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  • 1. APA格式第六版 Ida Wu 2014年3月10日 1
  • 2. 何謂APA? APA 格式是指美國心理學會 (American Psychological Association) 所發行的出版手冊(publication manual) 有關論文寫作的規定格式。 依據 APA 的格式,文章的結構包括封面、摘要、本文、 參考文獻、註記、以及附錄與補充資料等部分。 2 上課教材:林天佑(2010)。APA格式第六版。取 自 f
  • 3. APA STYLE GUIDE APA Style is an editorial style that was established by the American Psychological Association (APA) to site sources in psychology, education, social, and other behavioral sciences. It is composed of rules and guidelines for the formatting of documents and many graduates use APA style for writing papers for master thesis or doctorate dissertation. The APA editorial style is not only used for the writing of psychology or science papers. It is also adopted by other writers as a standard writing style for research papers. 3
  • 4. I. GENERAL TOPICS A. Typing 1. The paper should be typed double-space on a standard paper (8.5” x 11”) with one inch margins on all sides. 2. The Font must be 12-point Times New Roman or Courier. 3. Left-aligned paragraphs indented with the “Tab” key. B. Writing in General 1. Use complete sentences in active voice, especially the first sentence of the paragraph. 2. Avoid using slang languages. 3. Spell out the words and do not use contractions like “it’s” or “they've”. 4
  • 5. I. GENERAL TOPICS C. Style Details in General 1. Avoid using first person pronouns like “I”, “you”, or “we”. 2. Avoid using sexist language (he, she) when referring to a person. 3. Use past tense in the abstract, introduction, and method, while results and discussion sections can be in the present tense. D. Abbreviations 1. Spell words out the first time they appear. 2. Avoid using too many abbreviations; one to three is acceptable. 5
  • 6. I. GENERAL TOPICS E. Numbers 1. Use metric units. (公制單位) 2. Spell out zero to nine, except in table or figure number, or a metric measurement. 3. Use numbers for 10 and above. F. Citations in the Text 1. Citing references in text is done in different ways, but mostly, it includes the last name of the author and the year of publication. 6
  • 7. I. GENERAL TOPICS G. Quotations 1. Include the page numbers for direct quotes. 2. A maximum of three to four quotes should be included in a 10-page paper. 7
  • 8. II. MANUSCRIPT ELEMENTS A. Title 1. This page includes: Article Title, Author’s Name, Author’s School/Affiliation, Running Head, Page Header, and Page Number. E.g. Running head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER 2. The title should summarize what the paper is all about in 10 – 12 words. 8
  • 9. II. MANUSCRIPT ELEMENTS B. Abstract 1. The abstract is found on Page 2. The term “Abstract” is written at the center of the first line after the manuscript page header 2. This section contains at least research topic, research questions, participants, method, results, data analysis, and conclusions. You may also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings. 9
  • 10. II. MANUSCRIPT ELEMENTS C. Introduction 1. Introduction starts on page 3, at the center of the page. Do not put the word “Introduction”. 2. Provide a brief description of the research question, indicating its importance and other related information. D. Method 1. Type the word “Method” at the center of the next double-spaced line. 2. Discuss how the study “was” performed. 10
  • 11. II. MANUSCRIPT ELEMENTS E. Results 1. Type “Results” at the center of the page. 2. Summarize the data collected. F. Discussion 1. This section should include the evaluation and interpretation of data in relation to the research problem. 11
  • 12. II. MANUSCRIPT ELEMENTS G. References 1. Type the word “References” at the top of a new page. 2. All citations made in the paper must be presented in this section. 12
  • 13. II. MANUSCRIPT ELEMENTS H. Other Sections 1. Author Note – Complete department affiliation, change of affiliation (if any), acknowledgements (financial support), person to contact (mailing address, e- mail). 2. Tables – each table should begin on a separate page and labeled as “Table 1” (or Table 2, etc.). 3. Figure Captions and Figures – presented on the last page of the paper. The figure caption is typed at the center of the page as Figure 1 (Figure 2, etc.) with the first letter in capital. 4. Appendices – Type “Appendix” at the upper center of the page and use Appendix A (Appendix B… etc.) for multiple appendices. 13
  • 14. REASONS FOR CITING 1. To give credit to originator of text or idea. 2. To provide source information, so reader can follow-up, if desired. 3. Protect yourself! (plagiarism) 14
  • 15. OUTLINE 壹、正文引註 貳、參考文獻格式 參、表格(Table) 肆、圖(Figure) 15 中文論文寫作中,要注意中文APA 和英文APA同時引用的小細節! 小細節 = 提升論文表現效度!
