Out Of Sight, Is Out Of Mind
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Out Of Sight, Is Out Of Mind

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For our role to be appreciated we must become more visible to the public eye. I propose the use of a little used (and not misunderstood) term, "Electronic Systems", as a banner behind which the ...

For our role to be appreciated we must become more visible to the public eye. I propose the use of a little used (and not misunderstood) term, "Electronic Systems", as a banner behind which the Electronic, Computer Scientists, Embedded System, Mechatronic, Physicists, Mathematicians, Process Engineers, etc can 'assemble' ... and thus speak with unity.

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Out Of Sight, Is Out Of Mind Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 1v0Prof. Ian Phillips Principal Staff Eng’r, Out of Sight, Sight ARM Ltdian.phillips@arm.com Visiting Prof. at ... is Out of Mind The Importance of VisibilityContribution to Industry Award 2008 Uo.Liverpool, 23feb12 & Uo.Plymouth, 2mar12 1
  • 2. Our 21c World ... Statistics ...  Population ~7,000,000,000  Growth rate ~2%pa  Life expectancy 60-80yr ... Mission: Celebrity, Leisure 2
  • 3. Engineering in the UK ... ... E i Engineering made th world we li i yet most people can’t see it ! i d the ld live in; t t l ’t 3
  • 4. The Pre‐Engineered World (2,500 BC ‐ 800 AD.) World Stats ...  Population ~100K ->1M (Outnumbered!)  Growth rate ~0.1%pa  Life expectancy 30-40yr ... Mission: Survive and Grow Technology ...  Low stone wall for a base,  Wooden poles and rafters.  Thatch, turf, or hides for roof.  Timber split using wedges wedges  Sharp stones for cutting  ... 3,500yrs of: “If it was good enough for my father’s, father s, father’s father’s father s, father; its good enough for me!... Engineering brought mankind out of the mud-hut ! mud hut 4
  • 5. Chronology of Science / Engineering Universe – 13.6Byr Earth – 4.5Byr Cro-Magnon Man (Us!) – 35,000 yr ago  ‘Developed’ from Homo-Sapien (Wise Human) 100,000 yr ago  Mi i S i N t (1 000 generations) Mission: Survive Nature (1,000 ti ) The Philosophers – 2,500-1,000 yr ago  Pythagoras Socrates Plato Aristotle, Archimedes, ... Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle Archimedes  Mission: Understanding Nature The Scientists – 1,000-500 yrs ago  Galileo, Descartes, (1000 ad)  Electricity - William Gilbert (1600ad)  Mission: Manipulation of Nature The Engineers – 260 yrs ago  Industrial Revolution (1750: 8 gen’n) gen n)  Year 0: Science Meets Exploitation  Mission: Exploitation of Nature... Economic (and Population) Explosion Thomas Telford’s Iron Bridge (1778), Ironbridge, UK 5
  • 6. The Industrial Revolution (1750) Exploitation of Nature  Unleashing the Power of Science, by delivering it in ways that satisfied a Volume Need ... We now call this Business.  It began in the United Kingdom, then spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world America world.  Major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology  Mechanisation of the textile industries,  Development of iron-making techniques  Trade expansion through canals improved roads and railways [5] canals, railways.  Steam power, water wheels and powered machinery  Profound effect on socio-economic and cultural conditions... For the first time in history (13.6Byr), the living standards of the masses of ordinary people underwent sustained growth h f di l d i d h 6
  • 7. Manipulating Atomic Properties of Matter Electronic Technology is .. ...The Most Exciting thing mankind has created in our 35kyr history! Early Electronics The First Transistor (1947) Modern Transistor ~70 yrs 0 ... And it has all happened within the span of one life-time! 7
  • 8. Moore’s Law: c1965 “Moores Law” was coined by Carver Mead in 1970, from Gordon Moores article in Electronics Magazine 19 April 1965 "Cramming more components onto integrated circuits“. “The complexity for minimum p y component costs has increased at a rate of roughly a factor of two per year ... Certainly over the short term this rate can be expected to continue, if not to increase. Over t dt ti tt i O the longer term, the rate of increase is a bit more uncertain, although there is no reason to believe it will not remain nearly constant for at y f least 10 years. That means by 1975, the number of components per integrated circuit for minimum cost will be 65,000. I believe that such allarge circuit can be b ilt on a single wafer” i it b built i l f ” Gordon Moore, Founder of Intel In 1965 he was designing ICs with ~50 transistors! g gMoore’s Law has held for nearly 50 years ... Taking us to 100B transistor ICs 8
