Title: Making Molehills of Mountains   Abstract:         We are already designing integrated circuits with more than a B...
1v1Prof. Ian Phillips Principal Staff Eng’r,       ARM Ltdian.phillips@arm.com  Visiting Prof. at ...                     ...
Our 21c World ... Statistics ...       Population ~7,000,000,000       Growth rate ~2%pa       Life expectancy 60-80yr...
Engineering in the UK ...... Engineering made the world we live in; yet most people can’t see it ! 4
The Pre-Engineered World (2,500 BC - 800 AD.) World Stats ...         Population ~100K ->1M (Outnumbered!)         Grow...
Chronology of Science / Engineering                                                              Universe – 13.6Byr       ...
The Industrial Revolution (1750) Exploitation of Nature      Unleashing the Power of Science, by delivering it in ways t...
Our 21c World is ... Engineered Science ...       Using a universal          Monetary System         And significant Re...
Science enables us to do                              ...It is pretty clever to convert   a Stone into a Phone ...      B...
The Threshold of Magic                                          1: Clarke: Any sufficiently                               ...
Antikythera c87BC ... Planet Motion Computer                                                                              ...
Computer: A Machine for Computing ...Computing ... ... A general term for algebraic manipulation of data ...           Num...
Orrery c1700 ... Planet Motion Computer                                                                    Mechanical     ...
Babbages Difference Engine 1837                                                                                           ...
“Enigma” c1940                                               Mechanical                                               Tech...
“Colossus” 1944                                                   Valve/Mechanical                                        ...
“Baby” 1947                (Reconstruction)                                                                     Valve/Soft...
Analogue Computer – AKAT c1960                                                                  Transistor                ...
The Pinnacle of Computing Technology?                              Integrated Circuit                                  & S...
... Or the Smart Gadget ...                              Electronic System                                 Technology20
Or the Cloud ...?                    Electronic System                       Technology21
Evolution of Radio               Tele-Verta Radio                    4 Valves                 1 Rectifier Valve   BTH     ...
Radio as Computation ...                                                                  Integrated Circuit              ...
Computing is24
Its Products that Make Money 21c Businesses have to be       Selling things that People (End-Customers) want to buy.    ...
Manipulating Atomic Properties ... Electronic Technology is ..  ...The Most Exciting thing mankind has created in our 35k...
Moore’s Law: c1965 “Moores Law” was coined by Carver Mead in 1970, from Gordon  Moores article in Electronics Magazine 19...
Approximate Process Geometry28                                           1um                              10um            ...
All Exponentials Must End ...                        130nm                                           Growing opinion that...
All Exponentials Must End ...                        130nm                                           Growing opinion that...
… 3D will Maintain the Prediction! Die Stacking today                        Hybrid Technology                           ...
Moores Real Law: x2 Functionality Every 18mth!  Cascade of Technologies supporting Functional growth ...                 ...
Moore’s Productivity Law ...                               10nmApproximate Process Geometry                               ...
Where did the Productivity Gap go?Reuse Happened ! <1990 chip design was entire ...       Moore’s Law was handled by ev...
How Much Reuse Do We Do? Mobile Products have 500m gate SoCs / 500m lines of code       Doubling every 18mth       Desi...
How Much Reuse Do We Need? Design Tools (across all Product Disciplines) underpin this ...         Reuse of Modules and ...
The Technology in an iConic Product ...37
... Cool Design38
... Design happens at Many Levels ...39
Inside the Case ...Down 1-Level: Modules      iPhone 4s vibrator motor.         rear-facing 5 MP camera with              ...
Inside the Case ...Down 1-Level:       Modules                                        The Control Board.41   Source ... ht...
Inside The Control Board                                          (b-side)Down 2-Levels: Sub-Assemblies    Visible Design...
Inside The Control Board                                         (a-side)Down 2-Levels: Sub-Assemblies    Visible Design-...
The A4 SIP Package                                       (Cross-section)         Memory        ‘Package’                  ...
Lots and Lots of Designers ...                        159 Tier-1 Suppliers ...                             Thousands of ...
Putting ‘Smart’ into Electronic Systems …46
The ARM RISC-Processor Core             ADDR[31:0]                                                Address                 ...
