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Ethos – and other styles
EOK/IMK
November 2010
Ida Borch
Last slide from week 43
• Prior to making a speech:
– Analyze the rhetorical situation
– Argument: FOCUS – and find the ri...
Today’s text
• Gabrielsen & Christiansen
– Chapter 6: The art of creating credibility
– Chapter 8: The art of adapting, sh...
Aristotle says…Aristotle says…
GenresGenres Predominant appealPredominant appeal
formform
The informative (forensic)The in...
Cicero…
• “…insists that to succeed as a
speaker, one has to adjust
one’s language to all aspects
of the given rhetorical
...
I think we all know by now…
• That logos is appeal to the intellect
• That pathos is appeal to the emotions
• That ethos i...
Let’s look into Theofrast
Theofrast, Theophrastos, ca. 372-287 f.Kr., greek scientist, believed to be the founder of botan...
The Theofrast virtues
• Puritas
– What gave you red marks in your essays in school
• Perspicuritas
– If you’re incomprehen...
The Theofrast virtues
• Puritas
– What gave you red marks in your essays in school
• Perspicuritas
– If you’re incomprehen...
Oprust Ornatus!
• Ornatus is not equivalent to ornament
– As in filigree and decoration
• Ornatus is equivalent to equipme...
That’s a good vending!
• Quantitative reasoning: The more words and
phrases to choose from, the more likely it is that
you...
A recent example
Aptum Baby
• Aptum today:
– Narratives and storytelling (Because of you there is a
woman in New Hampshire who…)
– Analogie...
Clap traps jf. Atkinson
• Lists of three
• Build them up and knock them down
• Antithesis
• Source: Our Masters Voices, Ma...
Which stylistic moves can you
identify?
http://www.youtube.com/user/barackobamadotcom?blend=1&ob=4#p/a/u/0/3GUHnoz2xFI
Quintilian four categories of change
• Leaving out
– I came. I saw. I laughed.
• Adding
– Firstly I came, and then I saw i...
Quintilian four categories of change
• Leaving out
– I came. I saw. I laughed.
• Adding
– First I came, and then I saw it,...
Ethos
•Ethos is more than a
’mere’ style.
Dit ethos?
When two people say the same, it
does not make the same impression
Transplantationsgruppen og Sundhedsstyrelsen 2008
Who will make you feel like paying
tax?
Skatteministeriet 2004
Interesting ethoses in politics
Very fast moving ethos
(Lack of well known
terminal ethos – yet a
winner
Very strange movi...
Basic Ethos term
• The reception of your ethos is
the privilege of the audience
• (in other words: It’s for you to know bu...
Indirect appeal: Showing
• Everything that shapes an ethos without
direct reference to the speakers
– Proof (ex statistics...
Direct appeal: Saying
• When not shaping the audience by showing
who you are, but when you directly make
references to you...
The three Aristotle virtues
•Phronesis
•Areté
•Eunoia
Phronesis: Knowledge
• To appear knowledgeable
• Wisdom and practical sense in relation to the
subject matter in question
...
Areté: Virtue
• A speaker whose motives and values are
considered sympathetic in the eyes of the
audience is more likely t...
Eunoia: Benevolence
• The opposite of paranoia: The speaker wants
the best for the audience and takes them
seriously
• The...
McCroskey og ’the cycle of ethos’
• Initial Ethos
– before and when you enter the stage
• Derived Ethos
– while you speak
...
Ethos according to McCroskey
• Ethos is actually not something the speaker
has
• Ethos is created in the mind of the audie...
Inital Ethos
• The height of the bar before you open and
right when you open your mouth is
determining how much you can mo...
Derived ethos
• The withdrawal of your personal ethos account
while you speak.
• High credit balance: You will not face ba...
Terminal ethos
• The sum of 1 + 2
• ”Todays terminal ethos is tomorrows initial
ethos”
Ethical considerations
• Vir bonus dicendi peritus, Qvintilian said
• It is a good man that speaks well = hopefully
you ar...
Analyzing audience
• Hvad ved de om emnet
• Hvilke informationer bliver jeg nødt til at give
• Hvilken interesse kan jeg f...
Exercise
• 2 X 2 (or small groups of 3): Compose a short speech in one
of the appeal forms, using the right style for the ...
Can we identify
• That logos appeals to the intellect?
