Advanced Coaching: Accelerating the Journey from Good to Great - David Peterson
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Advanced Coaching: Accelerating the Journey from Good to Great - David Peterson Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Advanced Coaching: Accelerating the Journey from Good to Great David B. Peterson, PhD david.peterson.phd@gmail.com 14 November, 2013 Congresso Brasileiro de Coaching Sao Paulo, Brasil Copyright © 2013, David B. Peterson, PhD. All Rights Reserved.
  • 2. Propositions 1. Coaching works 2. Easy to be a good coach, hard to be a great coach 3. Human behavior is inherently complex: ―People are complex and the world is messy‖ (Peterson, 2006) 4. Great coaching constantly adapts to address the complexity, messiness, and uniqueness of each individual 5. It requires years of coaching experience and diligent practice to develop the advanced skills and capabilities for great coaching
  • 3. How do we know coaching works? A popular study reports that 77% of coaching participants showed improved relationships with their direct reports. Does that mean that coaching is:  Extremely effective?  Extremely ineffective?
  • 4. What if 77% improved when…  100% had a goal of improving relationships with direct reports?  50% had that goal?  0% had that goal and the purpose was to improve strategic thinking and time management?  The ratings for everyone improved from ―very ineffective‖ to ―ineffective‖?
  • 5. What if 77% improved when…  Their coaching program consisted of  Three one-hour sessions provided by recently certified coaches from a two-day training program?  A full year of weekly coaching from certified master coaches?  Ratings were based on:  Self-report?  Ratings from the direct reports themselves?  Ratings from trained observers?  12% didn’t accomplish any of their coaching goals?
  • 6. Coaching works? Well, here’s what the research says:
  • 7. But seriously… Coaching works (Peterson, 1993, 2010)  Personal testimonials, popular press, coaches’ marketing materials  Surveys and self-report ratings of participants (Bush, 2005; Davis & Petchenik, 1998; Kombarakaran, Yang, Baker, & Fernandes, 2008; Leedham, 2005; Seamons, 2006; Thompson, 1986; Wasylyshyn, 2003; Wasylyshyn, Gronsky, & Haas, 2006)  Surveys of and ratings from bosses (Peterson, 1993)  Surveys of HR purchasers / managers of coaching programs (Dagley, 2006; Leedham, 2005; McDermott, Levenson, & Newton, 2007)  Individual case studies (Blattner, 2005; Diedrich, 1996; Hunt, 2003; Kiel, Rimmer, Williams, & Doyle, 1996; Kralj, 2001; Libri & Kemp, 2006; Natale & Diamante, 2005; Peterson, 1996; Peterson & Millier, 2005; Schnell, 2005; Tobias, 1996; Wasylyshyn, 2005; Winum, 2005)  Organizational case studies (See Clutterbuck & Megginson, 2005; Hunt & Weintraub, 2007; Jarvis et al., 2006)  ROI evaluations (Anderson, 2001; CLC, 2004; Holt & Peterson, 2006; McGovern et al., 2001; Parker-Wilkins, 2006; Phillips, 2007; Schlosser et al., 2006)  Carefully designed, quasi-experimental studies (Evers, Brouwers, & Tomic, 2006; Finn, 2007; Finn, Mason, & Griffin, 2006; Grant, Frith, & Burton, 2009; Offermans, 2004 [see Greif, 2007]; Peterson, 1993b; Smither et al., 2003; Steinmetz, 2005 [see Greif, 2007]; Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004)  Literature reviews critically evaluating the above (De Meuse, Dai, & Lee,2010; Ely et al., 2001 ; Feldman & Lankau, 2005; Fillery-Travis & Lane, 2006, 2007; Jarvis et al., 2006; Joo, 2005; Kampa-Kokesch & Anderson, 2001; Kampa & White, 2002; Levenson, 2009; Mackie, 2007; Passmore & Gibbes, 2007)
  • 8. Plus some simple logic…. Many techniques are well-known to be effective in facilitating learning (Jarvis et al., 2006; Latham, 2007):          Goal setting (Locke & Latham, 1990; 2002) Communicating performance expectations (Buckingham & Clifton, 2001; Buckingham & Coffman, 1999) Feedback (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996; London, 1997) Enhancing self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) Behavioral practice (Druckman & Bjork, 1991) Spaced practice and repetition Reflection (Burkey & Linley, 2007; Seibert & Daudelin, 1999) Accountability (Holton & Baldwin, 2003) A trusting, supportive relationship (Lambert & Barley, 2002; Mahoney, 1991)
  • 9. So coaching works, but we have one small problem… We don’t really know how or why it works, or what works best, or whether one approach is better than others….
