Digital Convergence


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Seminar 8 in the Knowledge Economy and Inofmration Society seminar series 2008, focusing on Digital Convergence and New Media

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Digital Convergence

  1. 1. Digital Convergence and New Media webpage: Ian Miles MIoIR MBS University of Manchester
  2. 2. This seminar <ul><li>What is digital convergence? </li></ul><ul><li>Who does this affect? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it affect media, IT industries, other sectors… </li></ul>
  3. 3. Convergence <ul><li>We often hear about computer/ telecommunications “convergence” - or is it collision?? </li></ul><ul><li>Held by many to be a defining feature of new IT , e.g. Kobiyashi “IT=C&C” … and related to common underlying technologies (microprocessors, digitalisation) </li></ul><ul><li>But more industries and activities “converge” than just data processing and communication </li></ul>
  4. 4. Things we do with bits of information <ul><li>We often hear about computer/telecommunications “convergence” - or is it collision?? </li></ul><ul><li>Held by many to be a defining feature of new IT , e.g. Kobiyashi IT=C&C. </li></ul><ul><li>But more industries and activities “converge” than just data processing and communication </li></ul>Storage Presentation Communication and Reproduction are pervasive Production Retrieval Actuation Transformation Interpretation
  5. 5. Digital Convergence <ul><li>Distinct industries have dealt with hardware, software, telecommunications, broadcasting, print, recorded music, images, other media </li></ul>
  6. 6. Digitalisation <ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><li>Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Moving Images </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Doc.Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Digital cameras </li></ul><ul><li>“””” , DVDs etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Recording </li></ul><ul><li>Digital display, measurement </li></ul>(analogue, photochemistry) (analogue, phonography etc) (analogue, electromechanical) (analogue, printing) New storage devices and displays – ebooks, CDs, MP3/4 players, etc; Web publishing
  7. 7. Digital Convergence <ul><li>Distinct industries have dealt with hardware, software, telecommunications, broadcasting, print and other media </li></ul><ul><li>They have varying assets, capabilities and types of content - and regulatory and IP systems </li></ul><ul><li>But now they have increasingly shared underlying technologies (microelectronics, optronics, software) </li></ul><ul><li>All types of data and information potentially captured, processed, communicated, stored, displayed digitally via new IT </li></ul>
  8. 8. A Three-Dimensional Media Universe Moving over Space - Telecommunications Storing over Time, Reproducing- Published Media (Broadcast Media) Transforming, Processing - Computation 1 to 1 1 to many Information CONTENT INTERACTION CHANNELS PROCESSING COMMUNICATION
  9. 9. A Growing Market Space… Increasing size of markets
  10. 10. … Within which the offerings of established industries expand == == === =Increasing = == proliferation of = == === = products
  11. 11. The Expanding Media Universe Communications Computation Content Time The three “trumpet” shapes represent telecommunications, computer, and broadcast & print media fields. Over time the product space to which they contribute, and its market size, expands, and the three fields overlap increasingly.
  12. 12. Early Industrial Society INFORMATION GOODS & SERVICES COMPUTATION (TELE) COMMUNICATIONS Paper-based communication : Stationery, Post. C19th - telephone, telegraph Mechanical information processing : very limited till C20th - punch cards, calculators Paper-based information products - books, newspapers, etc + live consultation & entertainment + mechanical recorded media (gramophone etc) All (but telecomms) based on PHYSICAL TRANSPORT
  13. 13. The mid-1950s BROADCAST + PUBLISHED MEDIA COMPUTERS Telephone Telegraph TV (mainly monochrome)AM radio, LP records, valve amplifiers Very few, very large, valve-based electronic computers; Keyboard calculators TELECOMMUNICATIONS PHYSICAL TRANSPORT plus increasing electronic delivery (telecomms, TV, radio, etc.)
  14. 14. The mid-1970s BROADCAST + PUBLISHED MEDIA COMPUTERS Telephone Telegraph Telex TV (colour) AM and FM transistor radio, LP records, transistor amplifiers Numerous mainframe computers Pocket calculators TELECOMMUNICATIONS Increasing role for electronic delivery, but little integration of media
  15. 15. Telephone Answering Machines, Mobile phones, Pagers Business Fax Machines Videorecorders, audio CDs, cable and satellite TV, Teletext Numerous Personal computers Home computers and videogames Electronic wristwatches Electronic mail Bulletin boards Videotex Online databases for business & science Recorded information services BROADCAST + PUBLISHED MEDIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPUTERS Some integration of media, emergence of optical media, increasing digitalisation The Mid/late-1980s
  16. 16. Turn of the Century Digital mobile phones, Widespread use of Fax, pagers Videorecorders, audio CDs, digital recording cable and satellite TV Numerous PCs, laptops. notebooks, pocket organisers, etc. Numerous home computers and videogames Electronic mail, SMS Mobile data comms CD-ROM publishing Cable telephony Audiotext Internet World Wide Web COMPUTERS TELECOMMUNICATIONS BROADCAST + PUBLISHED MEDIA Increasing integration of media, use of optical media, digitalisation
  17. 17. Digital mobile communications in wide use - pervasive communications Digital Broadcast TV digital videorecording High definition TV Pervasive computers, in many types of device (e.g. Personal Digital Assistants, smartphones) Internet telephone VoI, Internet videotelephony Internet TV Video on Demand Interactive TV WiFi, Next generation of Internet & WWW, Web2.0, Video telephones and conferences DVD-R+, interactive video Now  2010? COMPUTERS BROADCAST + PUBLISHED MEDIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS
  18. 18. <ul><li>Successful products/applications/triggers </li></ul><ul><li>Design paradigms/platforms </li></ul><ul><li>User implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence and take-off of markets, market structures </li></ul><ul><li>Product spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Capabilities and industrial structure </li></ul><ul><li>Governance of content (news, porn, gambling) and property rights ( intellectual property) </li></ul><ul><li>Other governance issues (crime, security…) </li></ul>Uncertainties
  19. 19. Regulators <ul><li>UK system change </li></ul><ul><li>OFTEL (Telecommunications Act, 1984, on “deregulation”) + Cable Authority + ITC …. </li></ul><ul><li>OFCOM (Communications act, 2003) </li></ul>
  20. 20. 1990 2003 spectrum Radiotelecommunications Agency Broadcasting Standards Commission But not print media – Press Complaints Commission etc. 1991 networks Oftel 1984 1996?
  21. 21. Jong-Seok Kim: mobile phone companies 2 nd generation, digital services – earlier 1990s generation was analogue 2.5 generation 3rd generation 128k – 2m /sec 64k /sec 14.4k/sec
  22. 23. Convergence <ul><li>Blurring industry boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>New convergent services </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification, vertical integration (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement for new strategies, capabilities, organisation </li></ul>
  23. 24. Not just Media <ul><li>New categories: </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. chematronics, mechtronics, watch this space… </li></ul><ul><li>Converged products: </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. “smart house” converges consumer electronics, telecomms, utilities, construction… </li></ul>
  24. 25. Key Features of New Media: <ul><li>CONVERGENCE and COLLISON: </li></ul><ul><li>digitalisation </li></ul><ul><li>blurring boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>repurposing and repackaging of content </li></ul><ul><li>INTERACTIVITY: </li></ul><ul><li>promises and realities </li></ul><ul><li>differential development of applications and competences on both - user and supplier sides </li></ul><ul><li>technically demanding </li></ul><ul><li>innovation around types of content, interfaces, delivery and “display” systems? </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>End of Presentation </li></ul>