The ‘Lego-Brick’ Chip-Design Concept                                      nVidea Tegra3                            ARM    ...
More and More Systems on a ChipUsers require a pocket ‘Super-Computer’ ...   Silicon Technology Provides a few-Billion ra...
ARM Technology   Electronic System products incorporate    more and more ARM technology –Processor,    Multimedia    and ...
The World’s Favourite IP Provider 1990 - "A barn in Cambridge"      12 engineers, in Cambridge            No Revenue, N...
An Irresistible Societal Trend ... Electronic Systems ...        + Get Smarter            + Get Smaller/Cheaper          ...
Expectations of Tomorrow’s ConsumerNatural, Intuitive User     Interfaces                          Continuous Connectivity...
High Resolution Natural Displays                        Ultra Thin and                        Flexible DisplaysHigh resolu...
Natural Speech RecognitionSiri – Best in class today…        …but multi language and accents are still challenging55
Heterogeneous Computing                                     Multi-core solutions                                     Clo...
big.LITTLE Processing Uses the right processor for the right job Redefining the efficiency/performance trade-off 70% en...
2015 Mobile Device Trends                                  Intuitive and Natural User Interfaces                          ...
Innovation & Efficiency Underpins It All59
ARM – Architecture for the Digital World                                 150+                                 billion     ...
Viewing The Mountain ...    A single 40nm SoC can have a Billion or more Gates on it    Embedded Products will embody a ...
The 21C will be what YOU Make It ...                                                         Thankyou                     ...
Reading & References Electronics 2015: Making a Visible Difference (Referred)        DTI EIGT Report, HMG URN 04/1812, 2...
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Making Molehills of Mountains

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PCCAT Keynote 1jun12: We are already designing integrated circuits with more than a Billion transistors; and despite the faltering steps of Moore's law, we will be designing more than 10 times that within the next 5yrs. How will industry ever deliver a complete design in a reasonable time-frame today? The answer is Reuse and Hierarchy, both vitally important tools, yet neither academic topics in their own right.

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Making Molehills of Mountains

  1. 1. Title: Making Molehills of Mountains Abstract:  We are already designing integrated circuits with more than a Billion transistors; and despite the faltering steps of Moores law, we will be designing more than 10 times that within the next 5yrs. Yet even using High Level Description Languages (HDLs) with Synthesis, designer productivity still only delivers the low thousands of gates per day. How does industry ever deliver a complete design in a reasonable time-frame today? The answer is Reuse and Hierarchy. You dont design everything from scratch, but strive to use as much as possible of the last design in the next. If you can hit 99%, then the 1B transistor opportunity, becomes a 10M transistor challenge ... still a large number, but much more manageable. Reuse is an indispensible part of product design today, yet seldom gets the academic attention it deserves. This talk will examine reuse today and its role in the pragmatic delivery of Electronic System products in the near and not-so-near future.  1hr talk (Panel discussion later) Context  The Postgraduate Conference for Computing: Applications and Theory (PCCAT) is intended to give postgraduate students from the South West of the UK a flavour of presenting their research in a conference environment.  The conference is held annually at a university in the South West, and is organised by postgraduate students. It has so far been held twice, at the University of Exeter in 2010 and 2011, and will be held in 2012 at the University of Plymouth.  http://www.pccat.ex.ac.uk/ 1