  • 10. “Great coaches ask powerful questions”  And so do good coaches, mediocre coaches, and bad coaches….  Common research problem: Sampling on the dependent variable:  If you only study subjects based on their success, e.g., Studying great coaches Benchmarking against the most admired companies   You can’t differentiate what works and what does not work We need to know what differentiates the most effective/successful coaching/coaches from less effective coaching/coaches.
  • 11. Good  Great? Five stages of expertise (Dreyfuss & Dreyfuss, 1986) 1. Novice  2. Advanced beginner  3. Work based on conceptual models and past experience. Can handle more complex situations. Typically rely on heuristics or surface features. Proficient  5. Use guidelines and rules based on context. Not able to handle exceptions or unforeseen problems. Competent (Good)  4. Focus on accomplishing specific tasks. Follow explicit rules & instructions. Have experience with wide variety of situations and challenges. Adapt approach based on principles and conceptual framework. Expert (Great)  Identify and solve problems intuitively, based on extensive experience and experimentation. See underlying patterns effortlessly and adapt well, even to complex and unique situations. Consistently generate superior performance.
  • 12. Advanced Coaching Easy to be good. Hard to be great.  Good coaches?  Competent, generally effective  Experienced: At least 3 years, 30 clients  Great coaches?  Mastery, deep expertise, versatile  Highly experienced: At least 10 years, 300 clients  Effective even with difficult, complex, challenging engagements (e.g., resistant, narcissistic) and novel situations
  • 13. Why is it so easy to be a good coach? (Peterson, 2010) 1. External, objective perspective   Validate or challenge assumptions Offer new perspectives 2. Create space for reflection, thoughtful planning 3. Positive, encouraging relationship is often a vehicle for change in itself 4. First steps of change are often easy and obvious 5. Provides accountability   Follow-up conversation Going public with one’s commitment
  • 14. Why is it so easy to be a good coach? 6. Readily available coaching tools (e.g., 360, MBTI) and models (e.g., GROW) 7. Many easy-to-leverage backgrounds and transferable skills: Consulting, psychology (organizational, clinical, counseling, social, developmental), HR, OD, trainer, teacher, helper… 8. Coaching is adaptive  Coaches learn as they work and they adapt their approach to what is most useful to the person  See the person’s reaction, ask what the person wants or prefers, get feedback on what is most useful  Coaches get multiple tries
  • 15. Why is it so easy to remain a good coach? 9. Sometimes good is good enough 10. Coaches fall in love with their tools 11. Want to maintain a great relationship that is mutually rewarding – reluctant to really stretch, challenge client 12. Easy to place blame elsewhere when it doesn’t work, rather than ask yourself what you could have done differently Rigorous self-examination and critique is hard
  • 16. Why is it so hard to become a great coach? (Peterson, 2010) 1. Long cycle time with slow, distal outcome feedback  It takes a long time to see the real, lasting outcome and impact  Immediate feedback is often deceptive  Difficult to connect any specific factor to outcomes
  • 17. Why is it so hard to become a great coach? (Peterson, 2010) 2. People are prone to self-serving biases (Kahneman, 2011)  Confirmation bias People are more likely to confirm beliefs than to challenge them, even when they have no vested interest in the beliefs.‖ (Gavetti & Rivkin, 2005, p. 59) When I am successful, it’s clear evidence that my approach works. When I’m not successful, it’s clear that something external got in the way…  Fundamental attribution error More likely to attribute personal success to our own skill and personal failure to extenuating circumstances. Tend to explain other people’s actions by their character traits with little regard for the power of circumstances
  • 18. Why is it so hard to become a great coach? (Peterson, 2010) 3. Coaching is a complex, multifaceted process  Probabilistic: Nothing works 100% of the time  Pleiotropic: Same coaching behavior can produce different outcomes  Polygenic: Different coaching behaviors may produce same outcome ** Coaches get multiple tries, but we are not necessarily good at extracting the right lessons
  • 19. Brief tangent: The Development Pipeline (Peterson, 2006) INSIGHT MOTIVATION Do people know what to develop? Are they willing to invest the time and energy it takes? CAPABILITIES Do they have the capabilities they need? REALWORLD PRACTICE Do they have opportunities to apply their capabilities at work? ACCOUNTABILITY Do they internalize their capabilities and feel accountable to actually improve performance and results?
