Out of Sight, Out of Mind


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... The Importance of Communicating our Role.
Electronic System brand; the necessity for it and its management.
Seminar to Uo.Liverpool Students: 5may11

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Out of Sight, Out of Mind

  1. 1. 1v0<br />Out of Sight ...... Out of MindThe Importance of Communicating our Role<br />Uo.Liverpool<br />5may11<br />
  2. 2. 1975: New Degree, Home, Job, Wife, Baby, Car, Phone ...<br />GPO Type 706 Telephone<br />Vauxhall Viva HB SL90<br />Electronics!<br />New Kid on the Block!<br />Ian PhillipsC1975<br />
  3. 3. 1975: Semiconductor Electronics Appears<br />Domestically we had...<br />Portable Radio, Hi-Fi, Colour TV, Pocket Calculator ... That’s about all!<br />Professionally we had...<br />Radar<br />Transmitters<br />TV Cameras<br />Basic radio satellites<br />Undersea cables (phone)<br />First desk-top computers<br />Stuart 5 Transistor Radio 1975<br />IBM 220PX c1975<br />Tech. Drives Market<br />The More ... The Better!<br />TI SR 51 Calculator c1975<br />BeoVision 3500 c1975 <br />
  4. 4. Today: Electronics Everywhere<br />But Invisible ...<br />Everywhere but Nowhere!<br />
  5. 5. 2004: “Electronics 2015” (aka The EIGT Report)<br />UK Electronics ...<br />Unknown, Invisible<br />Uncoordinated, Unfocused<br />Unquantified<br />... But Internationally Respected<br />Source: “Electronics 2015”. Published: DTI (HMG)<br />
  6. 6. 2004: “Electronics 2015”<br />Low?<br />UK Electronics ...<br />9,400 enterprises<br />Employing 250-500k people<br />Contributing 2% of GDP<br />... Believed Conservative Estimates!<br />Source: “Electronics 2015”. Published: DTI (HMG)<br />
  7. 7. 2005: Corrective Actions Taken ...<br />Electronic Leadership Council formed (ELC)<br />By DTI (>BERR>BIS) (Gov dept). Chairman: Harry Tee<br />Two, 3yr ‘terms’ ... Currently in abeyance.<br />Electronics-KTN formed <br />By BERR (>BIS): Later under the devolved QUANGO; TSB<br />Converged to be ESP-KTN (Electronics, Sensors and Photonics)<br />Separate from ICT-KTN (Digital Comms and Digital Systems)<br />UK Electronics Alliance formed<br />Alliance of the UK Electronic Industry Associations<br />Formed under ELC<br /> And the outcome is ...<br />
  8. 8. “Engineering UK 2009” Report<br />Better!<br />60%!<br />~50% in businesses <100 people<br />Electronics is ~5% of UK Engineering<br />...The Same Story across All Engineering<br />Source: Engineering UK 2009/10. Published: EngineeringUK (pka: ETB)<br />
  9. 9. “Engineering UK 2011” Report<br /> They trust us to do something ...<br /> ... To most people Science is “Indistinguishable from Magic” ... Magic Just Happens and doesn’t need maintenance.<br />
  10. 10. ...<br /><ul><li>We will legislate to enforce the freedom of government data. ... 
  11. 11. We will be the first country in Europe to extend superfast 100 mbps broadband across most of the population.
  12. 12. We will publish online every item of central government and Quango spending over £25,000 – including every contract in full ...
  13. 13. We will create a level playing field for open source IT in government procurement and open up government IT contracts to SMEs by breaking up large IT projects into smaller components. ...
  14. 14. We will also create a small IT development team in government ...
  15. 15. We will require all credit card providers to send their customers a data file containing information on pricing and usage....
  16. 16. We will publish online the names and salaries of all central government and Quango managers earning over £150,000 per year ...