  2. 2. 1v1Prof. Ian Phillips Principal Staff Eng’r, ARM Ltdian.phillips@arm.com Visiting Prof. at ... PCCAT Conference Uo.PlymouthContribution to Industry 6jun12 Award 2008 2
  3. 3. Our 21c World ... Statistics ...  Population ~7,000,000,000  Growth rate ~2%pa  Life expectancy 60-80yr ... Mission: Celebrity, Leisure 3
  4. 4. Engineering in the UK ...... Engineering made the world we live in; yet most people can’t see it ! 4
  5. 5. The Pre-Engineered World (2,500 BC - 800 AD.) World Stats ...  Population ~100K ->1M (Outnumbered!)  Growth rate ~0.1%pa  Life expectancy 30-40yr ... Mission: Survive and Grow Technology ...  Low stone wall for a base,  Wooden poles and rafters.  Thatch, turf, or hides for roof.  Timber split using wedges  Sharp stones for cutting  ... 3,500yrs of: “If it was good enough for my father’s, father’s, father’s, father; its good enough for me!”... Engineering brought mankind out of the mud-hut ! 5
  6. 6. Chronology of Science / Engineering Universe – 13.6Byr Earth – 4.5Byr Cro-Magnon Man (Us!) – 35,000 yr ago  ‘Developed’ from Homo-Sapien (Wise Human) 100,000 yr ago  Mission: Survive Nature (1,000 generations) The Philosophers – 2,500-1,000 yr ago  Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Archimedes, ...  Mission: Understanding Nature The Scientists – 1,000-500 yrs ago  Galileo, Descartes, (1000 ad)  Electricity - William Gilbert (1600ad)  Mission: Manipulation of Nature The Engineers – 260 yrs ago  Industrial Revolution (1750: 8 gen’n)  Year 0: Science Meets Exploitation  Mission: Exploitation of Nature... Economic (and Population) Explosion Thomas Telford’s Iron Bridge (1778), Ironbridge, UK 6
  7. 7. The Industrial Revolution (1750) Exploitation of Nature  Unleashing the Power of Science, by delivering it in ways that satisfied a Volume Need ... We now call this Business.  It began in the United Kingdom, then spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world.  Major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology  Mechanisation of the textile industries,  Development of iron-making techniques  Trade expansion through canals, improved roads and railways.[5]  Steam power, water wheels and powered machinery  Profound effect on socio-economic and cultural conditions... For the first time in history (13.6Byr), the living standards of the masses of ordinary people underwent sustained growth 7
  8. 8. Our 21c World is ... Engineered Science ...  Using a universal Monetary System  And significant Reuse of Knowledge and Know-How 8
  9. 9. Science enables us to do ...It is pretty clever to convert a Stone into a Phone ...  But we know it’s not Magic!  Its just the measure of what humans can achieve by reusing the ingenuity of our predecessors! “If I have seen further it is by standing on ye sholders of Giants” Isaac Newton 1676“Reuse” Is the Elephant in the Room; The Cinderella at the Ball! 9
  10. 10. The Threshold of Magic 1: Clarke: Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. Everybody has a threshold, beyond which observed Functionality is Indistinguishable From Magic1!  Chemical Systems  Biological Systems  Economic Systems  Electronic Systems The Incandescent Light: is the for most non-scientific, but well educated people!... Not Understand Technology is not a crime!... The crime is not realising that most people don’t, when you are the one to suffer as a consequence! 10
  11. 11. Antikythera c87BC ... Planet Motion Computer Mechanical Technology• Inventor: Hipparchos (c.190 BC – c.120 BC). Ancient Greek Astronomer, Philosopher and Mathematician.• Single-Task, Continuous Time, Analogue Mechanical Computing (With backlash!) See: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L1CuR29OajI 11
  12. 12. Computer: A Machine for Computing ...Computing ... ... A general term for algebraic manipulation of data ... Numerated Processed Data/ Phenomena Information y=F(x,t,s) OUT (y) IN (x) ... State and Time are normally factors in this.  It can include phenomena ranging from human thinking to calculations with a narrower meaning. Wikipedia  Usually used it to exercise analogies (models) of real-world situations; Frequently in real-time. ... No mention of Implementation Technology in this!12
