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Computing Platforms for the XXIc - DSD/SEAA Keynote

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Wikipedia defines Platform as "A raised level surface on which people or things can stand". A more familiar technical interpretation applies to the hardware and OS configuration applicable to the …

Wikipedia defines Platform as "A raised level surface on which people or things can stand". A more familiar technical interpretation applies to the hardware and OS configuration applicable to the execution of software; most frequently applicable to highly stable PC or Mainframe architectures. But the world has changed a lot since serious computing power moved into the embedded consumer arena. Now, with runs of many millions for single products, the argument for customisation is much more justifiable; so the traditional view of platforms is struggling against a tide of individuality. Can the ARM architecture bring stability back into this chaos, or is something else needed? Isaac Newton realised the reality of platforms when he talked of standing on the shoulders of giants. A platform is a stable place where engineers and scientists can stand to achieve more than they would otherwise have done. So our XXI Century Platforms are the shape to deliver improved Productivity, Reuse, Quality, TTM, Cost, etc. for the System Products we are now charged to deliver. Its business, stupid!

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  • 1. Computing Platforms for the XXI Century  Abstract:  Wikipedia defines Platform as "A raised level surface on which people or things can stand". A more familiar technical interpretation applies to the hardware and OS configuration applicable to the execution of software; most frequently applicable to highly stable PC or Mainframe architectures. But the world has changed a lot since serious computing power moved into the embedded consumer arena. Now, with runs of many millions for single products, the argument for customisation is much more justifiable; so the traditional view of platforms is struggling against a tide of individuality. Can the ARM architecture bring stability back into this chaos, or is something else needed? Isaac Newton realised the reality of platforms when he talked of standing on the shoulders of giants. A platform is a stable place where engineers and scientists can stand to achieve more than they would otherwise have done. So our XXI Century Platforms are the shape to deliver improved Productivity, Reuse, Quality, TTM, Cost, etc. for the System Products we are now charged to deliver. Its business, stupid!  Context   Keynote at the Euromicro conference   http://www.teisa.unican.es/dsd-seaa-2013/ The series (est1973) is known worldwide for its scientific quality. Its main event in 2013 is the collocated Digital System Design (DSD) and Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA) conference in Santander, Spain. 45min Keynote, 60min Slot. 4sep13 Pdf and Tube available at http://ianp24.blogspot.co.uk/ 1
  • 2. 1v0 Prof. Ian Phillips Principal Staff Eng’r, ARM Ltd ian.phillips@arm.com Visiting Prof. at ... Contribution to Industry Award 2008 Euromicro DSD/SEAA Keynote Santander, Spain 04sep13 Pdf and Tube available at http://ianp24.blogspot.co.uk/ 2
  • 3. Classic Computing Platforms  General Purpose Compute Platforms  PC – Dominated by x86 architecture (Intel + AMD + Windows)       Linux OpenBSD FreeVMS MacOS ‘N’ – Universal Binaries (PowerPC/x86) Mainframe - IBM, EMC, Hitachi, Unysis, HP, NEC, Fujitsu     DOS But also Apple ...   Windows ‘N’ Fortran C/C++ Cobol - One of first languages (1959). In 1997, 80% of the world's business ran on COBOL with >200 billion lines of code in existence and >5 billion lines of new code annually (Gartner). Portable Computing – Pocketable GP Compute Platforms    iOS (iPad/iPhone/iPod) Android Windows 8 ... We all have our personal favourites! 3
  • 4. But What About Embedded?  Computers, but without General Programmability  The Chip as a Platform?  MCU and CPU chips from many vendors?   The PCB Platform? ARM IP a Platform?  What about the RTOS’s? ∘ The CPUs? ∘ The GPUs? ∘ AMBA? ∘ CoreLink Cells? ∘ SoC Methods?   There are 45 listed on ARM’s web-site Or the Design Tools?  Verilog/VHDL and Synthesis?    Digital Logic : Based on Boolean Mathematics? Software Kernels/RTOs Debuggers? Lots of form-factors, targeting different markets ... By-Far the Biggest Footprint of Computers Today! 4 BeagleBone Black (TI)
  • 5. The Face of Computing Today 5
  • 6. The Face of Computing Today 6
  • 7. A Machine for Computing ... Computing: A general term for algebraic manipulation of data ... Numerated Phenomena IN (x) y=F(x,t,s) Processed Data/ Information OUT (y) ... State and Time are normally factors in this.  It can include phenomena ranging from human thinking to calculations with a narrower meaning. Usually used it to exercise analogies (models) of real-world situations; Frequently in real-time (Fast enough to be a stabilising factor in a loop). Wikipedia  ... Not prescriptive about Implementation Technology! ... Not prescriptive about ease of (re)Programmability! 7
  • 8. Electronic Systems1: the KET for 21c!  Fundamental to the solutions to all of Societies Challenges  Dependent on them today; we will become ever more so in the future  National Independence is not an option: but Mutual Co-Dependence is!  Though Animated by Electronics; ES are much more than that ... ... They Include all the Technologies and Methods to make them ‘work’ as a Product.  The most important technology is the one that doesn’t work! ... ES Technologies will literally be the Platform on which the 21c will be constructed. 8 1: aka; Cyber-Physical Systems (Geek-Talk!)