  17. 17. We will build a smart energy gridthat enables a huge increase in the use of renewable energy technologies, and we will invest in the next generation of wind, marine and carbon capture technologies.
  18. 18. We will throw open the doors of Parliament by introducing a technology enabled Public Reading Stage </li></ul>...<br />Technology = IT<br />Gov. doesn’t understand either!<br />
  19. 19. 2011: Education Position ...<br />Science, Physics, Engineering, (Maths) <br />Numbers Declining. Courses Closing. Quality Questioned.<br />Perceived: Difficult. Boring. Poor ROI. No Career Pros. (In UK)<br />Preferred: Fame. Celebrity. Easy Option.<br />Technology = IT/ICT = Technology<br />Use, Sales and Support of PCs and Mobile Phones<br />Boring: Did it in (Primary) school.<br />Geeky (Pathetic)<br />Lost Opportunity ... ... For the UK<br />... Lack of Public understanding of opportunities and challenges ... Because We are not telling anybody about them!<br />
  20. 20. Has The Situation Improved Since 2004? ...<br />Most pundits would say its worse ...<br />We still don’t have accurate Numbers, Activities or Economic Contribution for this ‘sector’<br />It is no more Integrated, Unified, Recognised, Respected or Valued.<br />The Government (BIS) has just three (Possibly two) people responsible for ‘this sector’<br />The Government cannot see the difference between IT and Technology ... And neither can the Public.<br />Society (and Politicians) believe that Technology (ie IT) is bought from ‘out there’ and the UK has lost any significant role in it.<br />... In 2004 (UK) Society was Indifferent to us ... ... Now it Dismisses us as irrelevant!<br />
  21. 21. We’ve Got Lost ...<br />Somewhere between ...<br />Manufacturing..and.. IT/ICT:<br />Design is considered to be a sub-function of Manufacturing<br />Electronics is considered to be part of IT/ICT. <br />Along with Embedded Software, Optics and Mechatronics<br />..But we are NOT recognised as...<br />A Creative Industry ..or a.. Nano-Technology<br />Resp: Films, Media and Games<br />Physics, paints, medicine<br />This seems to be a particularly Western situation.<br />... The Lack of Clear Identity is not helping our situation!<br />
  22. 22. Why Are We Failing to Impress?<br />We let our technology’s success speak for itself !<br />But as we made the ‘interfaces’ easy, so our role became invisible.<br />Now Design is not classed as a Creative Industry, but a Part of Manufacturing<br />Electronics is indistinguishable from IT/ICT<br />... We have been too busy enjoying ourselves to notice.<br />So Why Are We Bothered Now?<br />Because our ongoing ‘serenity’ is being threatened by a society, Government and Economy which (believes) it doesn’t need us!<br />... So it is about time to address our Paymasters ... And that means understanding ourselves and them! <br />
  23. 23. This is The Computer ... Or is it?<br />NO … I'm Not the Computer …Just the Human Interface to it!<br />The Actual Computer is 'Down the Wire' ...<br />... Somewhere?!<br />
  24. 24. Computer: A Machine for Computing ... <br />Computation is a general term for any type of mathematical information processing ...<br /> ... State and Time are factors in this.<br />It includes phenomena ranging from human thinking to calculations with a more narrow meaning. Wikipedia<br />... But predominantly processes analogies (analogues) of real-world situations and processes; many in real-time.<br />NumeratedPhenomena<br />IN (x)<br />Processed Data/InformationOUT (y)<br />F(x,t,s)<br />
  25. 25. Planet Motion Computer – Orrery c1700<br /><ul><li>Inventor: George Graham (1674-1751)
  26. 26. Non-Quantised, Mechanical Computation</li></li></ul><li>Digital Computer – Baby 1947 (Reconstruction)<br />General Purpose, Quantised, (Digital) Electronic Computer<br />