  13. 13. Orrery c1700 ... Planet Motion Computer Mechanical Technology• Inventor: George Graham (1674-1751). English Clock-Maker.• Single-Task, Continuous Time, Analogue Mechanical Computing (With backlash!)13
  14. 14. Babbages Difference Engine 1837 Mechanical(Re)construction Technology c2000  The difference engine consists of a number of columns, numbered from 1 to N. Each column is able to store one decimal number. The only operation the engine can do is add the value of a column n + 1 to column n to produce the new value of n. Column N can only store a constant, column 1 displays (and possibly prints) the value of the calculation on the current iteration. Computer for Calculating Tables: A Basic ALU Engine 14
  15. 15. “Enigma” c1940 Mechanical Technology Data Encryption/Decryption Computer15
  16. 16. “Colossus” 1944 Valve/Mechanical Technology Code-Breaking Computer: A Data Processor16
  17. 17. “Baby” 1947 (Reconstruction) Valve/Software Technology General Purpose, Quantised Time and Data, (Digital) Electronic Computing17
  18. 18. Analogue Computer – AKAT c1960 Transistor TechnologyGeneral Purpose, Continuous Time, Approximate (Analogue) Electronic Computing18
  19. 19. The Pinnacle of Computing Technology? Integrated Circuit & Software Technology19
  20. 20. ... Or the Smart Gadget ... Electronic System Technology20
  21. 21. Or the Cloud ...? Electronic System Technology21
  22. 22. Evolution of Radio Tele-Verta Radio 4 Valves 1 Rectifier Valve BTH c1945Crystal Set 1 Diode Evoke DAB Radio c1925 100 M Transistors 2-3 Embedded Processors Bush Radio c2005 7 Transistors 1 Diode c1960 Ian’s ‘Span’22
  23. 23. Radio as Computation ... Integrated Circuit Transistor Valve Technology Vi Vrf=Vi*100 Vrf Vro=Bandpass(Vif*1000) Vif Vro Vif=Vrf*Vlo Vlo Vlo=Cos(t*1^6) Single-Task, Continuous Time, Approximate (Analogue) Electronic Computing23
  24. 24. Computing is24
  25. 25. Its Products that Make Money 21c Businesses have to be  Selling things that People (End-Customers) want to buy.  Globalisation makes them Focus on Core Competencies  Objective: Outsource ‘everything else’  Customers, Competition, Operations and Investors are Global  Nationality: has little meaning Business needs  End-Customers buy Functionality not Technology  Technologies enable Product Options ..but..  Business-Models make Money New Products are  Design is a Cost/Risk to be Minimised  Technology (HW, SW, Mechanics, Optics, etc) is (just) a means to a Product end!  New Technology increases Cost/Risk ... But not always Value... Reuse Minimises the Risk and Cost of deploying any Technology 25
  26. 26. Manipulating Atomic Properties ... Electronic Technology is .. ...The Most Exciting thing mankind has created in our 35kyr history! Early Electronics The First Transistor (1947) Modern Transistor ~70 yrs ... And it has all happened within the span of one life-time! 26
  27. 27. Moore’s Law: c1965 “Moores Law” was coined by Carver Mead in 1970, from Gordon Moores article in Electronics Magazine 19 April 1965 "Cramming more components onto integrated circuits“. “The complexity for minimum component costs has increased at a rate of roughly a factor of two per year ... Certainly over the short term this rate can be expected to continue, if not to increase. Over the longer term, the rate of increase is a bit more uncertain, although there is no reason to believe it will not remain nearly constant for at least 10 years. That means by 1975, the number of components per integrated circuit for minimum cost will be 65,000. I believe that such a large circuit can be built on a single wafer” Gordon Moore, Founder of Intel In 1965 he was designing ICs with ~50 transistors!Moore’s Law has held for ~50 years ... Taking us to 100B transistor ICs 27