  • 16. 壹、正文引註 (CITATIONS) 1. 全文引用(quotation):一定要註明出處頁碼  …(Lomotey, 1990, p. 125)。  …(Lomotey, 1990)…(pp. 125-126)。  …(陳明終,民83,頁8) 2. 文意引用(paraphrasing):訓練「換句話說」的功力 16
  • 17. 壹、正文引註 (CITATIONS) • 一般高中生背負相當重的課業和考試壓力,因此擔心成績不 佳,往往多數時間均花費在溫書學習(Huang & Malina, 2002)。 • 根據Strong等人(2005)的研究調查顯示… • 臺灣根據2007至2010年教育部統計「各級學校學生運動參與 情形調查報告」歷年結果…(教育部體育署學校體育網, 2008,2009,2010,2011)… 17
  • 18. 壹、正文引註 (CITATIONS) 作者為一個人時: 1. 吳婉綺(2014)… 2. …(吳婉綺,2014)。 3. …(Porter, 2001)。 作者為二人以上時:兩人的姓名或姓氏全列,並用「與」 連接 1. Wassertein 與 Rosen(1994)… 2. …(楊雅婷、吳婉綺,2014)。 3. … (Huang & Malina, 2002)。 18
  • 19. 壹、正文引註 (CITATIONS) 作者為三至五人時:第一次所有作者均列出,第二次以後僅寫出第一位作者並加 et al. / 等人 【第一次出現】 1. Wu、Pender與Noureddine(2003)研究顯示… 2. …(江季蓁、劉影梅、何卓飛、洪嘉文、呂生源,2009)。 【第二次以後】 1. …(Wu et al., 2003)。 2. 江季蓁等人(2009)… 19
  • 20. 壹、正文引註 (CITATIONS) 作者為六人以上時:每次僅列第一位作者並加 et al. / 等人 作者為公司、協會、政府組織、學會等單位時:每次均使用全名, 但簡單且廣為人知的單位,第一次用全名並加註其縮寫名稱,第二 次以後可用縮寫,但在參考文獻中一律要寫出全名。 1. 行政院衛生福利部國民健康署【國健署】(2010)… 2. 國健署(2010)… 20
  • 21. 壹、正文引註 (CITATIONS) 括弧內同時包括多筆文獻時,依姓氏字母(中文用筆畫)、年代、 印製中等優先順序排列,不同作者之間用分號“;”分開,相同作者 不同年代之文獻用逗號“,”分開。 (Bravata et al., 2007; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008, 2010, 2012; Napolitano et al., 2003; Steele et al., 2009; 相子元等人,2012;高三福,1998;教育部體育署學校 體育網,2008,2009,2010,2011) 21
  • 22. 內文引註練習時間 22
  • 23. 壹、正文引註 Exercises Part I: 1. 以下先針對實用性做一定義。Booth(2002)認為實用性有四 項要素:有用性、效能、學習能力與態度。 2. 根據研究顯示,圖形以暖色系為主而寒色系為輔為最佳(黃 裩灰,2003 )。 3. 同版面文字以三種字型為佳,可利用顏色凸顯重點文字,但 文字顏色最多不可超過三種(楊欣哲、王超弘,1999) 。 23
  • 24. 壹、正文引註 4. Katz、Blumler 與 Gurevitch(1974)首先提出使用與滿足理論 (Uses and Gratification Theory)… 5. 滿足理論(Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch, 1974)主張… 6. 謝文全、林新發、張德銳和張明輝(1985)提出⋯ (第二次引用)謝文全等人(1985)提出⋯ 7. Instead, it should be an indispensable part of education (Norris, 1985; Paul, 1995; Perkins, 1992). 24
  • 25. 壹、正文引註 英文特定部分之引註 (< 40 words): She stated, “ The „placebo effect‟…disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner” (Miele, 1993, p. 276), but she did not clarify which behaviors were studied. Miele (1993) found that “the „placebo effect,‟ which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when [only the first group‟s] behaviors were studied in this manner” (p. 276). 25