  27. 27. Analogue Computer – AKAT c1960<br />General Purpose, Non-Quantised, Analogue, Approximate Computing<br />
  28. 28. Radio As A Computer<br />Vi<br />Vrf=Vi*100<br />Vro='Bandpass'(Vif*1000)<br />Vrf<br />Vif<br />Vro<br />Vif=Vrf*Vlo<br />Vlo<br />Technology (HW, SW, Mech, Optics) ...<br />Enables Product Options!<br />Vlo=Cos(t*1^6)<br />Single Purpose, Non-Quantised, Analogue, Approximate Computing<br />
  29. 29. The Phone As A Computer ...<br />
  30. 30. ... Cool Design ...<br />
  31. 31. ... But at Many Levels ...<br />
  32. 32. Inside the Case<br />Down 1-Level ... Modules<br />rear-facing 5 MP camera with 720p video at 30 FPS, tap to focus feature, and LED flash.<br />iPhone 4's vibrator motor.<br />Source ... http://www.ifixit.com<br />
  33. 33. Down 1-Level ... Modules<br />Inside the Case<br />The Control Board.<br />Source ... http://www.ifixit.com<br />
  34. 34. Down 2-Levels ... Sub-Assemblies <br />GPS<br />Bluetooth, EDR &FM<br />Source ... http://www.ifixit.com<br />Inside The Control Board (a-side)<br />Visible Design-Team Members...<br />A4 Processor, specified by Apple, designed and manufactured by Samsung ...<br />The central unit that provides the iPhone 4 with its GP computing power.<br />Inc. ARM A8 600 MHz CPU (also other ARM CPUs and IP?)<br />ST-Micro (3 axis gyroscope) - (ARM Partner)<br />Broadcom (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and GPS) - (ARM Partner)<br />Skyworks (GSM)<br />Triquint (GSM PA)<br />Infineon (GSM Transceiver) - (ARM Partner)<br />
  35. 35. Down 2-Levels ... Sub-Assemblies <br />Inside The Control Board (b-side)<br />Visible Design-Team Members ...<br />Samsung (flash memory)- (ARM Partner)<br />Cirrus Logic (audio codec) - (ARM Partner)<br />AKM (Magnetic Sensor)<br />Texas Instruments (Touch Screen Controller and mobile DDR) - (ARM Partner)<br />Invisible Design-Team Members ...<br />OS & Drivers, GSM Security; Graphics, Video and Sound ...<br />Manufacturing, Assembly, Test, Certification ...<br />Source ... http://www.ifixit.com<br />
  36. 36. Down 3-Levels ... IC Packaging<br />Memory ‘Package’<br />2 Memory Dies<br />Processor SOC Die<br />Glue<br />4-Layer Platform Package’<br />The A4 SIP Package (Cross-section)<br />The processor is the centre rectangle. The silver circles beneath it are solder balls.<br />Two rectangles above are RAM die, offset to make room for the wirebonds.<br />Putting the RAM close to the processor reduces latency, making RAM faster and cuts power.<br />Unknown Mfr (Memory)<br />Samsung/ARM (Processor)<br />Unknown (SIP Technology)<br />Source ... http://www.ifixit.com<br />
  37. 37. Down 4-Levels ... The SoC<br />Pocket ‘Super-Computer’ ...<br />10 Programmable Processors<br />4 x A9 Processors (2x2): ~10,000 MIP<br />4 x MALI 400 Fragment Proc: ~1Gp/s<br />1 x MALI 400 Vertex Processor<br />1 x MALI Video CoDec<br />Plus Dedicated Processors<br />Smart MMUs<br />Smart Interrupt Controllers<br />Smart DMA Engines<br />SmartQoS and Power Mgt<br />Smart Cache<br />Plus ... <br />Customer-Specific Peripherals!<br /> ... ~15 Processors, ~2GHz, ... At a Watt or so!<br />Block-Diagram for a typical 40nm Mobile Computing & Smart-Phone Platform Chip<br />
  38. 38. Transistors in 2011 ... <br />Simulated ‘views’ of a 30 x 30 nm transistor<br />Asen Assenova.asenov@elec.gla.ac.uk<br />... 3,000 would sit side-by-side in the thickness of a bank-note!<br />... A Few Hundred Billion (1011) will fit on a chip!<br />
  39. 39. Lots of Technologies and Know-How<br />Far more than Electronics (or Software) ...<br />Over many generations Scientists have learned how to Manipulate Matter itself (just a few aspects) ...<br />The immensely complex task of creating a ‘Smart-Phone’, out of the raw-materials that surround us, is achieved by Globe-Spanning Teamwork ...<br />Experts in parts of this Life-Cycle, contribute their own speciality; in-turn supported by others who contribute theirs ...<br />And as each team does its part; it employs local people, who in turn contribute to their Local Economy.<br /> ... Lots of very clever science; but not magic!<br />