  28. 28. Approximate Process Geometry28 1um 10um 10nm 100um 100nm Transistors/Chip (M) Moore’s Law ... X ITRS’99 Transistor/PM (K)
  29. 29. All Exponentials Must End ... 130nm  Growing opinion that 14 or 7nm will be the smallest yieldable node ... Ever! 90nm  Just 3-4 gen. (5-8yr) to the end of Planar Scaling 30nm  Only things on the drawing board today ... 14nm ... can get into the last of the of planar chips! 7nm Its the end-of-the-road for ‘promising technologies’ !  Clean-Sheet Synthesis  Scalable Processor Arrays  Formal Design ...The future lies  Top-Down Design with Hybrid, Architectures 29
  30. 30. All Exponentials Must End ... 130nm  Growing opinion that 14 or 7nm will be the smallest yieldable node ... Ever! 90nm  Just 3-4 gen. (5-8yr) to the end of Planar Scaling 30nm  Only things on the drawing board today ... 14nm ... can get into the last of the of planar chips! 7nm Its the end-of-the-road for ‘promising technologies’ !  Clean-Sheet Synthesis  Scalable Processor Arrays  Formal Design ...The future lies  Top-Down Design with Hybrid, Architectures 30
  31. 31. … 3D will Maintain the Prediction! Die Stacking today Hybrid Technology 10x Sampling Die-Integration PV - 500nm Ge RF - 300nm GaAs tomorrow 8x Sampling CPU- 90nm Si CMOS DRAM - 20nm Si FIN-MOS Active Carrier 300nm Si CMOS 10 stack 1.6 mm 4x Transfer to Production 3x Production 8 stack 1.6 mm 4 stack 1.4 mm ... This is a disconnect for Moore’s Silicon Scaling Law, but not 3 stack 1.2 mm for his ‘density’ predictions! 31
  32. 32. Moores Real Law: x2 Functionality Every 18mth!  Cascade of Technologies supporting Functional growth ... 1012 Functional Density (units) 1010 106 102 Electronic era: System era: 1975-2005 2003-2030 100 1960 1980 2000 2020 ... It Started with Wood ⇒ Stone ⇒ Bronze ⇒ Iron32
  33. 33. Moore’s Productivity Law ... 10nmApproximate Process Geometry 100nm 1um 2x in 18mth Transistors/Chip (M) Transistor/PM (K) 16% in 18mth 10um 100um ITRS’99 33
  34. 34. Where did the Productivity Gap go?Reuse Happened ! <1990 chip design was entire ...  Moore’s Law was handled by ever Bigger Teams and ever Faster Tools  With Improved Productivity through HDL and Synthesis ... I was a chip designer in 1975; and did it all, myself, in 3mth (1k gates!) >1995 reuse quietly entered the picture ...  Circuit Blocks  CPUs (and Software) ... With  External IP Supporting Methodology!  Up-Integration (Incl. Software)  Chip Reuse (ASSP) ... Delivering Productivity, Quality and Reliability ... Birth of HW/SW IP Companies (eg ARM) ... But brought about Commoditisation of Silicon (and FABs) ! 34
  35. 35. How Much Reuse Do We Do? Mobile Products have 500m gate SoCs / 500m lines of code  Doubling every 18mth  Designer Productivity: is just 100-1000 Gates(Lines)/day  That is tested, verified, incorporated gates/lines  That’s 2,500-25,000 p.yrs to design! (Un-Resourceable)  Typically ‘Designs’ have just 50-100 p.yr available ...  That’s just ~0.5% New (>99% Reuse!)  Not Viable to do a clean-sheet product design (Nor has been since ~1995) The core HW/SW is only a part of a Product  There’s all of the other Components and Sub-Systems  There’s the IO systems (RF, Audio, Optical, Geo-spatial, Temporal)  There’s the Mechanical  There’s the Reproduction (Factory)  Theres the Business Model (Cash-flow, Distribution, Legal)  There’s the Support (Repair, Installation, Maintenance, Replacement) 35
  36. 36. How Much Reuse Do We Need? Design Tools (across all Product Disciplines) underpin this ...  Reuse of Modules and Components  Reuse of Existing Code and Circuits  Sharing Methodology  Sharing Architecture  Creating Tools to Accelerate Methodology and Repeatability  Design For “x” (DFx) is Design For up-stream Deployment  Includes DFR (Design For Reuse) A significant part is (and will remain) Knowledge based ...  The Designer has done similar work before  The Team has Collective experience  The Company has experience and a customer base  The nature of the Design Engineering Role is ...  To create Order out of Chaos  To apply state-of-the-art and knowledge; to create a Producible Product 36