  • 20. Why is it so hard to become a great coach? (Peterson, 2010) 4. Some aspects of coaching are seductive….  Insight, asking provocative questions, offering feedback, giving advice are easy, quick, tangible Things the coach can directly impact and get credit for  Real-World Practice is slow, tedious, frustrating, unpredictable The person does the hard work; rarely does the coach get credit Absolutely necessary for real change  Great coaching appears relatively effortless The person feels like they’re doing most of the work The coach doesn’t much credit
  • 21. Learning is easy, real change is hard  Two different aspects 1. Learning - Acquiring new competencies: Enhancing how much people learn during coaching. 2. Performing (real change) - Applying new competencies: Enhancing how much people apply what they learn to real-world settings to actually improve performance.  The paradox: Techniques that enhance applying tend to interfere with acquiring  ―The crux of the problem is that learning and performance are not the same… procedures that enhance performance during training may or may not enhance long-term retention and transfer; conversely, procedures that introduce difficulties for the learner and impair performance during training may foster durable and flexible posttraining skills‖ (Druckman & Bjork, 1991, pp. 24-25)
  • 22. Why is it so hard to become a great coach? 5. Requires 10,000 hours of rigorous practice to develop mastery-level expertise for complex behaviors (Colvin, 2010)   Consider complexity of the task as well as number of completed cycles, so you can see final outcomes Deliberate practice & reflection – ―experts in how to practice‖ Specific goals to improve performance Critically examine minute behaviors and skills - Concentrate on technique as much as outcome Systematic experimentation with other approaches Rigorous observation and self-reflection Objective feedback from others Continually test assumptions & build new, better mental models Repeat frequently – occasional practice does not work
  • 23. Bonus: Insights from neuropsych  Conscious processing (e.g., paying attention, working memory) is a limited resource (Rock, 2006; Rock & Schwartz, 2006)   Prefrontal cortex is small, uses lots of energy, and can only do one thing at a time Similarly, willpower and discipline are limited, depletable resources (Gaillot et al. 2007)  What we pay attention to and repeat rewires the brain’s neurons   Having to think and come up with your own answers fosters more brain activity and faster rewiring than being told answers Limbic system is hard-wired to interpret certain things as threats.   May be activated by power, negative feedback, uncertainty, lack of control, etc., Limbic system can divert resources from PFC
  • 24. Does it matter if someone works with a good coach or a great coach?
  • 25. “What you don’t know might kill you” (Begley & Interlandi, 2009) ―Greatness‖ in cancer treatment 1. Really severe cancers: Very low survival rate regardless of treatment. 2. Relatively minor cancers: High survival rate relatively independent of treatment. 3. Moderately severe cancers: Expertise, sound judgment and swift action make a huge swing in survival rates.   Doctors who go with their instincts or based on single past experiences are not as good as those who consistently rely on statistical averages for their treatment. Those who have lots of experience are better at diagnosing more precisely.
  • 26. Good is the enemy of great (Gawande, 2004) ―Greatness‖ in treating cystic fibrosis: Patients’ expected life spans   At average treatment centers: 30 years At top centers: 46 years ―Warwick’s world view... excellence came from seeing, on a daily basis, the difference between being 99.5% successful and being 99.95% successful.‖  99.5% success = 84% chance you will get sick in one year  99.95% success = only 17% chance of getting sick in one year
  • 27. Novice  Competent  Expert  Novice: Guided by rules and tools  How do I do this?  What do I do next?  Competent: Guided by personal experience and conceptual models   What do I think would be helpful? Expert: Guided by the client and the context  What does the learner need?  What will be most useful to them?
  • 28. Puzzle, problem, or mystery? (Lazar & Bergquist, 2003; Snowden & Boone, 2007) Puzzle One-dimensional, can be clearly defined Has a correct answer, clear criteria Simple – clear cause and effect Problem Multidimensional; multiple possible answers, reasonable criteria Requires judgment, discernment; not more data Complicated – cause and effect are discoverable Mystery No correct answer; emergent, unpredictable Defy definition and suitable criteria Complex – can’t know effect until you have the cause Wicked – action produces unanticipated consequences
  • 29. Intentional Coaching: What kind of coach do you want to be? My approach to coaching is pragmatic, results-focused, actionoriented, and guided by two key principles: 1. Be the kind of coach that I would like to work with. This principle has led me to truly partner with people, to focus on accomplishing what is most important to them and their organizations, and to emphasize the most pragmatic and useful approaches we can find, all in the context of a positive, supportive relationship. 2. Aim to be a great coach; never settle for being a good coach—this means a constant commitment to finding faster and better ways to achieve results through coaching. The focus of my coaching is always on finding the most useful ways to create the greatest value for my clients.
