Ubiquitous Computing, Ubiquitous Services

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How the adevnt of ubiquitous computing and ambient intelligence is opening up new prospects for the services economy.

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Ubiquitous Computing, Ubiquitous Services

  1. 1. Ubiquitous … Services Ian Miles PREST/MBS University of Manchester [email_address]
  2. 2. Themes <ul><li>The Evolving Service Economy </li></ul><ul><li>The Evolving Information Society </li></ul><ul><li>Services in Information Societies </li></ul><ul><li>The Ubiquitous Service Information Society </li></ul>
  3. 3. Growth of the Service Economy illustrated by Service Sectors
  4. 4. Though Different Services display Different Patterns of Growth Distributive Services Personal Services Producer Services Social Services 1960 1973 1984 1997 1960 1973 1984 1997 Growth has been relatively slow Growth has been relatively fast
  5. 5. What are services? <ul><li>The statistics featured Services Sectors – the tertiary sector - specialised in providing specific services </li></ul><ul><li>But all sectors produce (and use) some services… </li></ul><ul><li>… and consumers use manufactured products to access services and produce their own services </li></ul><ul><li>They are often the end-point of economic activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Services do not directly produce raw materials (the role of the primary sector) or physical artefacts (the role of the the secondary sector) </li></ul><ul><li>They are often interactive /user-intensive; they are often intangible </li></ul><ul><li>They do transform  artefacts & environments (e.g. physical services like goods transport, warehousing, trade, remediation) </li></ul><ul><li> people (e.g. personal and social services like health and personal care) </li></ul><ul><li> information and symbols (e.g. communication and data processing services, and KIBS - Knowledge Intensive Business Services like consultancy, professional and technical services) </li></ul>G Hotels, Restaurants H Transport, Storage I Finance J Real estate, Renting, Business Activities K Trade & Repair L Public Administration, Defence, Social Security M Education N Health, Social Work O Other Community, Social, Personal
  6. 6. Services in the evolving Information Society <ul><li>Information Society involves not only the production and diffusion of hardware (which requires services) </li></ul><ul><li>It involves the use and patterns of use of new Information Systems… </li></ul><ul><li>… to supply end-users and business users with services </li></ul><ul><li>… and this will be supported by all sorts of new intermediate services </li></ul><ul><li>… and will provide challenges for established services </li></ul>
  7. 7. Evolution of Computing: Mark Weiser’s Overview source: http://www.ubiq.com/hypertext/weiser/UbiHome.html Sales/Year MAINFRAME: one computer serves many people PC: one ----- computer per person UBIQUITY: --- many --------- computers per person Envelope curve (systems of all types )
  8. 8. Information Society v1.0 - v4.0 http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServlet?Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Pdf/2720070203.pdf Distant Local Mobile Ubiquitous 1960s/ 70s 1980s/ mid90s mid1990s/ 2000s 2010s?/?
  9. 9. Information Society v1.0 <ul><li>One computer to many users </li></ul><ul><li>“ Come here” </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive Systems requiring… </li></ul><ul><li>Expert Users using… </li></ul><ul><li>Crude Peripherals for… </li></ul><ul><li>Number-Crunching </li></ul><ul><li>Centralising influence </li></ul><ul><li>Policies:National Computer Industry Plans </li></ul>Information Technology (Mainframes) Distant Local Mobile Ubiquitous 1960s/ 70s 1980s/ mid90s mid1990s/ 2000s 2010s?/?
  10. 10. Information Society v2.0 Information Technology (PCs) Distant Local Mobile Ubiquitous 1960s/ 70s 1980s/ mid90s mid1990s/ 2000s 2010s?/? <ul><li>“ At your desk” </li></ul><ul><li>One to one/several </li></ul><ul><li>Stand alone systems </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge to DP centres </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful local processing: many applications </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate skills required, simplified interfaces (WIMP/GUIs) </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasive use by Professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Policies: IT and telecomms R&D programmes </li></ul>
  11. 11. Information Society v3.0 Information Technology (Notebooks, Web) Distant Local Mobile Ubiquitous 1960s/ 70s 1980s/ mid90s mid1990s/ 2000s 2010s?/? <ul><li>“ Reaching out” and “Getting around” </li></ul><ul><li>Several to one </li></ul><ul><li>User-friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap, Accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Portable </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Many devices with embedded IT </li></ul><ul><li>Policies: </li></ul><ul><li>Information Society, Superhighway </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated/ multifunction </li></ul><ul><li>Delayering </li></ul>
  12. 12. Information Society v4.0 Information Technology (AmI) Distant Local Mobile Ubiquitous 1960s/ 70s 1980s/ mid90s mid1990s/ 2000s 2010s?/? <ul><li>“ Surrounding you”/ “Ambient” </li></ul><ul><li>Many to one </li></ul><ul><li>Disposable/ wearable/ “Invisible” </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasive Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous interoperable devices, networks </li></ul><ul><li>Location, identification, monitoring, tagging </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation: Googleocracy? </li></ul><ul><li>Net governance? </li></ul><ul><li>Policies: Privacy? Security? </li></ul><ul><li>Data Protection ? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Information Societies are Service Economies <ul><li>Generations of Information Technology and Information Society </li></ul><ul><li>have been accompanied by ongoing evolution of service activities </li></ul><ul><li>Here is a very brief account of how services have transformed themselves, and been challenged by users and competitors, in successive generations of IT and other technologies </li></ul>
