PHEVs Are on a Roll
Electric vehicles have come a long way in a shor...
whItE PaPEr

(for example, Saab, Volvo, Wattenfall           cal sector, there are various alternatives      tence scenar...
CHAPTER 3                                           ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES

age, mode (DC, single-phase AC, and           ...
whItE PaPEr

together with relatively limited battery      information systems to manage those            charging type o...
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Shaping a New Era in Smart Energy - PHEVs Are on a Roll


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Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles are shaping a new era in smart energy, using renewable energy to help lower the energy demand curve

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Shaping a New Era in Smart Energy - PHEVs Are on a Roll

  1. 1. CHAPTER 3 ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES PHEVs Are on a Roll Electric vehicles have come a long way in a short time, marked by energy efficiency gains that could drive changes in business and technology models. T he electric vehicle first made its a target of 1 million Plug-in Hybrid Electric tion mix; and the concept of smart grids appearance about a century ago, Vehicles (PHEV) in operation by 2015. focused on more efficient electricity dis- but it is only in recent years – Spain expects to achieve the same num- tribution. All of these improvements are months, to be more precise – that it has ber by 2014. underscored by a much greater degree of achieved breakthrough status as, quite It is certainly true that there exist pres- passion and personal involvement by the possibly, the single-most important tech- sures capable of driving the introduction end-user. nological development having a positive of the PHEV forward, but technological impact on society today. advances are the factors that underpin StakEholDErS anD UtIlItIES Climate change, over-dependence on and give coherence to its development. With technology as the underlying cata- fossil fuels, and the current economic There are several progressive improve- lyst, the scenario for electric vehicle use crisis have combined to impact the auto- ments being made in technology, materi- will include the impact and involvement mobile sector to a degree unforeseen, als, and power generation and supply, of various stakeholders. This consists of: THERE ARE SEVERAL PROGRESSIVE improvements being made in technology, materials, and power genera- tion and supply, which will support the deployment and use of electric vehicles in the coming years. forcing technological innovation to direct which will support the deployment and society itself, government and munici- its urgent attention toward the develop- use of electric vehicles in the coming pal entities, regulators, universities and ment of electric vehicles as an alternative years. They include: advances in battery research institutions, vehicle manufac- means of transport, and a substitute for manufacture and electronics (particularly turers, the ancillary automobile industry internal combustion engines. Many coun- in terms of power); the development of and its technological partners, battery tries are supporting the approach in their new communication protocols; ever more manufacturers, the manufacturers of political, energy and industrial planning efficient and flexible information tech- components, electrical and electronics directed toward the introduction of this nologies; the growth of renewable energy systems, infrastructure suppliers, com- type of vehicle. For example, the U.S. has sources in the electrical energy genera- panies dedicated to mediation, billing and payment methods, ICT (Information and WRITTEN BY Communication Technology) companies, and of course, utilities. Enrique Diaz-Plaza — IBM If the electric vehicle is to become a genuinely alternative means of trans- Enrique Diaz-Plaza is a technical architect in the energy and utilities industry for IBM Spain. He belongs portation, then this will depend on the to IBM’s worldwide Tiger Team which deals with Intelligent Utility Networks and related topics, such as involvement of, and interrelationship AMM or demand response. He also collaborates in different European work groups focused on electric between, the above groups. One example vehicles. Diaz-Plaza is an electrical engineer and is currently developing his Ph.D on these topics. The of this is the formalizing of various agree- author would like to acknowledge the contribution of Lola Salcedo, information technology architect at ments between certain stakeholders at IBM, for her support in preparing this article. both the national and international level Shaping a New Era in Energy