  • 30. Reflecting on reflection: 4 directions (Peterson, 2010) Look inward Who do I want to be? What am I trying to accomplish? What matters to me: Principles, values? Look outward What does it take to be successful? What matters to others? How do others see me? Look back What new things have I tried? What worked? What didn’t? What have I learned so far? Look forward What will I do differently? What do I need to do to keep learning?
  • 31. A calendar for reflection (Peterson, 2010) Daily (1 min) What new thing did I try today? What one thing will I do differently tomorrow? Weekly (5 min) What progress did I make last week? What do I need to focus on this week? Monthly (10 min) How am I doing on my learning objectives? What do I need to do to keep learning? Quarterly (15 minutes) How am I doing on my development? What is most important going forward? Annually (1 hour) Where do I stand relative to what matters to me? Where do I want to be a year from now and how do I get there? What do I need to do to manage my learning more effectively? Decadely (1 day) Who do I want to be? What values do I want to live by? How am I doing against them? What do I need to do in the next 5 years to accomplish what matters most?
  • 32. We learn more from reflecting on our experiences than from experience itself. — John Dewey (1933) —
  • 33. Implications and advice: What does this mean for you?
  • 34. Advice for any level: Novice, competence, mastery 1. Get immediate feedback from clients   2. What did you learn today and what did I do that helped make that happen? What was of greatest value to you today and why? Get long-term feedback from clients: End of engagement or months later     What has changed for you as a result of our coaching? Looking back on the entire experience, what was most helpful about our coaching and why? What did I do that made a difference and what kind of difference did it make? What could I have done to make the experience more effective?
  • 35. Advice for any level: Novice, competence, mastery 3. Self-reflection (McGonagill, 2002) or critical reflection with someone else       4. What kind of coach do I want to be? What do I need to do to become that kind of coach? What are my goals in this coaching session? What am I doing that gets in my way? What would I like to be more effective at? What do I really need to become more effective at? What am I doing mindlessly out of habit and what might be a more effective way to think about or approach that? What did not go well and what could I have done differently, even if it wasn’t clearly under my control? Study the broad knowledge-base relevant to coaching
  • 36. Advice for developing mastery 1. Experiment: Systematically try new things in a variety of situations 2. Push yourself: Set challenging goals    3. Push yourself out of your comfort zone with clients   4. Make real progress asking only three questions Reduce average time-to-outcome in half Get clients to say ―wow, that was helpful‖ in first 10 minutes. Find ways to stretch with current clients Take on wider variety of issues and more challenging situations Rigorously practice what is most difficult for you    Identify and acknowledge it Critique yourself against a high standard Try it over and over until you are successful and it feels natural
  • 37. Advice for developing mastery 5. Relentlessly reflect on each experience         6. Am I being the kind of coach I seek to be? What worked and what didn’t? Why? Where was I coasting? Why? What was I missing? Why? What was I avoiding? Why? What is the client struggling with or failing to do as fast as I would like and what am I going to do to impact that? What frustrates me about this client and how do I need to change to impact that? What do I need to do differently to advance my skills before next session? Seek coaching and supervision from master coaches and others to stretch & challenge you from different perspectives
  • 38. The more you crash, the more you learn You have to make a choice. If you stay inside your comfort zone, you can make it. If you go outside, you fall. If you go on the edge, you win. Racing is a process of learning where that edge lies. — Steve Podborski —
  • 39. Appendix
  • 40. Coaching also requires trusting relationship (Peterson, 2010) PARTNERSHIP INSIGHT Do Do people people trust you know enough what to to work develop? with you? MOTIVATION Are they willing to invest the time and energy it takes? CAPABILITIES Do they have the capabilities they need? REALWORLD PRACTICE Do they have opportunities to apply their capabilities? ACCOUNTABILITY Do they feel accountable?
  • 41. GAPS The person’s view Others’ views Where the person is Where the person is going Abilities How they see Goalsmatters to & Values What themselves the person Perceptions How others see Success Factors What matters the person to others Copyright ©2007, Personnel Decisions International Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • 42. Clear Goals, Conscious Choice, Effective Action (Peterson, 2010) Clear Goals • What are your goals? What are you trying to accomplish? • Goals drive behavior • There are always multiple goals Conscious Choice • What are your options? What choices do you have? • Help person generate their own options • Help them compare pros & cons of each option against their goals Effective Action • What’s the most effective thing you can do right now? • Help them create a plan • Help them visualize acting on it step-by-step