  14. 14. Information Society v1.0 <ul><li>One computer to many users </li></ul><ul><li>“ Come here” </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive Systems requiring… </li></ul><ul><li>Expert Users using… </li></ul><ul><li>Crude Peripherals for… </li></ul><ul><li>Number-Crunching </li></ul><ul><li>Centralising influence </li></ul><ul><li>Policies:National Computer Industry Plans </li></ul>Information Technology (Mainframes) Service Economy LARGE SCALE SERVICE ORGANISATIONS USING BACK-OFFICE COMPUTING. But more widely: CHEAP GOODS BASED ON ELECTRONICS, ELECTRICAL POWER, INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE  Consumer self-service displacing many traditional consumer services – laundry, transport, leisure Drivers – cost (manufacturing achieving high productivity increase), convenience (closer fit to user requirements in time and space), autonomy New support services – mass broadcasting and media, garages, retail and repair… Changing ways of life: where and how people/families live Distant Local Mobile Ubiquitous 1960s/ 70s 1980s/ mid90s mid1990s/ 2000s 2010s?/?
  15. 15. Information Society v2.0 Information Technology (PCs) Distant Local Mobile Ubiquitous 1960s/ 70s 1980s/ mid90s mid1990s/ 2000s 2010s?/? <ul><li>“ At your desk” </li></ul><ul><li>One to one/several </li></ul><ul><li>Stand alone systems </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge to DP centres </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful local processing: many applications </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate skills required, simplified interfaces (WIMP/GUIs) </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasive use by Professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Policies: IT and telecomms R&D programmes </li></ul>Service Economy Some services reverse self-service trends: “industrialising” with fast food etc., creating leisure experience with shopping, new attractions (theme parks, etc.) Much use of self-service with IT systems IN service organisations: supermarkets and especially banks (ATMs) – moving from back-office to store-front IT use. MANY SERVICE ORGANISATIONS USING BASIC STORE-FRONT/ FRONT-OFFICE IT SYSTEMS Early mass networking and e-services mostly meet with poor reception (1) significance of messaging/user content apparent; (2) email lags behind fax; (3) telephone banking surpasses online consumer banking/financial services. <ul><li>New waves of consumer goods using microelectronics, providing improved quality (interactive media) but few really new functions </li></ul><ul><li>Massive growth of KIBS </li></ul>
  16. 16. Information Society v3.0 Information Technology (Notebooks, Web) Distant Local Mobile Ubiquitous 1960s/ 70s 1980s/ mid90s mid1990s/ 2000s 2010s?/? <ul><li>“ Reaching out” and “Getting around” </li></ul><ul><li>Several to one </li></ul><ul><li>User-friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap, Accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Portable </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Many devices with embedded IT </li></ul><ul><li>Policies: </li></ul><ul><li>Information Society, Superhighway </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated/ multifunction </li></ul><ul><li>Delayering </li></ul>Service Economy Services “industrialisation” becomes more sophisticated (modularisation & customisation) Take-off of email and Internet use on wide scale: innovations like P2P services: mass “user” participation. Hype and burst bubble on e-services (especially ecommerce) – but steady growth. Largely unexpected success of mobile voice and then text communications Consumers informing selves, providing content, and forming communities via web: challenge expertise and authority of various kinds – creative industries, health and education, etc. – and intermediaries (e.g. music distribution) Offshoring of routine (and some higher-level) service work
  17. 17. Information Society v4.0 Information Technology (AmI) Service Economy Ubiquitous Distant Local Mobile Ubiquitous 1960s/ 70s 1980s/ mid90s mid1990s/ 2000s 2010s?/? <ul><li>“ Surrounding you”/ “Ambient” </li></ul><ul><li>Many to one </li></ul><ul><li>Disposable/ wearable/ “Invisible” </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasive Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous interoperable devices, networks </li></ul><ul><li>Location, identification, monitoring, tagging </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation: Googleocracy? </li></ul><ul><li>Net governance? </li></ul><ul><li>Policies: Privacy? Security? </li></ul><ul><li>Data Protection ? </li></ul>New Technological Opportunities Skills, Institutions and Structures Choices: Adoption of Products to provide Services, Introduction of New Practices Cost, convenience, quality Fit with routines, Learning, Autonomy Other technologies Ways of life, business models Location Identification Environment Biotechnology New Business sers User Content, P2P Privacy Security Identity
  18. 18. Pinpoint - workshop At: http://www.pinpoint-faraday.org.uk/downloads/prest_29062004_workshop_report.pdf
  19. 19. U biquitous - Ser vice s <ul><li>USERS as critical for successful innovation processes </li></ul><ul><li>Important user requirements for health and security support, leisure and social coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Locational services as a vehicle for P2P content? Shared realities … </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced realities , as well as e-scape </li></ul><ul><li>Services as a focus for (new types of) R&D </li></ul>
  20. 20. End of Presentation

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