  2. 2. whItE PaPEr (for example, Saab, Volvo, Wattenfall cal sector, there are various alternatives tence scenario. Offline charging could be and ETC Battery in Sweden; Renault, for affecting this. These include: the least invasive method given the cur- PSA Peugeot Citroën, Toyota and EDF in • Substitution. This involves a rapid rent system of fuel distribution. A network France; and Iberdrola and General Motors exchange of vehicles and/or batteries, of “electricity stations” (as opposed to at a global level) and the establishment and the subsequent charging of both in petrol stations) could provide a dedicated of consortiums such as EDISON (Electric an offline mode. It would require shar- system of energy generation in a given Vehicles in a Distributed and Integrated ing of cars (vehicle usage and substitu- location. As for direct charging, given the Market using Sustainable Energy and tion) and battery charging stations for itinerant nature of user demand and his Open Networks) in Denmark. quick and automated battery exchange. or her expected freedom to choose a par- If there is one dimension, however, • Direct Charging. This includes regular ticular charging method or location, this which will be impacted most throughout charging points situated in car parks, introduces an element of greater uncer- the whole of the value chain, it is the elec- shopping centers and residences, and tainty, and impact on the electricity grid, trical one. From power generation to retail, providing battery recharge while the requiring a system that better adapts to the introduction of this vehicle will require vehicle is parked. There also need to be the lifestyle of the user. changes in current business models, and fast-charging points that could quickly foreseeably, in utilities operational models. charge a battery in 10 to 15 minutes. DIrECt ChargIng anD ItS IMPaCt The short-term aim is to provide electrical on thE ElECtrICIty grID energy for use in these vehicles in a more To examine the advantages and disad- Direct charging depends on various reliable and efficient way. vantages of the above methods, it helps factors – notably battery characteristics to note the various pilot projects and (directly related to vehicle performance) BattEry ChargIng IMPaCt research programs underway at both the and the range of time spans chosen to Given that charging could be the action conceptual and demonstration stages. carry out the recharge. Associated with having the greatest impact on the electri- These indicate the possibility of a coexis- these are other variables: charging volt- Different Battery Charge Profile 8.00 7.00 120V 15A Charge Profile 120V 20A Charge Profile 6.00 240V 15A Charge Profile 240V 20A Charge Profile 240V 30A Charge Profile 5.00 KW 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Hours/Day FIgUrE 1 Power output will determine charging times.
  3. 3. CHAPTER 3 ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES age, mode (DC, single-phase AC, and sible to fully recharge an EREV battery in different scenarios from the most favour- three-phase AC) and the characteristics about three hours. A fully charged battery able (slow charging at off-peak times) to of the charging systems employed: tech- would enable operation solely on electri- the most unfavourable (fast charging at nology, components and their location, cal power for approximately 40 miles, a peak times). With the latter we may find connectors, insulation, and the power and distance representing about 80 percent ourselves with distribution assets (e.g., control electronics. All of these variables of daily car journeys based on the current transformers) incapable of supporting the will influence the charging times, and will averages. For a scenario like this it would heavy load of instant energy consumption. vary according to the power input (more be possible to use a charging method of It is necessary to link electric vehicle power, less time) as shown in Figure 1. about 4 kilowatt/220 volts. charging to the daily energy demand Therefore, depending on the kind of If we analyze the impact in terms of curve and instantaneous power availabil- recharging, there will be an impact not energy supply and power capacity, there ity in such a way that charging impacts only on the characteristics of the indi- appears to be no medium-term problems the system as little as possible and maxi- vidual charging points but also on the sup- in supporting these chargings, accord- mizes the available energy resources. Ide- porting system. ing to the data above. This is, however, a ally, there would be a move toward slow Using extended range electrical vehi- matter which depends on each individual charging during off-peak periods. Fur- cles (EREV) such as the Chevrolet Volt or country and also on the power transmis- thermore, this kind of charging would not Opel/Vauxhall Ampera as an example, it is sion interconnections between them. In impact users as 90 percent of vehicles are estimated that annual home energy con- terms of the instantaneous power avail- not used between 11 a.m. and 6 p.m. Oper- sumption from vehicle charging could be able, the charging method will have a ating under such conditions would also around 20 percent of the total, although greater or lesser impact, particularly on permit the use of excess wind-generated some studies suggest this amount may the distribution assets, depending on how power during off-peak times, enabling a be twice as much, based on the customer it is carried out. Figure 2 shows how the clean locomotion device such as the PHEV profile. power varies according to the charging to also use renewable (clean) energy as its Based on the charging power input method and the time of day when it is in primary source. – and this is, of course, related to the use, taking into account the daily energy This all sounds reasonable, but the itin- methodology employed – it would be pos- demand curve. We can, therefore, identify erant nature of roaming vehicle demand, July 27th 2007 24hr: Total Loading for the Feder Under Study Base Load Scenario PHEV Case 1: (120V 15A) Charging @ 1am Penetration=10% 12000 PHEV Case 1: (240V 20A) Charging @ 1am Penetration=10% Total Loading at Substation (KW) PHEV Case 1: (120V 15A) Charging @ 7pm Penetration=10% 11000 PHEV Case 1: (240V 20A) Charging @ 7pm Penetration=10% 10000 9000 8000 off-peak load 7000 off-peak load 6000 5000 4000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Hours FIgUrE 2 The charging method and time of day causes power to vary Shaping a New Era in Energy