  • 9. Putting Technology into Context  21c Businesses have to be   Selling things that People (End-Customers) want to buy. Globalisation makes Them Focus on Their Core Competencies  Customers, Competition, Operations and Investors are Global  Objective: (World) Best at That; Outsource ‘everything else’  Nationality: Has little meaning (Loyalty, Tradition, etc)  Business needs  End-Customers buy Functionality not Technology   Technologies enable Product Options Business-Models make Money ..but..  New Products are    Technology (HW, SW, Mechanics, Optics, etc) is just a way to enable Product Options (Create Differentiation)! New Technology always increases Cost/Risk ... But not always Value Design is a Cost/Risk to be Minimised ... Technology is never a Product in its own right! 9
  • 10. Moore’s Law is a Technology Opportunity X 100nm 10um Transistor/PM (K) 1um Transistors/Chip (M) Approximate Process Geometry 10nm 100um ITRS’99 10 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore’s_law
  • 11. Markets provide the Growth Drivers 3rd Era Millions of Units Computing as part of our lives 2nd Era Broad-based computing for specific tasks 1st Era Select work tasks 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 ... Yesterdays Markets are still valuable; just not the Biggest! 11 2020
  • 12. The Productivity Gap? 100nm 10um Transistor/PM (K) 1um Transistors/Chip (M) Approximate Process Geometry 10nm 100um ITRS’99 12 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore’s_law
  • 13. What Happened to the Productivity Gap?   Pre.1990 chip design was entire ...   Moore’s Law was handled by ever Bigger Teams and ever Faster Tools With Improved Productivity through HDL and Synthesis ... I was a chip designer in 1975; and did it all, myself, in 3mth (1k gates!)  Post 1995 reuse silently entered the picture ...      Circuit Blocks CPUs (and Software) ... With Supporting External IP Methodology! Up-Integration (Incl. Software) Chip Reuse (ASSP) ... Delivering Productivity, Quality and Reliability ... Birth of HW/SW IP Companies (eg ARM c1991) ... But it also brought the Commoditisation of Silicon (and FABs) ! 13
  • 14. How Much Reuse Today?  Mobile Products have ~500m gate SoCs / ~500m lines of code   Doubling every 18mth Designer Productivity: is just 100-1000 Gates(Lines)/day    That is tested, verified, incorporated gates(lines) That’s 2,500-25,000 p.yrs to clean-sheet design! (Un-Resourceable) Typically ‘Product Designs’ have 50-200 p.yr available ...   That’s just ~0.5% New ... >99.5% Reuse already! Not Viable to do clean-sheet product design ... nor has it been since ~1995  The core HW/SW is only a part of a Product ...       14 There’s all of the other Components and Sub-Systems There’s the IO systems (RF, Audio, Optical, Geo-spatial, Temporal) There’s the Mechanical There’s the Reproduction (Factory) There's the Business Model (Cash-flow, Distribution, Legal) There’s the Support (Repair, Installation, Maintenance, Replacement)
  • 15. How do we Reuse?  Design Tools (across all Product Disciplines) underpin this ...  Reuse of Modules and Components  Reuse of Existing Code and Circuits  Sharing Methodology  Sharing Architecture  Creating Tools to Accelerate Methodology and Repeatability  Design For “x” (DFx) is Design For Up-Stream (Re)Deployment  A significant part is (and will remain) Knowledge based ...  The Designer has done similar work before  The Team has Collective experience  The Company has experience and a customer base  The Design Engineering Role is ...  To create Order out of Chaos  To apply state-of-the-art and knowledge; to create a Viable Product 15
  • 16. Platforms Mean Productivity  Reusing rather than Re-Developing  Allows Focus on your value-add; and less on stuff that you can acquire competitively (which has become commoditised). ∘ English as the lingua-franca ∘ Instant global telecoms (ICT) ∘ IT and the Internet ∘ International Contract Law ∘ The World-Trade Organisation (WTO) ∘ Standardisation of GP-Compute Architecture  Globalisation has changed the meaning of Local... ∘ Actual Business-2-Business cooperation (Partnering, not just Out-Sourcing). ∘ In all aspects of business: Technical and Administrative ∘ Irrespective of geographic location ∘ Irrespective of tangibility of ‘product’. ... Just like does.  Platforms have changed scope of Reuse ... ... And these businesses avoid Commoditisation ... By Differentiating their Platform Products 16
  • 17. Good Platforms ‘Fit’ Many Niches... 17
  • 18. All Exponentials Must End ... 130nm  Growing opinion that 14 or 7nm will be the smallest yieldable node ... Ever!  Just 3-4 gen. (5-8yr) to the 90nm end of Planar Scaling 30nm  Only things on the drawing board today ... 14nm  ... can get into the last of the of planar chips! Its also the end-of-the-road for ‘promising technologies’ !     18 Clean-Sheet Synthesis Scalable Processor Arrays Formal Design Top-Down Design 7nm ...And the end for Moore’s Law?
