11/21/2013

1
Outline
Introduction
Original Motivation
What is a Battery?
Battery Demands
Battery Operation

Modern & Developing Power S...
Original Motivation

http://www.wallpaper4me.com/images/wallpapers/ironmanarcreactor
-609517.jpeg

11/21/2013

Powering th...
What is a Battery?
“A controlled reaction designed to convert
chemical potential energy into electrical
energy for use as ...
Comparing Performance Efficiency

11/21/2013

Powering the Future

5
Consumer Demands
• Cheap
• Safe
• Light

• Small
• High Capacity

• Longevity

11/21/2013

Powering the Future

6
Choosing What to Work With

http://0.tqn.com/d/chemistry/1/0/8/d/1/PeriodicTableWallpaper.png

11/21/2013

Powering the Fu...
Energy Density

11/21/2013

Powering the Future

8
Importance of Efficiency
Capacity (Total Power Stored)
Power (W)

Longevity (Rate of Dissipation)
Energy (W/h)

Rechargeab...
(Lithium) Ion Battery Operation

http://www.maximumpc.com/files/u90693/li-ion_full.jpg

11/21/2013

Powering the Future

1...
Modern Batteries
Drawbacks
• Rechargeable batteries tend to have lower density
•
•
•
•

Gradually loose capacity
Limited n...
Zn-Air
Pros
• Comparable storage life with seal in place
• High efficiency
• Potential to be cheaper than Lithium based ba...
(Hydrogen) Fuel Cell
Pros
• Comparable energy density
• High efficiency
• No toxic bi-products

Cons
• High volume to stor...
Super-Capacitors
Pros
• Safer than Li-Ion batteries
• Quick to charge
• Large number of reusability cycles
• Don’t overhea...
Reactors
The Good
• Extremely high energy density
• Physically plausible
• Large capacity: no need for a recharge

The Bad...
Nuclear Fission (Uranium-235)
Advantages
• High Energy
• Common power conversion process
• Viable energy production means
...
Nuclear Fission (Thorium)
Pros
• 10 – 10 000 less radiation than Uranium
• On/Off functionality with neutrons
• 3x More ab...
Nuclear Fusion (Hydrogen)
How is it Created?
• Hydrogen is already a common element
• Deuterium is naturally abundant
• Tr...
Antimatter
How is Antimatter Created?
• β⁺ Radiation Decay
• Energetic Celestial Events
• Thunderstorms
• Atom Smashers (C...
Conclusion

http://periodictable.com/Samples/0
30.7/s9s.JPG

http://images.nationalgeographic.com/w
pf/mediacontent/photos...
References
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium-ion_battery
• http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Nuclear_Che...
Questions?
“People would like better batteries but
they are wary of making investments.
What is required is both a technol...
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Powering the Future - In Search of a Better battery

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  • Read through outline
  • While processing speed has increased exponentially, battery density has more or less increased linearly
  • - Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume or mass
  • - Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume or mass
  • - No longer dealing with ions and electrons
  • Transcript of "Powering the Future - In Search of a Better battery"