  • 9. 1975: No Electronics in Most Things GPO Type 706 Telephone Vauxhall Viva HB SL90 Ian Phillips Graduate 1975 9
  • 10. 1975: Transistor (Solid state) Electronics Domestically we had...  Professionally we had a bit more ...  Portable Radio  Radar  Pocket Calculator ...  Transmitters  Colour TV  TV Cameras  Hi-Fi  Basic radio satellites ... That’s about all!  Undersea cables (phone)  First desk-top computers TI SR 51 Calculator c1978 1978 Ian Phillips Graduate 1975 IBM 220PX c1980 1980BeoVision 3500 c1975 Stuart 5 Transistor Radio 1975 10
  • 11. Moore’s Law: 50 years of an Exponent X s/Chip (M) r/PM (K) Transistors Transistor ITRS’9911
  • 12. Integrated Transistors in 2012 ...  Modelled ‘views’ of a 30 x 30 nm transistor Asen Assenov a.asenov@elec.gla.ac.uk gh notes 2km hig £1B is a stack of £50 n  3,000 transistors will sit side-by-side in the thickness of a bank-note!  A Few Hundred Billion (1011) will fit on a chip! s ... How do we Design the circuit for connecting 100B transistors? Its all about R t i t ? It ll b t Reuse! !12
  • 13. 2012: Electronic Systems are Everywhere!13
  • 14. Putting ‘Smart’ into Electronic Systems …14
  • 15. The ARM RISC‐Processor Core ADDR[31:0] Address Incrementer Scan Debug Address Register Incrementer Control P CFGBIGEND C CLK CLKEN PC Update WRITE Register Bank Instruction SIZE[1:0] Decoder Decode Stage St nIRQ nFIQ A A B Instruction nRESET Multiplier B Decompression and ABORT L B U u u TRANS B s s PROT u Barrel Control LOCK s Shifter Logic CPnOPC CPnCPI Write Data Read Data CPA 32 Bit ALU CPB Register Register WDATA[31:0] RDATA[31:0]15
  • 16. The ‘Lego‐Brick’ Chip‐Design Concept nVidea Tegra3 ARM ARM ARM ARM ARM ARM16
  • 17. More and More Systems on a ChipUsers require a pocket ‘Super-Computer’ ...  Silicon Technology Provides a few-Billion raw transistors ...  ARM’s IP makes it Practical to utilise them ... • 10 Programmable Processors • 4 x A9 Processors (2x2): • 4 x MALI 400 Fragment Proc: • 1 x MALI 400 Vertex Proc Proc. • 1 x MALI Video CoDec • Software Stacks, OS’s and Design Tools/ • ARM Technology gives chip/system designers a good start. Design Reuse ... start • Improves Productivity • Improves TTM • I Improves Quality/Certainty Q lit /C t i t17
  • 18. ARM Technology  Electronic System products incorporate more and more ARM technology – Processor, M lti di P Multimedia and Software IPProcessor IP – Design of the brain of the chipPhysical IP – Design of the building blocks of the chip fSoftware & Development tools ... 800 Partners; 600 Licences in 200 Companies ... Millions of developers; Billions of users 18
  • 19. The World’s Favourite IP Provider 1990 - "A barn in Cambridge"  12 engineers, in Cambridge  No Revenue, No Patents  Cash from Apple & VLSI  Spin out of Acorn UK ... Spin-out  BBC Computers in Schools (1981)  Roots in Uo.Cambridge (c1975) ... A Dream to become the Global Standard for Embedded CPUs 2012 - "The worlds leading IP Product"  Powering >90% of the Smart Electronic Systems in the world  7B CPU shipped iin 2011 ... G th ~25%pa; 40B t t l ( 50 all PC !) CPUs hi d Growth 25% total (>50x ll PCs!)  FTSE 100 company: Revenue ~£491M, PBT ~37%, R&D ~30%  Cambridge HQ: 25 offices/labs 2000 people ww (850 in the UK) g p p ( )  95% revenue is foreign earnings19
  • 20. An Irresistible Societal Trend ... Electronic Systems ... + Get Smarter + Get Smaller/Cheaper The Internet of Things g + Get Pervasive + Talk to One Another 100 Billion + Need no Attention + Work Better ... Cease To Be Noticed ! Mobile Internet 10 Billion Desktop D ktUnits Internet PC 1 Billion 100M Mini 2nd Era Mainframe 10M 1M 1st Era Cost 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 20
  • 21. So Why are we Failing to Impress? Our Technology Enables Such Wonderful Things  Surely ‘they’ appreciate our technologies!  Surely they appreciate our roles in creating them !  No they don’t ... ... The Media and Politicians consider the UK has lost the technology battle to China and the USA (And Europe isn’t far behind) Without a good Public Appreciation ...  Education and research budgets will be progressively cut.  Without With t access to good quality Graduates and Research O t t d lit G d t dR h Outcomes, UK Technology Opportunities and Businesses will ‘dry-up’.  The Failure Prophesy becomes Self-Fulfilling p y g ... We’ve not had to Market Ourselves or Technology before! ... The question is are we already too late? is, 21