  • 26. 壹、正文引註 英文特定部分之引註:(>= 40 words): Miele (1993) found the following: The “placebo effect,” which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited again [italics added], even when reel drugs were administered. Earlier studies (e.g., Abdullah, 1984; Fox, 1979) were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect. (p. 276) 26
  • 27. 貳、參考文獻格式 (ENDNOTE) 一、文獻排列順序 二、常用參考文獻格式:期刊論文、學位論文、研討會論 文、書籍、研究報告、網路資料… 27 使用的文獻格式關係到論文的專業度! 網路資料 vs. 期刊論文
  • 28. 貳、參考文獻格式:期刊 江季蓁、劉影梅、何卓飛、洪嘉文、呂生源(2009)。不同國家 兒童及青少年身體活動的推薦量與政策比較。國民體育季刊, 38(3),73-79。 Brodersen, N. H., Steptoe, A., Boniface, D. R., & Wardle, J. (2007). Trends in physical activity and sedentary behaviour in adolescence: Ethnic and socioeconomic differences. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 41(3), 140-144. 28 英文斜體 = 中文粗體
  • 29. 貳、參考文獻格式:學位論文 步靜蕙(2006)。高職學生運動行為介入研究-應用跨理論模式 (未出版之博士論文)。國立臺灣師範大學,臺北市。 Wang, S.-H. (2004). The effects of goal setting on female middle school students' physical activity levels and motivation toward exercise. (Doctoral Dissertation), Florida State University. Retrieved from 29
  • 30. 貳、參考文獻格式:研討會論文 林天祐(2008 年10 月)。透過親師合作提升學生學習效能:轉變中 學校親師關係的思維。「2008 臺北親師高峰會」發表之論文,臺 北市教師研習中心。 Liu, S. (2005, May). Defending against business crises with the help of intelligent agent based early warning solutions. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Miami, FL. Abstract retrieved from 30
  • 31. 貳、參考文獻格式:書籍 余民寧(2002)。教育測驗與評量:成就測驗與教學評 量 (第二版)。臺北市:心理出版社。 Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall. 31 美國以外之國家須註名出版地國別,美國之出 版地均註明州別,如New York, NY 或Boston, MA
  • 32. 貳、參考文獻格式:書的一章 盧玉琴(2007)。信度。在陳正昌、張慶勳編著,量化研究與統 計分析(頁111-138)。臺北市:新學林出版社。 Lee, T. W., Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1989). Goal setting theory and job performance. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Goal concepts in personality and social psychology. (pp. 509- 520). Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. 32 紙本書籍某一章,註明該章頁碼
  • 33. 貳、參考文獻格式:研究報告 潘慧玲(2000)。學校革新整合型計畫(一)。行政院科技部專 題研究成果報告(計畫編號:NSC87-2413-H-003-005), 未 出版。 教育部(2007)。快活計畫(編號:0960108965)。臺北市:教 育部。取自: 33
  • 34. 參考文獻練習時間 34
  • 35. 貳、參考文獻格式 Exercises Part II (Order): 1. Ennis, R. H. (1962). A concept of critical thinking. Harvard Educational Review, 32(1), 81-111. 2. Ennis, R. H. (1980). Eight fallacies in Bloom’s taxonomy. Philosophy of Education, 36, 269-273. 3. Ennis, R. H., & Millman, J. (1985a). Cornell critical thinking test, Level X. Pacific Grove, CA: Midwest. 4. Ennis, R. H., & Millman, J. (1985b). Cornell critical thinking test, Level Z. Pacific Grove, CA: Midwest. 35