– Evidence, numbers, figures, quasi-logical reasoning
etc
• That pa...
•Good luck with
the contest!
Appelformer
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  1. 1. Ethos – and other styles EOK/IMK November 2010 Ida Borch
  2. 2. Last slide from week 43 • Prior to making a speech: – Analyze the rhetorical situation – Argument: FOCUS – and find the right proof to support your claims – Arrange: Give the speech the right shape • Next time: – Analyze your own ethos in the situation – Use the right words for a fitting response
  3. 3. Today’s text • Gabrielsen & Christiansen – Chapter 6: The art of creating credibility – Chapter 8: The art of adapting, shaping, and ornamenting one’s language • I will be adding: McCroskey and his concept of ethos + a few other things
  4. 4. Aristotle says…Aristotle says… GenresGenres Predominant appealPredominant appeal formform The informative (forensic)The informative (forensic) speechspeech Logos og ethosLogos og ethos The political speechThe political speech Logos, ethos og pathosLogos, ethos og pathos The ceremonial speechThe ceremonial speech Ethos og pathosEthos og pathos
  5. 5. Cicero… • “…insists that to succeed as a speaker, one has to adjust one’s language to all aspects of the given rhetorical situation.”
  6. 6. I think we all know by now… • That logos is appeal to the intellect • That pathos is appeal to the emotions • That ethos is appealing through the speakers integrity/personal credibility
  7. 7. Let’s look into Theofrast Theofrast, Theophrastos, ca. 372-287 f.Kr., greek scientist, believed to be the founder of botany • The grammatical purity of the language • The clarity of the language • The way the language is ‘dressed for the occasion’ • The notion that language must meet momentum
  8. 8. The Theofrast virtues • Puritas – What gave you red marks in your essays in school • Perspicuritas – If you’re incomprehensible, this is what you’re violating • Ornatus – Equipment – not ornament! When properly equipped, your chance of survival is dramatically improved • Aptum – Right words at the right time
  9. 9. The Theofrast virtues • Puritas – What gave you red marks in your essays in school • Perspicuritas – If you’re incomprehensible, this is what you’re violating • Ornatus – Equipment – not ornament! When properly equipped, your chance of survival is dramatically improved • Aptum – Right words at the right time
  10. 10. Oprust Ornatus! • Ornatus is not equivalent to ornament – As in filigree and decoration • Ornatus is equivalent to equipment – As in a soldier must carry the right equipment in order to survive the battlefield
  11. 11. That’s a good vending! • Quantitative reasoning: The more words and phrases to choose from, the more likely it is that you can find the right words for the context. • Qualitative reasoning: Stylistics and metaphors have become very important (and in fashion) in change- and knowledge management because we finally can agree on the fact that not only facts are useful persuasive means.
  12. 12. A recent example
  13. 13. Aptum Baby • Aptum today: – Narratives and storytelling (Because of you there is a woman in New Hampshire who…) – Analogies (It is like when…) – Concrete details (This is not about voting, this is about better schools in your community) – Living metaphors (We are a living, breathing organism) (the dead ones passes unnoticed, like ’time flies’ ) – Repetitions (alliteration, anaphor, epiphor etc) – Rhetorical questions/dialogues
  14. 14. Clap traps jf. Atkinson • Lists of three • Build them up and knock them down • Antithesis • Source: Our Masters Voices, Max Atkinson
  15. 15. Which stylistic moves can you identify? http://www.youtube.com/user/barackobamadotcom?blend=1&ob=4#p/a/u/0/3GUHnoz2xFI
  16. 16. Quintilian four categories of change • Leaving out – I came. I saw. I laughed. • Adding – Firstly I came, and then I saw it, and then I laughed too • Replacement – I laughed when I came and saw it • Interchange • On arrival I gaped and smirked
  17. 17. Quintilian four categories of change • Leaving out – I came. I saw. I laughed. • Adding – First I came, and then I saw it, and then I laughed too • Replacement – I laughed when I came and saw it • Interchange • On arrival I gaped and smirked A ’condensed’ style A ’chatty’ style
  18. 18. Ethos •Ethos is more than a ’mere’ style.
  19. 19. Dit ethos?