  40. 40. Chronology of Science / Engineering<br />Cro-Magnon Man (Us!) – 35,000 yr ago <br />‘Developed’ from Homo-Sapien (Wise Human) 100,000 yr ago<br />Mission: Survive Nature (1,000 generations) ... Still doing it!<br />The Philosophers – 2,500-1,000 yr ago<br />Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Archimedes, ...<br />Mission: Understand Nature<br />The Scientists – 1,000-500 yrs ago<br />Galileo, Descartes, (1000 ad)<br />Electricity - William Gilbert (1600ad)<br />Mission: Manipulate Nature<br />The Engineers – 260 yrs ago<br />Industrial Revolution (1750: 8 gen’n)<br />Year 0: Science Meets Exploitation<br />Mission: Exploit of Nature<br />... Economic and Population Explosion<br />Universe – 13.6ByrEarth – 4.5Byr<br />Thomas Telford’s Iron Bridge (1778), Ironbridge, UK<br />
  41. 41. Products to Make Money<br />21c Businesses have to be Money Making Machines<br />Operations and Competition is Global and so are Investors<br />Nationality has little meaning<br />Business needs Product Differentiation<br />End-Customers buy Products, not Technology<br />Technologies enable Product Options<br />Business-Models make Money<br />New Products are Expensive/Risky<br />Design is a Cost/Risk to be Minimised<br />New Technology increases Cost/Risk ... ... But does not always increase Value<br />HW, SW, Mechanics, Optics, etc are just means to an end!<br />... Globalisation leads to Focus on Core-Competencies!<br />
  42. 42. We All Depend on Customers<br /><ul><li>‘Philosophers’
  43. 43. ‘Scientists’
  44. 44. ‘Engineers’</li></ul>Need enough ‘Cro-Magnons’ to value our output, to trade their ‘grunt’ for it!<br />If we need them to support the advanced stuff we are working on; then we need to explain it in terms they understand.<br />We are All Cro-Magnon in some areas.<br />Times are hard; Budgets will be cut ... <br />Make sure they understand what we are doing matters to them.<br />And make sure that it actually does/will !<br />
  45. 45. The Threshold of Magic<br />1: Clarke: Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. <br />Everybody has Cro-Magnon parts. A threshold, beyond which Demonstrable Functionality is Indistinguishable From Magic1!<br />Chemical Systems<br />Biological Systems<br />Economic Systems<br />Electronic Systems<br />The Incandescent Light:is the Threshold of Magic for most non-scientific, but well educated people!<br />... Its not a crime, to not understand!<br />... The crime is not explaining clearly when you are the one who suffers as a result!<br />
  46. 46. Not all Cro-Magnons are Equal<br />John Vincent Cable, known as Vince (born 9 May 1943) is a British politician; Member of Parliament for Twickenham since 1997; and the Liberal Democrats' main economic spokesperson since 2003. <br />12 May 2010: Appointed Business Secretary in the cabinet of the Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition government.<br />Cable studied economics at university and became an economic advisor to the Kenyan governmentin 1966. Advisor to the British government and then to the Commonwealth Secretary-General in the 1970s and 1980s. Chief Economist for Shell from 1995 to 1997.<br />Deputy leader of the Liberal Democrats in the House of Commons in March 2006 and acting leader for two months from 15 October 2007, until the election of Nick Clegg.<br />Cable has had a high profile since the global financial crisis of 2007–10 and has written several books on economics and trade.<br />Dr.Vince Cable Secretary of State for Business, Innovation & Skills <br />Undoubtedly a Clever Guy!<br />But no knowledge of:<br /><ul><li>Micro/Nano-Electronics?