  37. 37. The Technology in an iConic Product ...37
  38. 38. ... Cool Design38
  39. 39. ... Design happens at Many Levels ...39
  40. 40. Inside the Case ...Down 1-Level: Modules iPhone 4s vibrator motor. rear-facing 5 MP camera with 720p video at 30 FPS, tap to focus feature, and LED flash. 40 Source ... http://www.ifixit.com
  41. 41. Inside the Case ...Down 1-Level: Modules The Control Board.41 Source ... http://www.ifixit.com
  42. 42. Inside The Control Board (b-side)Down 2-Levels: Sub-Assemblies Visible Design-Team Members ...  Samsung (flash memory) - (ARM Partner)  Cirrus Logic (audio codec) - (ARM Partner)  AKM (Magnetic Sensor)  Texas Instruments (Touch Screen Controller and mobile DDR) - (ARM Partner) Invisible Design-Team Members ...  Software Tools, OS & Drivers, GSM Security; Graphics, Video and Sound ...  Manufacturing, Assembly, Test, Certification ... 42 Source ... http://www.ifixit.com
  43. 43. Inside The Control Board (a-side)Down 2-Levels: Sub-Assemblies Visible Design-Team Members...  A4 Processor, specified by Apple, designed and manufactured by Samsung ...  The central unit that provides the iPhone 4 with its GP computing power.  Reported to contain ARM A8 600 MHz CPU (other ARM CPUs and IP)  ST-Micro (3 axis gyroscope) - (ARM Partner)  Broadcom (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and GPS) - (ARM Partner)  Skyworks (GSM)  Triquint (GSM PA)  Infineon (GSM Transceiver) - (ARM Partner) GPS Bluetooth, EDR &FM 43 Source ... http://www.ifixit.com
  44. 44. The A4 SIP Package (Cross-section) Memory ‘Package’ 2 Memory DiesGlue Processor SOC Die 4-Layer Platform Package’Down 3-Levels: IC Packaging  The processor is the centre rectangle. The silver circles beneath it are solder balls.  Two rectangles above are RAM die, offset to make room for the wirebonds.  Putting the RAM close to the processor reduces latency, making RAM faster and cuts power.  Unknown Mfr (Memory)  Samsung/ARM (Processor)  Unknown (SIP Technology) 44 Source ... http://www.ifixit.com
  45. 45. Lots and Lots of Designers ...  159 Tier-1 Suppliers ...  Thousands of Design Engineers  10’s of thousands of Engineers  Globally ... Hundreds more Tier-2 suppliers (Including ARM)45
  46. 46. Putting ‘Smart’ into Electronic Systems …46
  47. 47. The ARM RISC-Processor Core ADDR[31:0] Address Incrementer Scan Debug Address Register Incrementer Control P CFGBIGEND C CLK CLKEN PC Update WRITE Register Bank Instruction SIZE[1:0] Decoder Decode Stage nIRQ nFIQ A A B Instruction nRESET Multiplier B Decompression and ABORT L B U u u TRANS B s s PROT u Barrel Control LOCK s Shifter Logic CPnOPC CPnCPI Write Data Read Data CPA 32 Bit ALU CPB Register Register WDATA[31:0] RDATA[31:0]47
  48. 48. The ‘Lego-Brick’ Chip-Design Concept nVidea Tegra3 ARM ARM ARM ARM ARM ARM48
  49. 49. More and More Systems on a ChipUsers require a pocket ‘Super-Computer’ ...  Silicon Technology Provides a few-Billion raw transistors ...  ARM’s IP makes it Practical to utilise them ... • 10 Programmable Processors • 4 x A9 Processors (2x2): • 4 x MALI 400 Fragment Proc: • 1 x MALI 400 Vertex Proc. • 1 x MALI Video CoDec • Software Stacks, OS’s and Design Tools/ • ARM Technology gives chip/system designers a good start. Design Reuse ... • Improves Productivity • Improves TTM • Improves Quality/Certainty49
  50. 50. ARM Technology  Electronic System products incorporate more and more ARM technology –Processor, Multimedia and Software IPProcessor IP – Design of the brain of the chipPhysical IP – Design of the building blocks of the chipSoftware & Development tools ... 800 Partners; 600 Licences in 200 Companies ... Millions of developers; Billions of users 50
  51. 51. The World’s Favourite IP Provider 1990 - "A barn in Cambridge"  12 engineers, in Cambridge  No Revenue, No Patents  Cash from Apple & VLSI  Spin-out of Acorn UK ...  BBC Computers in Schools (1981)  Roots in Uo.Cambridge (c1975) ... A Dream to become the Global Standard for Embedded CPUs 2012 - "The worlds leading IP Product"  Powering >90% of the Smart Electronic Systems in the world  7B CPUs shipped in 2011 ... Growth ~25%pa; 40B total (>50x all PCs!)  FTSE 100 company: Revenue ~£491M, PBT ~37%, R&D ~30%  Cambridge HQ: 25 offices/labs 2000 people ww (850 in the UK)  95% revenue is foreign earnings51