  20. 20. When two people say the same, it does not make the same impression Transplantationsgruppen og Sundhedsstyrelsen 2008
  21. 21. Who will make you feel like paying tax? Skatteministeriet 2004
  22. 22. Interesting ethoses in politics Very fast moving ethos (Lack of well known terminal ethos – yet a winner Very strange moving ethos (quite a lack of phronesis, yet a winner)
  23. 23. Basic Ethos term • The reception of your ethos is the privilege of the audience • (in other words: It’s for you to know but for them to decide or Beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder)
  24. 24. Indirect appeal: Showing • Everything that shapes an ethos without direct reference to the speakers – Proof (ex statistics) – Examples and anecdotes – Style (logos, pathos, (ethos))
  25. 25. Direct appeal: Saying • When not shaping the audience by showing who you are, but when you directly make references to yourself. – I have done this, I have tried that... – My personal conviction is, I strongly feel that.... – Remember: Never forget to include it, but handle with care!
  26. 26. The three Aristotle virtues •Phronesis •Areté •Eunoia
  27. 27. Phronesis: Knowledge • To appear knowledgeable • Wisdom and practical sense in relation to the subject matter in question • You need to have a legitimate reason to deal with the subject • You need to establish some authority (ex by direct appeal in the beginning) • Is more or less equal to ‘a skilled person’ (DA: faglig dygtighed)
  28. 28. Areté: Virtue • A speaker whose motives and values are considered sympathetic in the eyes of the audience is more likely to be received as credible • Indirect: To appear sympathetic • Direct: To say you are sympathetic • Is more or less equal to social competence
  29. 29. Eunoia: Benevolence • The opposite of paranoia: The speaker wants the best for the audience and takes them seriously • The impression that you will give and not expect anything in return • Proper use of direct appeal projects eunoia • Prerequisite: Genuine interest in the audience
  30. 30. McCroskey og ’the cycle of ethos’ • Initial Ethos – before and when you enter the stage • Derived Ethos – while you speak • Terminal Ethos – the sum of the former and latter • Source: McCroskey (1968): Ethos: A dominant Factor in Rhetorical Communication. From: An Introduction to Rhetorical Communication
  31. 31. Ethos according to McCroskey • Ethos is actually not something the speaker has • Ethos is created in the mind of the audience • Thus: Master the context. And if you break any rules, be aware that it is ‘a calculated risk’
  32. 32. Inital Ethos • The height of the bar before you open and right when you open your mouth is determining how much you can move the audience in your direction • Means: – Sponsorship effect – Background – Personal attributes – Appearance
  33. 33. Derived ethos • The withdrawal of your personal ethos account while you speak. • High credit balance: You will not face bankruptcy • Low credit balance: Handle with care! • Means – Goodwill – Rhetorical style – Proof/evidence – Ethos-loan from qualified sources – Delivery
  34. 34. Terminal ethos • The sum of 1 + 2 • ”Todays terminal ethos is tomorrows initial ethos”
  35. 35. Ethical considerations • Vir bonus dicendi peritus, Qvintilian said • It is a good man that speaks well = hopefully you are a good person that want the good, the true and the beautiful to happen. Or else…
  36. 36. Analyzing audience • Hvad ved de om emnet • Hvilke informationer bliver jeg nødt til at give • Hvilken interesse kan jeg forudsætte • Hvilke værdier deler vi • Hvad er vi enige om • Hvad er vi potentielt uenige om • Hvad er deres håb og mål • Hvad frygter de
  37. 37. Exercise • 2 X 2 (or small groups of 3): Compose a short speech in one of the appeal forms, using the right style for the form: • Front rows: Ethos • Middle rows: Pathos • Back rows: Logos • Context: This! • ‘Problem’: Persuade us that Nexus is the best bar in town. DOING IT IN DANISH IS OK! • One version of each appeal form will be presented up here • Be inventive (funny is ok) and we will discuss how clearly we can see the various forms. (don’t worry about memoria – we’ll live with that).
  38. 38. Can we identify • That logos appeals to the intellect? – Evidence, numbers, figures, quasi-logical reasoning etc • That pathos appeals to the emotion? – Vivid language, metaphors, ’ornament’, narratives ect • That ethos appeals through the speakers integrity – Initial, derived and terminal ethos. Direct and indirect. Phronesis, arete and eunoia-based reasoning
  39. 39. •Good luck with the contest!
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