  • 22. 2012: Electronic Systems are Everywhere!It’s very clever to rearranging the atoms in a ‘Stone’ into a ‘Phone’ ... ... But it’s not magic! ... We are a very‐long way from creating the simplest life‐forms! 22
  • 23. The Threshold of Magic 1: Clarke: Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. Everybody has a threshold, beyond which Functionality is Indistinguishable From Magic1!  Chemical Systems Ch i l S t  Biological Systems  Economic Systems y  Electronic Systems The Incandescent Light: is the for most non-scientific, but b t well educated people! ll d t d l !... Its not a crime, to Not Understand Technology!... The c e is not realising t at peop e do t, when e crime s ot ea s g that people don’t, e you are the one to suffer as a consequence! 23
  • 24. Confusing Technology with Product ... Real- Real-People buy Functionality ! F ti alit24
  • 25. The Computer ... Or Is It?25
  • 26. Computer: A Machine for Computing ...  Computing ... ... A general term for algebraic ( g g (mathematical) manipulation ) p of data ... Numerated Processed Data/ Phenomena y=F(x,t,s) Information OUT (y) IN (x) ... State and Time are factors in this.  It can include p e o e a ranging from human t t ca c ude phenomena a g g o u a thinking to g calculations with a narrower meaning. Wikipedia  Usually used it to exercise analogies (models) of real-world situations; Frequently real-time. Freq entl in real time ... No mention of Implementation Technology in this! 26
  • 27. Planet Motion Computer – Orrery c1700 Mechanical Technology• Inventor: George Graham (1674-1751)• Single-Task, Continuous Time, Analogue Mechanical Computing (With backlash!) 27
  • 28. Babbages Difference Engine 1837 Mechanical(Re)construction Technology c 000 c2000  The difference engine consists of a number of columns, numbered from 1 to N. Each column is able to store one decimal number. The only operation the engine can do is add the value of a column n + 1 to column n to produce the new value of n. Column N can only store a constant, column 1 displays (and possibly prints) the value of the calculation on the current iteration. Computer for Calculating Tables: A Basic ALU Engine 28
  • 29. Enigma ~1940 Mechanical Technology Data Encryption/Decryption Computer29
  • 30. Colossus Computer 1944 Valve/Mechanical Technology Code-Breaking Code Breaking Computer: A Data Processor30
  • 31. Digital Computer – Baby 1947 (Reconstruction) Valve/Software Technology General Purpose, Quantised Time and Data, (Digital) Electronic Computing31
  • 32. Analogue Computer – AKAT c1960 Transistor TechnologyGeneral Purpose, Continuous Time, Approximate (Analogue) Electronic Computing32
  • 33. Products Make Money 21c Businesses have to be  Selling things that People (End-Customers) want to buy.  Operations and C O ti d Competition i Gl b l and so are I titi is Global d Investors t  Nationality has little meaning Business needs  End-Customers buy Functionality not Technology  Technologies enable Product Options  Business-Models make Money New Products are  Design is a Cost/Risk to be Minimised  Technology (HW, SW, Mechanics, Optics, etc) is (just) a means to an end!  New Technology increases Cost/Risk ... But not always Value... Gl b li ti makes B i Globalisation k Business F Focus on C Core-Competence! C t !33
  • 34. Globalisation and the Global Product Electronic Systems are never the sole achievement of Individual Businesses, Businesses Countries or Institutions34
  • 35. The Technology in an iConic Product ...35
  • 36. ... Cool Design36
  • 37. ... Actual Design happens at Many Levels ...37
  • 38. Inside the Case ...Down 1-Level: Modules iPhone 4s vibrator motor. rear-facing 5 MP camera with 720p video at 30 FPS, tap to focus feature, and LED flash. , 38 Source ... http://www.ifixit.com
  • 39. Inside the Case ...Down 1-Level: Modules The Control Board.39 Source ... http://www.ifixit.com
  • 40. Inside The Control Board   (b‐side) Down 2-Levels: Sub-Assemblies Visible Design-Team Members ...  Samsung (flash memory) - (ARM Partner)  Cirrus Logic (audio codec) - (ARM Partner) g ( ) ( )  AKM (Magnetic Sensor)  Texas Instruments (Touch Screen Controller and mobile DDR) - (ARM Partner) Invisible Design-Team Members ... g  Software Tools, OS & Drivers, GSM Security; Graphics, Video and Sound ...  Manufacturing, Assembly, Test, Certification ... 40 Source ... http://www.ifixit.com