  • 36. 貳、參考文獻格式 Exercises Part III (期刊): 1. 林生傳(1995)。我國公立高中升學率分配之成因與預測。 教育研究資訊,3(2),57-84。 2. Anderson, J., Lee, C., & Yang, Y.-T. C. (1995). Literacy teachers learning a new literacy: A study of the use of electronic mail in a reading education class. Reading Research and Instruction, 34(3), 222-238. 36
  • 37. 貳、參考文獻格式 Exercises Part IV (書籍 ): 1. 賈馥茗、王文科、謝水南、裘友善、黃坤生、張玉成 (1981)。教育與人格發展。台南市:復文。 2. Dillon, J. T. (1988). Questioning and teaching: A manual of practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. 37
  • 38. 貳、參考文獻格式 Exercises Part V (文集中論文與書籍 ): 1. 吳清山(2002)。國民小學行政組織再造之研究。載於潘慧玲 (主編),教育改革的未來(頁35-79)。台北市:高等教育。 2. Boehrer, J., & Linsky, M. (1990). Teaching with cases: Learning to question. In M. D. Svinicki & M. Linsky (Eds.), The changing face of college teaching (pp. 41-57). Washington, DC: Jossey-Bass. 38
  • 39. 貳、參考文獻格式 Exercises Part VI (學位論文): 1. 楊美珍(1998)。國中生參與評鑑數學教師教學知能之可能性。國 立彰化師範大學科學教育研究所碩士論文。中華博碩士論文摘要, 98N5076。 2. Yang, Y.-T. C. (2002). Use of structured Web-based bulletin board discussions with Socratic questioning to enhance student learning and critical thinking in distance education (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. 39
  • 40. 貳、參考文獻格式 專門及研究報告:  Edelson, P. J. (1998). The organization of courses via the Internet, academic aspects, interaction, evaluation, and accreditation. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED421644)  Osgood, D. W., & Wilson, J. K. (1990). Covariation of adolescent health problems. Lincoln: University of Nebraska. (NTIS No. PB 91-154377/AS)  潘慧玲(2000)。學校革新整合型計畫(一)。(國科會專案報 告,計畫編號:NSC87-2413-H-003-005) 40
  • 41. 貳、參考文獻格式:研究報告 潘慧玲(2000)。學校革新整合型計畫(一)。行政院科技部專 題研究成果報告(計畫編號:NSC87-2413-H-003-005), 未 出版。 教育部(2007)。快活計畫(編號:0960108965)。臺北市:教 育部。取自: 41
  • 42. 參、表格 (TABLE) 1. 使用表格的必要性:比較、彙整、摘要… 2. 文字解釋先於圖表 3. 在表格內不畫縱向直線 4. 表格最後底線加粗 5. 每一表格的大小以不超過一頁為原則 42
  • 43. 43
  • 44. 44
  • 45. 肆、圖 (FIGURE) 45 1. 使用圖的必要性:趨勢、統計圖… 2. 不論何種圖形均包括﹕標題、內容、註記三部份 3. 每一圖的大小以不超過一頁為原則
  • 46. 46
  • 47. 47
  • 48. 48
  • 49. 小補充 49
  • 50. 數字與統計符號 1. 某些特定數字不可能大於1 時(如相關係數、比率、機率值), 小數點之前的0 要去掉,如﹕r (24) = .26, p = .003 等。 2. 全文小數點位數取到哪位要一致 3. 統計符號均用斜體,如N、M、df、t、F 等 4. 推論統計數據,要標明自由度,統計顯著性除了標示p 值、效果 量、95%的信賴區間(即CI)應一併標明 50
  • 51. 51
  • 52. 52
  • 53. THE END 53