  • 19. Moore's Real Law: x2 Functionality Every 18mth!  Cascade of Technologies supporting Functional growth ... Functional Density (units) 1012 1010 106 102 Electronic era: System era: 1975-2005 2003-2030 100 1960 1980 2000 2020 ... The ‘Law’ started with Wood ⇒ Stone ⇒ Bronze ⇒ Iron 19
  • 20. … System-Scaling Maintains Momentum!  Interposer today  Die-Integration ..and.. 13aug13 Genuine 3D-Process very soon 24-Layers 3D NAND-Flash 4x Transfer to Production Die-Stack 10 Layer Interposer Die-Stack Mixed-Technology 8x Sampling Active Carrier PV - 500nm Ge RF - 300nm GaAs CPU- 90nm Si CMOS DRAM - 20nm Si FIN-MOS 300nm Si CMOS 10 stack 1.6 mm ... A disconnect for Moore’s Planar-Scaling Law, ... but not for ‘his’ System-Scaling Law. 20
  • 21. Packing Technology in an iConic Product Analogue and Digital Design Embedded Software Mechanics, Plastics and Glass Micro-Machines (MEMs) Displays and Transducers Robotics and Test Knowledge and Know-How Research, Education and Training Components, Sub-Systems and Systems; Design, Assembly and Manufacture Metrology, Methodology and Tools ... Involving Many Specialist Businesses ... Round and Round the World ...Not-Least from Europe 21
  • 22. A lot of Technologies in a Smart Phone ... And more than 99%+ is Reused! 22
  • 23. Take a Look Inside... Level-1: Modules The Control Board. 23 http://www.ifixit.com
  • 24. Inside The Control Board (a-side) Level-2: Sub-Assemblies   Visible Computing Contributors ...  Samsung: Flash Memory - NV-MOS (ARM Partner)  Cirrus Logic: Audio Codec - Bi-CMOS (ARM Partner)  AKM: Magnetic Sensor - MEM-CMOS  Texas Instruments:Touch Screen Controller and mobile DDR - Analogue-CMOS (ARM Partner)  RF Filters - SAW Filter Technology Invisible Computing Contributors ...  OS, Drivers, Stacks, Applications, GSM, Security, Graphics, Video, Sound, etc  Software Tools, Debug Tools, etc 24 http://www.ifixit.com
  • 25. Inside The Control Board (b-side) Level-2: Sub-Assemblies  More Visible Computing Contributors ...       A4 Processor. Spec:Apple, Design & Mfr: Samsung Digital-CMOS (nm) ...  Provides the iPhone 4 with its GP computing power.  (Said to contain ARM A8 600 MHz CPU and other ARM IP) ST-Micro: 3 axis Gyroscope - MEM-CMOS (ARM Partner) Broadcom: Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and GPS - Analogue-CMOS (ARM Ptr) Skyworks: GSM Analogue-Bipolar Triquint: GSM PA Analogue-GaAs Infineon: GSM Transceiver - Anal/Digi-CMOS (ARM Partner) GPS Bluetooth, EDR &FM 25 http://www.ifixit.com
  • 26. The A4 SIP Package (Cross-section) Memory ‘Package’ 2 Memory Dies Processor SOC Die Glue 4-Layer Platform Package’ Down 3-Levels: IC Packaging      26 The processor is the centre rectangle. The silver circles beneath it are solder balls. Two rectangles above are RAM die, offset to make room for the wirebonds.  Putting the RAM close to the processor reduces latency, making RAM faster and cuts power. Unknown Mfr (Memory) Samsung/ARM (Processor) Unknown (SIP Technology) Source ... http://www.ifixit.com