  52. 52. An Irresistible Societal Trend ... Electronic Systems ... + Get Smarter + Get Smaller/Cheaper The Internet of Things + Get Pervasive + Talk to One Another 100 Billion + Need no Attention + Work Better ... Cease To Be Noticed ! Mobile Internet 10 Billion DesktopUnits Internet PC 1 Billion 100M Mini 2nd Era Mainframe 10M 1M 1st Era Cost 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 52
  53. 53. Expectations of Tomorrow’s ConsumerNatural, Intuitive User Interfaces Continuous Connectivity Personalized ExperienceUltra High Resolutions Displays Standout Battery Life “Always On, Always Connected” 53
  54. 54. High Resolution Natural Displays Ultra Thin and Flexible DisplaysHigh resolution,interactive wallsize displays Augmented reality and visual computing54
  55. 55. Natural Speech RecognitionSiri – Best in class today… …but multi language and accents are still challenging55
  56. 56. Heterogeneous Computing  Multi-core solutions  Close coupling of different types of processors cores  Shared memory architecture  Match task to most efficient core User Interface Augmented Reality Image Recognition/Processing Advanced Gaming56
  57. 57. big.LITTLE Processing Uses the right processor for the right job Redefining the efficiency/performance trade-off 70% energy savings on common workloads Flexible and transparent to apps big LITTLE “Demanding tasks” Interrupt Control “Always on, always Cortex-A15 connected tasks” MPCore Cortex-A7 CPU CPU MPCore CPU CPU L2 Cache L2 Cache CCI-400 Coherent Interconnect
  58. 58. 2015 Mobile Device Trends Intuitive and Natural User Interfaces More pixels, greater fidelity Continued Innovation on Energy Efficiency Protection of your Data Always on, Always Connected Leading Innovation in Computing DevicesDelivered through a single Architecture and a broad partnership 58
  59. 59. Innovation & Efficiency Underpins It All59
  60. 60. ARM – Architecture for the Digital World 150+ billion chips cumulative in 202030+billionchips to date 1998 2012 202060
  61. 61. Viewing The Mountain ... A single 40nm SoC can have a Billion or more Gates on it Embedded Products will embody a Billion Lines of Code All Multi-level State Machines are too complex to simulate Imperfection happens: Impacting Reliability and Robustness Nobody writes HDL/Code without errors All Systems are too complex to Test What happens after 20nm? Design teams are finite  Notate Market windows close  Quantify Quality is Qualitative  Automate Power Dissipation!  Consolidate 2nd is for Losers  Learn Generic Lessons Productivity!  Think-out of Consequences ... ... Build Shoulders for others to Stand On 61
  62. 62. The 21C will be what YOU Make It ... Thankyou for Listening“Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic! Arthur C. Clarke.62
  63. 63. Reading & References Electronics 2015: Making a Visible Difference (Referred)  DTI EIGT Report, HMG URN 04/1812, 2004. Engineering UK 2009 (and 2011): The state of engineering (Referred)  EngineeringUK (ex Engineering Council), 2009 and 2011. The Innovators Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail (Disruptive Tech.)  by Clayton M. Christensen: HBS Press, 1997 Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology (Research in 21C)  by Henry William Chesbrough : HBS Press, 2003 The World Is Flat (Globalisation)  by Thomas L. Friedman: Penguin, 2005 Staying Power (Business)  by Michael Cusumano: Oxford, 2010 A Short History of Nearly Everything (A different view on what we know)  by Bill Bryson: Black Swan, 2003 The Voyages of the Beagle (Scientific Observation) – Free on-line  By Charles Darwin,1860 An Essay on the Principles of Population (Natural Competition) – Free on-line  By Thomas Malthus,1789 63

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