  47. 47. HDL's, Embedded Software?
  48. 48. Opto., Displays, RF, Networks, Control?
  49. 49. Fabrication, EDA Tools, Design ?
  50. 50. Manufacturing, Quality?
  51. 51. IT & ICT Technology?</li></ul>.. Away from the worlds of business, finance and politics, Dr Cable is known to be a keen ballroom dancer. He has a "serious ambition" to appear on television show Strictly Come Dancing. <br />As Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills he has a series of issues in his in-tray, including energy security, job creation, promotion of trade and industry as well on-going debates about the future of institutions such as the Royal Mail. <br />David Frost, director general of the British Chambers of Commerce, said: "Vince Cable understands business and is popular with many small and medium-sized companies". <br />
  52. 52. We Need to Illustrate ...<br />What our Science/Technology is<br />Why ‘they’ need to care about it<br />Our Role in it<br />In Terms applicable to our Cro-Magnon psychology ...<br />Identity: A Distinct Name; a Bogey Man; a Banner.<br />Threat: Be afraid; be very afraid! (If you don’t look after it)<br />Reward: Sex appeal; Successful; Stylish; Money<br />Distinct from IT and ICT (which have a misleading and bad image)<br /> ... To Everybody, at Every Opportunity!<br />
  53. 53. “Electronic Systems” a ‘New’ Inclusive Identity<br />Excellent intuitive understanding for those with technical knowledge<br />Easily explained to those with limited backgrounds<br />Can be prefixed “Smart” and “Intelligent” as appropriate<br />Intuitively includes of ...<br />HW, SW, System and Methodology<br />Life-Cycle activities throughout<br />Philosophy, Science, Engineering and Business<br />Defined to Include ...<br />Visible (Self contained) ..and.. Invisible (Embedded) Systems<br />Mechatronic Systems<br />IT and ICT Systems<br />... TV, Transport, Logistics, Business, Industrial Control, POS, Communications, Networks, Optics, Displays, Lighting, Organic, Data, Security, RF, Analogue, Digital, Semi-Conductors, Integrated Circuits, Components, Sub-Systems. ...Tools & Methods ... Manufacture & Test ... Science & Technology.<br />
  54. 54. A Simple Public Message of Dependence<br />Electronic Systems Permeate our lives today ...<br />Visibly and Invisibly they underpin most of the improved services and exciting new products in our lives! (IT and ICT are included in this)<br />... With huge direct and indirect contribution to the UK Economy.<br />Further electronic miniaturisation (Moore’s Law) will fuel the Ubiquity ofSmart Electronic Systems tomorrow ...<br />They will underpin all advances in Business and Society<br />They will underpin all Environmental and Sustainableactions<br />They will be the outcome of distributed international activities<br />They will underpin every aspect of our lives ...<br />... They will be largely invisible; yet we will be totally dependent on them!<br />... The UK must maintain a share of pre-eminent, valued, roles throughout the life-cycles of Electronic Systems, to avoid reliance on the continued beneficence of other Nations! 1<br />Threat Message<br />Not confused by Technology Detail <br />1: NMI letter to Vince Cable. Jun10<br />