  • 27. The Processor Unit NB: The Tegra 3 is similar to the A4/5, but is not used in the iPhone 27 (Nvidea Tegra 3, Around 1B transistors)
  • 28. Lots and Lots of Designers ...  159 Tier-1 Suppliers ...  Thousands of Design Engineers  10’s of thousands of Engineers  Globally ... Hundreds more Tier-2 suppliers (Including ARM) 28
  • 29. So What Does ARM Really Do? “ARM designs processor technology that lies at the heart of advanced consumer products” 29
  • 30. 1991: ARM a RISC-Processor Core … ADDR[31:0] Address Register Address Incrementer Scan Debug Control Incrementer P C PC Update Register Bank Instruction Decoder Decode Stage A L U B u s A B u s Multiplier B B u s Instruction Decompression Control Logic Write Data Register WDATA[31:0] 30 nIRQ nFIQ nRESET ABORT TRANS PROT Barrel Shifter 32 Bit ALU and CFGBIGEND CLK CLKEN WRITE SIZE[1:0] Read Data Register RDATA[31:0] LOCK CPnOPC CPnCPI CPA CPB
  • 31. The ‘Lego-Brick’ Chip-Design Concept Par. Port DMA ARM7 Core 31 UART (2) PCMCIA Timers W’Dog Arb’tr. Misc. Int’t. Contr. Memory Interface
  • 32. But Systems Got Ever-More Complex! Today, users require a pocket ‘Super-Computer’ ...  Silicon Technology Provides a few-Billion transistors ...  ARM’s Technology (still) makes it Practical to utilise them ... • 10 Processors • • • • • nVidea Tegra3 ARM ARM ARM ARM ARM ARM • 4 x A9 Processors (2x2): 4 x MALI 400 Fragment Proc: 1 x MALI 400 Vertex Proc. 1 x MALI Video CoDec Software Stacks, OS’s and Design Tools/ ARM Technology gives chip/system designers ... • Improved Productivity • Improved TTM • Improved Quality/Certainty ... So By Definition ARM is (≥1) Platform! 32
  • 33. Making Systems out of Transistors  ARM Technology drives efficient Electronic System solutions:  Software increasing system efficiency    with optimized software solutions Diverse components, including CPU and GPU processors designed for specific tasks Interconnect System IP delivering coherency and the quality of service required for lowest memory bandwidth Physical IP for a highly optimized processor implementation  Backed by >900 Global Partners ...   33 >800 Licences Millions of Developers
  • 34. Methodology As Well As Hardware  C/C++  Debug & Trace Development Energy Trace Modules  Middleware 34
  • 35. The Right Horse for The Course ... About 50MTr About 50KTr ... Delivering ~5x speed (Architecture + Process + Clock) 35
  • 36. ... Means 24 Processors in 6 Families 36
  • 37. Power-Efficiency  Watts don’t just Happen; they are Caused!  In the Chip      Matching the processor to the application Minimise voltage/frequency (P=CV2f) Variable/Gated clock domains Variable/Switched voltage domains Maximises ‘Activity Power’ dependence (Counter Intuitive)   ` 37 In the Software  Give the OS and the Application SW Information and Controls  Methodology and Utilities In the System  Architecture  Extend control beyond the chip ... HW Dissipates; but SW Makes It!