  • 41. Inside The Control Board   (a‐side)Down 2-Levels: Sub-Assemblies Visible Design-Team Members...  A4 Processor, specified by Apple, designed and manufactured by Samsung ...  The central unit that provides the iPhone 4 with its GP computing power.  Reported to contain ARM A8 600 MHz CPU (other ARM CPUs and IP)  ST-Micro (3 axis gyroscope) - (ARM Partner)  Broadcom (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and GPS) - (ARM Partner)  Skyworks (GSM)  Triquint (GSM PA)  Infineon (GSM Transceiver) - (ARM Partner) GPS Bluetooth, EDR &FM 41 Source ... http://www.ifixit.com
  • 42. The A4 SIP Package   (Cross‐section) Memory ‘Package’ 2 Memory DiesGlue Processor SOC Di P Die 4-Layer Platform Package Package’Down 3-Levels: IC Packaging  The processor is the centre rectangle. The silver circles beneath it are solder balls.  Two rectangles above are RAM die, offset to make room for the wirebonds.  Putting the RAM close to the processor reduces latency, making RAM faster and cuts power latency power.  Unknown Mfr (Memory)  Samsung/ARM (Processor)  Unknown (SIP Technology) ( gy) 42 Source ... http://www.ifixit.com
  • 43. nVidea Tegra 3 Processor      (Around 1B transistors) 43
  • 44. Lots and Lots of Designers ...  159 Tier-1 Suppliers ...  Thousands of Design Engineers  10’s of thousands of Engineers  Globally ... Hundreds more Tier-2 suppliers (Including ARM)44
  • 45. Jo(sephine) Public Buys Your Work ... The Importance of Public Understanding ... Their purchasing power pays f Th h for what we all do!45
  • 46. 2012: Education Position ... Science, Physics, Engineering, (Maths)  Numbers Declining. Courses Closing. Quality Questioned.  Perception: Difficult. Boring. Poor ROI. No Career Pros. (In UK)  Alternative: Fame. Celebrity. (Easy Option!). Technology = IT/ICT = Technology  Use, Sales and Support of PCs and Mobile Phones  Boring: Did it in (Primary) school.  Geeky (Pathetic)  Lost Opportunity ... ... F the UK For th... Lack of Public understanding of opportunities and challenges ... Because We are not telling anybody about them! 46
  • 47. A Simple Public Message Electronic Systems Permeate our lives today ...  Visibly and Invisibly they underpin most of the improved services and exciting new products i our li d in lives! (IT and ICT are included in this) ! ... With huge direct and indirect contribution to the UK Economy. Further electronic miniaturisation (Moore’s Law) will fuel the Ubiquity of (Moore s Smart Electronic Systems tomorrow ...  They will underpin all advances in Business and Society  They will underpin all Environmental and Sustainable actions  They will be the outcome of distributed international activities  They will underpin every aspect of our lives ... ... They will be largely invisible; yet we will be totally dependent on them!... Th UK must maintain a share of pre-eminent, valued, roles th The t i t i h f i t l d l throughout h t the life-cycles of Electronic Systems; to avoid over reliance on the continued beneficence of other Nations! 1 47 1: NMI letter to Vince Cable. Jun10
  • 48. ... Bring Our Work to The Public !48
  • 49. The 21C will be what YOU Make It ... Th k Thankyou for Listening g“Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic! Arthur C. Clarke.49
  • 50. Reading & References Electronics 2015: Making a Visible Difference (Referred)  DTI EIGT Report, HMG URN 04/1812, 2004. Engineering UK 2009 (and 2011): The state of engineering (Referred)  EngineeringUK ( E i E i i UK (ex Engineering C i Council), 2009 and 2011 il) d 2011. The Innovators Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail (Disruptive Tech.)  by Clayton M. Christensen: HBS Press, 1997 Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology ( p p g g gy (Research in 21C) )  by Henry William Chesbrough : HBS Press, 2003 The World Is Flat (Globalisation)  by Thomas L. Friedman: Penguin, 2005 Staying P St i Power (B i (Business) )  by Michael Cusumano: Oxford, 2010 A Short History of Nearly Everything (A different view on what we know)  by b Bill Bryson: Black Swan, 2003 B Bl k S The Voyages of the Beagle (Scientific Observation) – Free on-line  By Charles Darwin,1860 An Essay on the Principles of Population (Natural Competition) – Free on line on-line  By Thomas Malthus,1789 50