  55. 55. The UK’s role in Electronic Systems<br />No single country or company makes entire Electronic Systems today ... Less so tomorrow.<br />Created by hierarchical global business cooperation. <br />Operations contribute their valued (specialist) skills into their Life-Cycles in may ways and many positions.<br />And they contribute to their local economies as they do so.<br />The UK is a respected contributor throughout the Life-Cycle.<br />Thousands of companies, hundreds of thousands of employees, ~£30Bpa direct GDP contribution.<br />Predominantly small businesses from Science via Methods and Design to Manufacturing. Often with ‘different’ business models.<br />... The UK only needs to maintain a proportional position to avoid over dependence on the beneficence of others<br />Achievable Reward<br />Not confused by Technology Detail <br />
  56. 56. You and Electronic Systems<br />Enables you to position your work in relationship to a ‘model’ the Public can understand.<br />“I am an important ‘x’ provider into the Electronic Systems which you love so much and on which we all depend”.<br />“I am researching into ‘y’ a technology which will enable the next generations of Electronic Systems to be Smarter, Cheaper, Better Quality, Self Powered, etc.”<br />... Yet can be elaborated on for the Technical Audience ...<br />Deposited oxides on Ge.<br />Computer architectures<br />Languages<br />Methods<br />Mathematical Modelling<br />DSP<br />Business Model<br />
  57. 57. Electronic Systems andIndustry Association(s)<br />Has given NMI the opportunity to talk to the Minister on our behalf about the special interests of our group of members ...<br />Who does what? What are we good at? Do we contribute?<br />What would we like Gov. to do for us? <br />Has presented a context to respond to the Technology and Innovation Centres (TIC) call from TSB ...<br />So what do we want to achieve from this?<br />New members who now perceive the relevance to them ...<br />Up 6 in last month – <br />Wind River, Perforce, Thales Technology & Research, Thin Film Equipment, Deposition Technology, University of Manchester.<br />2 more in the pipeline – Goodrich and Innotec<br />Increasing the value of the Network to each of us.<br />
  58. 58. Putting ‘Smart’ into Electronic Systems<br />We help people to designSmart Electronic Systemswhich the World uses!<br />Not a ‘Traditional Business’<br />
  59. 59. ADDR[31:0]<br />Address<br />Incrementer<br />Scan Debug Control<br />Incrementer<br />Address Register<br />PC<br />CFGBIGEND<br />CLK<br />CLKEN<br />Register Bank<br />PC Update<br />WRITE<br />Instruction<br />Decoder<br />SIZE[1:0]<br />Decode Stage<br />nIRQ<br />nFIQ<br />B<br />Bus<br />Instruction Decompression<br />A<br />Bus<br />ALU<br />Bus<br />nRESET<br />Multiplier<br />and<br />ABORT<br />TRANS<br />PROT<br />Barrel<br />Shifter<br />Control Logic<br />LOCK<br />CPnOPC<br />CPnCPI<br />CPA<br />Read Data Register<br />Write Data Register<br />32 Bit ALU<br />CPB<br />RDATA[31:0]<br />WDATA[31:0]<br />The ARM RISC CPU Core<br />
  60. 60. 2140UW 8xARM966 from Agere<br />c1998<br />The ‘Lego-Brick’ IP Concept<br />Disruption to the Status-Quo<br />
  61. 61. More and More System on a Chip<br />Users require a pocket ‘Super-Computer’ ...<br />Silicon Technology Provides a few-Billion raw transistors ... <br />ARM’s IP makes it Practical to utilise them ...<br /><ul><li>10 Programmable Processors
  62. 62. 4 x A9 Processors (2x2):
  63. 63. 4 x MALI 400 Fragment Proc:
  64. 64. 1 x MALI 400 Vertex Proc.
  65. 65. 1 x MALI Video CoDec
  66. 66. Software Stacks, OS’s and Design Tools/
  67. 67. ARM Technology giveschip/system designers a good start. And ...
