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    Appelformer Appelformer Presentation Transcript

    • Ethos – and other styles EOK/IMK November 2010 Ida Borch
    • Last slide from week 43
      • Prior to making a speech:
        • Analyze the rhetorical situation
        • Argument: FOCUS – and find the right proof to support your claims
        • Arrange: Give the speech the right shape
      • Next time:
        • Analyze your own ethos in the situation
        • Use the right words for a fitting response
    • Today’s text
      • Gabrielsen & Christiansen
        • Chapter 6: The art of creating credibility
        • Chapter 8: The art of adapting, shaping, and ornamenting one’s language
      • I will be adding: McCroskey and his concept of ethos + a few other things
    • Aristotle says… Genres Predominant appeal form The informative (forensic) speech Logos og ethos The political speech Logos, ethos og pathos The ceremonial speech Ethos og pathos
    • Cicero…
      • “… insists that to succeed as a speaker, one has to adjust one’s language to all aspects of the given rhetorical situation.”
    • I think we all know by now…
      • That logos is appeal to the intellect
      • That pathos is appeal to the emotions
      • That ethos is appealing through the speakers integrity /personal credibility
    • Let’s look into Theofrast Theofrast, Theophrastos , ca. 372-287 f.Kr., greek scientist, believed to be the founder of botany
      • The grammatical purity of the language
      • The clarity of the language
      • The way the language is ‘dressed for the occasion’
      • The notion that language must meet momentum
    • The Theofrast virtues
      • Puritas
        • What gave you red marks in your essays in school
      • Perspicuritas
        • If you’re incomprehensible, this is what you’re violating
      • Ornatus
        • Equipment – not ornament! When properly equipped, your chance of survival is dramatically improved
      • Aptum
        • Right words at the right time
    • The Theofrast virtues
      • Puritas
        • What gave you red marks in your essays in school
      • Perspicuritas
        • If you’re incomprehensible, this is what you’re violating
      • Ornatus
        • Equipment – not ornament! When properly equipped, your chance of survival is dramatically improved
      • Aptum
        • Right words at the right time
    • Oprust Ornatus!
      • Ornatus is not equivalent to ornament
        • As in filigree and decoration
      • Ornatus is equivalent to equipment
        • As in a soldier must carry the right equipment in order to survive the battlefield
    • That’s a good vending!
      • Quantitative reasoning: The more words and phrases to choose from, the more likely it is that you can find the right words for the context.
      • Qualitative reasoning: Stylistics and metaphors have become very important (and in fashion) in change- and knowledge management because we finally can agree on the fact that not only facts are useful persuasive means.
    • A recent example
    • Aptum Baby
      • Aptum today:
        • Narratives and storytelling (Because of you there is a woman in New Hampshire who…)
        • Analogies (It is like when…)
        • Concrete details (This is not about voting, this is about better schools in your community)
        • Living metaphors (We are a living, breathing organism) (the dead ones passes unnoticed, like ’time flies’ )
        • Repetitions (alliteration, anaphor, epiphor etc)
        • Rhetorical questions/dialogues
    • Clap traps jf. Atkinson
      • Lists of three
      • Build them up and knock them down
      • Antithesis
      • Source: Our Masters Voices, Max Atkinson
    • Which stylistic moves can you identify? http://www.youtube.com/user/barackobamadotcom?blend=1&ob=4#p/a/u/0/3GUHnoz2xFI
    • Quintilian four categories of change
      • Leaving out
        • I came. I saw. I laughed.
      • Adding
        • Firstly I came, and then I saw it, and then I laughed too
      • Replacement
        • I laughed when I came and saw it
      • Interchange
          • On arrival I gaped and smirked
    • Quintilian four categories of change
      • Leaving out
        • I came. I saw. I laughed.
      • Adding
        • First I came, and then I saw it, and then I laughed too
      • Replacement
        • I laughed when I came and saw it
      • Interchange
          • On arrival I gaped and smirked
      A ’condensed’ style A ’chatty’ style
    • Ethos
      • Ethos is more than a ’mere’ style.
    •  
    • Dit ethos?
      • Transplantationsgruppen og Sundhedsstyrelsen 2008
      When two people say the same, it does not make the same impression
    • Who will make you feel like paying tax?