    1. 1. 11/21/2013 1
    2. 2. Outline Introduction Original Motivation What is a Battery? Battery Demands Battery Operation Modern & Developing Power Sources Lithium Based Zinc Based Hydrogen Fuel Cell Super-Capacitors Reactors as Batteries Thorium Uranium Hydrogen Antimatter Conclusion 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 2
    3. 3. Original Motivation http://www.wallpaper4me.com/images/wallpapers/ironmanarcreactor -609517.jpeg 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 3
    4. 4. What is a Battery? “A controlled reaction designed to convert chemical potential energy into electrical energy for use as a power source, for a predictable time, output, & operating temperature” 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 4
    5. 5. Comparing Performance Efficiency 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 5
    6. 6. Consumer Demands • Cheap • Safe • Light • Small • High Capacity • Longevity 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 6
    7. 7. Choosing What to Work With http://0.tqn.com/d/chemistry/1/0/8/d/1/PeriodicTableWallpaper.png 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 7
    8. 8. Energy Density 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 8
    9. 9. Importance of Efficiency Capacity (Total Power Stored) Power (W) Longevity (Rate of Dissipation) Energy (W/h) Rechargeables (Charge Rate) Energy (W/h) http://www.seriouswheels.com/pics-2012/r-z-0-9/2012-Tesla-ModelS-Static-1-1920x1440.jpg 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 9
    10. 10. (Lithium) Ion Battery Operation http://www.maximumpc.com/files/u90693/li-ion_full.jpg 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 10
    11. 11. Modern Batteries Drawbacks • Rechargeable batteries tend to have lower density • • • • Gradually loose capacity Limited number of recharge cycles Wasted energy to heat EV Batteries can be up to $20 000 Improvements • +5% capacity every year • Other Lithium based batteries are in development • Reliable & functional 100 J/g – 2000 J/g 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 11
    12. 12. Zn-Air Pros • Comparable storage life with seal in place • High efficiency • Potential to be cheaper than Lithium based batteries Cons • Difficult to recharge (50% efficiency) • Mechanical recharge is not ideal • Air-flow http://www.legitreviews.com/images/reviews/887/energizer_zinc_air_battery.jpg 1500 J/g – 5000 J/g 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 12
    13. 13. (Hydrogen) Fuel Cell Pros • Comparable energy density • High efficiency • No toxic bi-products Cons • High volume to store H2 & Water • Dangerous reactant (Hindenburg) • Not “rechargable” http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/archive/1/1b/20100625175719!Fuel_C ell_Block_Diagram.svg 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 13
    14. 14. Super-Capacitors Pros • Safer than Li-Ion batteries • Quick to charge • Large number of reusability cycles • Don’t overheat Cons • 5-20x less energy density than Li-Ion • Higher self discharge 10 J/g – 200 J/g 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 14
    15. 15. Reactors The Good • Extremely high energy density • Physically plausible • Large capacity: no need for a recharge The Bad • Difficult to stabilize, turn on/off (critical mass) • Expensive to produce • Potentially fatal (radiation, nuclear bomb) Photo by of kilehalliday on wordpress.com 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 15
    16. 16. Nuclear Fission (Uranium-235) Advantages • High Energy • Common power conversion process • Viable energy production means Challenges • Radioactive by-products • Needs to be carefully controlled to avoid a meltdown • Dangerous for decades after a meltdown 8.20 x 108 J/g 11/21/2013 Powering the Future http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nuclear_fission.svg 16
    17. 17. Nuclear Fission (Thorium) Pros • 10 – 10 000 less radiation than Uranium • On/Off functionality with neutrons • 3x More abundant than Uranium Cons • Fabricating the fuel is expensive • Not much research completed on it • New investment necessary to get off the ground http://www.extremetech.com/wpcontent/uploads/2013/07/thorium-thor-get-it348x196.jpg 1.64 x 1010 J/g 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 17
    18. 18. Nuclear Fusion (Hydrogen) How is it Created? • Hydrogen is already a common element • Deuterium is naturally abundant • Tritium needs to be synthesized Challenges • Must be sustained at high temperatures • Difficult to reach critical mass (Coulomb barrier) • Difficult to sustain reaction without meltdown http://d1jqu7g1y74ds1.cloudfront.net/wpcontent/ uploads/2010/05/sunearthcompared.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7 /78/FusionintheSun.svg 0.6 - 3.4 x 1011 J/g 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 18
    19. 19. Antimatter How is Antimatter Created? • β⁺ Radiation Decay • Energetic Celestial Events • Thunderstorms • Atom Smashers (CERN) • Sufficiently High Temperatures e¯ E=mc² e⁺ Challenges • Difficult to create (<10 ng produced at CERN) • Needs to be magnetically held in a vacuum while stored • Extremely expensive to create 8.98 x 1013 J/g 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 19
    20. 20. Conclusion http://periodictable.com/Samples/0 30.7/s9s.JPG http://images.nationalgeographic.com/w pf/mediacontent/photos/000/705/cache/70567_9 90x742-cb1377030609.jpg http://photos-a.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-akprn1/582500_320355248066703_1187524987_n.png http://www.k1.ua/uploads/news/2010/11/18/7df cbb53b916005ed12284058272e259ab4fe8ef.jpg 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 20
    21. 21. References • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium-ion_battery • http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Nuclear_Chemistry/Fission_and_Fusion • http://www.forbes.com/sites/energysource/2012/02/16/the-thing-about-thorium-whythe-better-nuclear-fuel-may-not-get-a-chance/ • http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/energy/2013/08/130821-supercapacitors/ • http://lerablog.org/technology/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-supercapacitors/ 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 21
    22. 22. Questions? “People would like better batteries but they are wary of making investments. What is required is both a technology push and a market pull.” - Donald Sadoway MIT Professor of Materials Chemistry 11/21/2013 Powering the Future 22

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