  • 38. Parallel is More Power-Efficient Processor Input Processor Output Output Input f/2 f Processor Capacitance = C Voltage = V Frequency = f Power = CV2f f/2 Capacitance = 2.2C Voltage = 0.6V Frequency = 0.5f Power = 0.4CV2f f ... By a factor determined by Amdahl or Gustafson? 38
  • 39. CoreLink Supports Multi-Processing Heterogeneous processors – CPU, GPU, DSP and accelerators Virtualized Interrupts Up to 4 cores per cluster Up to 4 coherent clusters Quad CortexA15 Quad CortexA15 Quad CortexA15 L2 cache L2 cache L2 cache Quad ACE CortexA15 L2 cache DSP DSP DSP PCIe DPI Crypto USB AHB ACE SATA NIC-400 IO Virtualisation with System MMU CoreLink™ CCN-504 Cache Coherent Network Integrated L3 cache Snoop Filter 8-16MB L3 cache CoreLink™ DMC-520 Dual channel DDR3/4 x72 10-40 GbE Interrupt Control Uniform System memory CoreLink™ DMC-520 NIC-400 Network Interconnect PHY x72 DDR4-3200 x72 DDR4-3200 Flash GPIO Peripheral address space 39 Up to 18 AMBA interfaces for I/O coherent accelerators and IO
  • 40. big.LITTLE Processing  For High-Performance systems...  Tightly coupled combination of two ARM CPU clusters:   Cortex-A15 (big Performance) and Cortex-A7 (LITTLE Power) - functionally identical Same programmers view, looks the same to OS and applications  big.LITTLE combines high-performance and low power   Automatically selects the right processor for the right job Redefines the efficiency/performance trade-off “Demanding tasks” >2x Performance Current big.LITTLE smartphone 40 big “Always on, always connected tasks” LITTLE 30% of the Power (select use cases) Current big.LITTLE smartphone
  • 41. LITTLE Fine-Tuned to Different Performance Points Most energy-efficient applications processor from ARM   Simple, in-order, 8 stage pipelines Performance better than mainstream, high-volume smartphones (Cortex-A8 and Cortex-A9) big Highest performance in mobile power envelope 41   Complex, out-of-order, multi-issue pipelines Up to 2x the performance of today’s high-end smartphones Cortex-A7 Cortex-A53 Q u e u e I s s u e I n t e g e r Cortex-A15 Cortex-A57
  • 42. big.LITTLE Software Model CPU Migration  Migrate a single processor workload to the appropriate CPU  Migration = save context then resume on another core  Also known as Linaro “In Kernel Switcher”  DVFS driver modifications and kernel modifications  Based on standard power management routines  Small modification to OS and DVFS, ~600 lines of code big.LITTLE MP  OS scheduler moves threads/tasks to appropriate CPU  Based on CPU workload  Based on dynamic thread performance requirements  Enables highest peak performance by using all cores at once 42
  • 43. Businesses Within The Global Life-Cycle Company A, Product-X Design Design Tools Training Education ICT Conferences Patents Know-How Tool-Libraries Models Software Research Methods Design Integrate Tools Technologies Prototypes FABs Components Know-How Methods Qualify Equipment Know-How Standards Procedures ICT Methods Training Reproduce Big Finance Equipment Know-How Components Out-Sourcing JIT Factory Auto’n Methods TQM Training Install Equipment Know-How Standards Methods Supply Logistics Training Maintain Equipment Know-How Supply Logistics Training Upgrade Equipment Know-How Supply Logistics Training Qualify Reproduce Equipment Know-How Standards Logistics Training Companies B & C Provide Their Valued Product(s) to Other Customers As Well (Efficiency of Reuse)... Company-B, Product-J,K,L Integrate DeCommission Install Maintain Upgrade DeCommission ... Enabled By Globalisation: ICT, WTO, English Language, Containers and Int’l Contract Law Company-C, Product-M,N,O Design Integrate Qualify Reproduce Install Maintain ... All Platforms are Valued in Product Life-Cycles 43 Upgrade DeCommission
  • 44. Conclusions ...  Business is about Making Money for Investors ...   Technology just enables Product Options, not all of which are Valuable “Optimality” is seldom a Product Differentiator; “Better” is! ... Most Tech. Enterprises provide Components into Product Life-Cycles  Platforms are just Productivity Aids ...    A way of creating new Products as quickly and cheaply as possible Valued is not the same as Valuable ARM is a Productivity Aid to the biggest market for Computers today ... So by definition ARM’s Products are (key) Computing Platforms (plural)  Electronic Systems will be the foundation of our future ...    They will be fundamental to whatever Society makes of the 21C (+ and -) And Society will be increasingly unaware of them! Requirements for ever more Sophisticated Functionality will require ever more sophisticated Technology-Platforms throughout their Life-Cycles ... But Electronic Systems will be The Product-Platform for the XXIc 44
  • 45. Prof. Ian Phillips Principal Staff Eng’r, ARM Ltd ian.phillips@arm.com Visiting Prof. at ... Contribution to Industry Award 2008 Pdf and Tube available at http://ianp24.blogspot.co.uk/ 45