      • Skatteministeriet 2004
    • Interesting ethoses in politics Very fast moving ethos (Lack of well known terminal ethos – yet a winner Very strange moving ethos (quite a lack of phronesis, yet a winner)
    • Basic Ethos term
      • The reception of your ethos is the privilege of the audience
      • (in other words: It’s for you to know but for them to decide or Beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder)
    • Indirect appeal: Showing
      • Everything that shapes an ethos without direct reference to the speakers
        • Proof (ex statistics)
        • Examples and anecdotes
        • Style (logos, pathos, (ethos))
    • Direct appeal: Saying
      • When not shaping the audience by showing who you are, but when you directly make references to yourself.
        • I have done this, I have tried that...
        • My personal conviction is, I strongly feel that....
        • Remember: Never forget to include it, but handle with care!
    • The three Aristotle virtues
      • Phronesis
      • Areté
      • Eunoia
    • Phronesis: Knowledge
      • To appear knowledgeable
      • Wisdom and practical sense in relation to the subject matter in question
      • You need to have a legitimate reason to deal with the subject
      • You need to establish some authority (ex by direct appeal in the beginning)
      • Is more or less equal to ‘a skilled person’ (DA: faglig dygtighed)
    • Areté: Virtue
      • A speaker whose motives and values are considered sympathetic in the eyes of the audience is more likely to be received as credible
      • Indirect: To appear sympathetic
      • Direct: To say you are sympathetic
      • Is more or less equal to social competence
    • Eunoia: Benevolence
      • The opposite of paranoia: The speaker wants the best for the audience and takes them seriously
      • The impression that you will give and not expect anything in return
      • Proper use of direct appeal projects eunoia
      • Prerequisite: Genuine interest in the audience
    • McCroskey og ’the cycle of ethos’
      • Initial Ethos
        • before and when you enter the stage
      • Derived Ethos
        • while you speak
      • Terminal Ethos
        • the sum of the former and latter
      • Source: McCroskey (1968): Ethos: A dominant Factor in Rhetorical Communication. From: An Introduction to Rhetorical Communication
    • Ethos according to McCroskey
      • Ethos is actually not something the speaker has
      • Ethos is created in the mind of the audience
      • Thus: Master the context. And if you break any rules, be aware that it is ‘a calculated risk’
    • Inital Ethos
      • The height of the bar before you open and right when you open your mouth is determining how much you can move the audience in your direction
      • Means:
        • Sponsorship effect
        • Background
        • Personal attributes
        • Appearance
    • Derived ethos
      • The withdrawal of your personal ethos account while you speak.
        • High credit balance: You will not face bankruptcy
        • Low credit balance: Handle with care!
      • Means
        • Goodwill
        • Rhetorical style
        • Proof/evidence
        • Ethos-loan from qualified sources
        • Delivery
    • Terminal ethos
      • The sum of 1 + 2
      • ” Todays terminal ethos is tomorrows initial ethos”
    • Ethical considerations
      • Vir bonus dicendi peritus, Qvintilian said
      • It is a good man that speaks well = hopefully you are a good person that want the good, the true and the beautiful to happen. Or else …
    • Analyzing audience
      • Hvad ved de om emnet
      • Hvilke informationer bliver jeg nødt til at give
      • Hvilken interesse kan jeg forudsætte
      • Hvilke værdier deler vi
      • Hvad er vi enige om
      • Hvad er vi potentielt uenige om
      • Hvad er deres håb og mål
      • Hvad frygter de
    • Exercise
      • 2 X 2 (or small groups of 3): Compose a short speech in one of the appeal forms, using the right style for the form:
      • Front rows: Ethos
      • Middle rows: Pathos
      • Back rows: Logos
      • Context: This!
      • ‘ Problem’: Persuade us that Nexus is the best bar in town. DOING IT IN DANISH IS OK!
      • One version of each appeal form will be presented up here
      • Be inventive (funny is ok) and we will discuss how clearly we can see the various forms. (don’t worry about memoria – we’ll live with that).
    • Can we identify
      • That logos appeals to the intellect?
        • Evidence, numbers, figures, quasi-logical reasoning etc
      • That pathos appeals to the emotion?
        • Vivid language, metaphors, ’ornament’, narratives ect
      • That ethos appeals through the speakers integrity
        • Initial, derived and terminal ethos. Direct and indirect. Phronesis, arete and eunoia-based reasoning
      • Good luck with the contest!