuss how clearly we can see the various forms. (don’t worry about memoria – we’ll live with that).
  • Can we identify
    • That logos appeals to the intellect?
      • Evidence, numbers, figures, quasi-logical reasoning etc
    • That pathos appeals to the emotion?
      • Vivid language, metaphors, ’ornament’, narratives ect
    • That ethos appeals through the speakers integrity
      • Initial, derived and terminal ethos. Direct and indirect. Phronesis, arete and eunoia-based reasoning
    • Good luck with the contest!