  4. 4. whItE PaPEr together with relatively limited battery information systems to manage those charging type of system would be the life, means that other variables such as issues, is required. This will enable the best option — though certainly complex to home charging versus remote charging optimal charging process (avoiding peak implement. Given the prominent role that with the ability to measure consumption times, and doing fast charging only when information and communication technolo- and set tariffs must be taken into account. necessary) and an intelligent measur- gies will play in such a system, it will be What will be the charging price? How will ing and tariff system. The latter may necessary to achieve consensus among charging be carried out when the vehicle be either managed by utilities through various stakeholders over methodologies is not parked at home, nor at its usual advanced meter management (AMM), or to be used, standards development, and charging centre? What method will be virtually through energy tariffs and physi- in establishing a regulatory framework used for making payments? Who will be cal economic transactions. Such systems capable of supporting all the mechanisms involved in developing all this infrastruc- should allow for the interaction of various and systems to be introduced. ture and how will it all interrelate? agents: end users, utilities, energy service We have already made good progress, companies (ESCO), infrastructure provid- and the electric vehicle could become SMart ChargIng ers, banks and other method-of-payment an example that drives change in other One system providing answers to these companies. business and technology models. It may questions is smart charging. Based on the well stimulate more rapid development concept, purpose and architecture of the ConClUSIon of smart grids, encourage the creation of smart grid, such technology can optimise Although there are still many unre- more efficient energy services and tech- charging in the most favorable way by solved issues around the introduction of nologies, and lead to greater development considering several parameters. These electric vehicles (for example, incentives, and use of renewable energy sources, may include: the current state of the elec- carbon caps, tax collection, readiness of including a generation and distribution trical system; the battery charging level; systems and business processes), the chal- scenario based on the V2G paradigm. tariff modes and associated demand- lenge associated with this means of loco- It also may open the door to new busi- response models which may be applied motion and its effect on current business nesses and stakeholders as well (such as (such as time of use, or TOU, tariffs); and systems and models is a fascinating one. the ESCOs) to introduce more dynamic, the ability to use energy distributed and From an electrical viewpoint, there would interactive demand response programs stored locally through an energy manage- not appear to be any significant impact and broaden the function of battery stor- ment system. on energy management in the medium age as a provider of spinning reserves and Smart charging would be capable of term, but perhaps more so in terms of ancillary services. These are all aspects deciding when to charge in relation to dif- power requirements. As an example, some for which it is now necessary to establish a ferent variables (for example, price and regions have adjusted to the massive basis for implementation and a short-term energy availability), and which energy introduction of air conditioning systems viability plan that will allow for the use of sources to use (in-home energy storage, over recent years. While we are reassured this technology with the aim of reaping its local and decoupled energy supply, plug-in as to the viability of electric vehicles, we recognized benefits. Are we ready to step to the distribution grid, etc.) Supporting are also alert to the possible significant up to the challenge? n the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) paradigm would impact of widespread vehicle charging, enable managing and deciding not only above all when considering a fast charging when and how to best charge the vehicle, scenario. but also when to store energy in the The special characteristics of battery wEBlInk >>>>> vehicle battery that can later be returned charging and its itinerant nature, the to the grid for use in a local mode as a predicted volumes of power outlet and More information and additional distributed energy source. energy, the current state of tariff systems, For all of this to be effective, a power the available technology, and the vision material can be found online at: and control electronics system (in both and state of deployment of smart grids local and global mode), supported by and AMM, all add up to suggest a smart EUL03004-USEN-00