  68. 68. Improves Productivity
  69. 69. Improves TTM
  70. 70. Improves Quality/Certainty</li></li></ul><li>ARM Technology<br />Electronic System products incorporate more and more ARM technology –Processor, Multimedia and Software IP<br />Processor IP – Design of the brain of the chip<br />Physical IP – Design of the building blocks of the chip <br />Software & Development tools<br />... 700 Partners; 600 Licences in 200 Companies... Millions of developers; Billions of users<br />
  71. 71. The World’s Favourite IP Provider<br />1990 - "A barn in Cambridge"<br />12 engineers, in Cambridge<br />No Revenue, No Patents<br />Cash from Apple & VLSI<br />Spin-out of Acorn UK ...<br />BBC Computers in Schools (1981)<br />Roots in Uo.Cambridge (c1975)<br />... A Dream to become the Global Standard for Embedded CPUs<br />2011 - "The worlds leading IP Product"<br />Powering >90% of the smart Electronic Systems in the world<br />6BCPUs shipped in 2010 ... Growth ~25%pa; 30B total (>50x all PCs!)<br />FTSE 100 company: Revenue ~£406M, PBT ~32%, R&D ~30%<br />Cambridge HQ: 25offices/labs 1900people ww (750 in the UK) <br />95% revenue is foreign earnings<br />
  72. 72. Slip Electronic Systems Into Your World ...<br />Use the Term; tell the Story!<br />Tell your mum/dad, tell your friends<br />Use it in your reports<br />Use it consistently, use it correctly ...<br />Don’t use it Out of Context<br />Remember IT and ICT are a subset of it<br />Use it to illustrate Context for your work <br />In Research, Titles, Institutions, Papers, Reports, Industry ...<br />Always use it Capitalised and Together<br />“Electronic Systems” ..not.. “Electronics” or “Systems”;“Electronics Systems” or “Elect. Sys.”<br />Avoid acronyms until that audience is saturated (ES, SES, IES)<br />Prefix it with “Smart” and “Intelligent” to indicate future<br />ie: Older stuff is “Electronic Systems”; Current may be “Smart Electronic Systems”; Future may be “Intelligent Electronic Systems”<br />... Mission: Get everybody Using and Understanding Electronic Systems<br />TI to acquire National Semiconductor5 April 2011<br />DALLAS, TEXAS and SANTA CLARA, CALIF. – Texas Instruments Incorporated (TI) (NYSE: TXN) and National Semiconductor (NYSE: NSM) today announced they have signed a definitive agreement under which TI will acquire National for $25 per share in an all-cash transaction of about $6.5 billion.  <br />The acquisition combines two industry leaders in analog semiconductors, each with unique strengths in delivering products to improve performance and efficiency and convert real-world signals in electronic systems.  <br />The boards of directors of both companies have unanimously approved the transaction.<br />
  73. 73. “Electronic Systems” take Our Work to The World<br />
  74. 74. “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic!”Arthur C. Clarke.<br />The End<br />... of the Beginning...<br />
  75. 75. Reading & References<br />Electronics 2015: Making a Visible Difference (Referred)<br />DTI EIGT Report, HMG URN 04/1812, 2004.<br />Engineering UK 2009 (and 2011): The state of engineering (Referred)<br />EngineeringUK (ex Engineering Council), 2009 and 2011.<br />The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail (Disruptive Tech.)<br />by Clayton M. Christensen: HBS Press, 1997<br />Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology (Research in 21C)<br />by Henry William Chesbrough : HBS Press, 2003<br />The World Is Flat (Globalisation)<br />by Thomas L. Friedman: Penguin, 2005<br />Staying Power (Business)<br />by Michael Cusumano: Oxford, 2010<br />A Short History of Nearly Everything (A different view on what we know)<br />by Bill Bryson: Black Swan, 2003<br />The Voyages of the Beagle (Scientific Observation) – Free on-line<br />By Charles Darwin,1860<br />An Essay on the Principles of Population (Natural Competition) – Free on-line<br />By Thomas Malthus,1789<br />