Digital Britain

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Digital Britain

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. What’s inside?Internet 1 The traditional internet 4 The new internet 15Mobile 17 The British mobile market 19 What are people doing on them? 25 The app economy explained 34Tablet 39 The tablet market 41 Who owns a tablet? 43 What are they doing with it? 47Behaviours 51 Search 53 Communication 61 Socialising 65 Spending 95 Watching 111 Listening 125 Reading 133 Gaming 143All together now 159Conclusion 167 2
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  4. 4. Men rule the web. Gaming’s for geeks. Women aren’t interested in tech. iTunes is themost popular music player. Those with the most followers on Twitter have the mostinfluence. The iPad is mostly used on the go. Right? Wrong. Our collectiveknowledge about how people live today through technology is so tangled up bysatisfying yet shallow soundbites, lazy research and the biased rhetoric of specialists,it’s hard to know what people really do today.How do they talk, watch, listen, read, play games, socialise, research and buy intoday’s increasingly digital world? How does this differ between the sexes andgenerations? If your brand is going to connect with consumers in the digital age, youneed better answers to questions like these.This report is the start of that. By drawing together quality research from hundreds ofdifferent referenced sources it paints a picture of current media and technologyconsumption and how that might develop in the future. It should make you moreknowledgeable. It should give you the arsenal to fight for strategies and creativesolutions that go against tired convention. But it should also flag up when you’re indanger of jumping on a bandwagon and wasting your precious marketing budget.In short, this report should help you unpick the truth from the myth. 4
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  6. 6. Half the country go online every dayThere are 62 million people in the UK1 and more of us are going online, andspending more time there, every day.By August 2011, 77% of households2 were connected (up 4 percentagepoints on 2010), with 30 million going online every day or almost every day.93% of them have broadband connections of 2Mbps or higher3, nearly aquarter (24%) had 10Mbps or above4 and 1% clocked in above 24Mbps inMay 20105. In other words, a sizeable chunk of the country has access to theinternet and data-heavy services like advanced websites and video.We’re internationally mediocre for coverage and speedHowever, globally, that’s poor: we dawdle at 26th on broadband penetrationand speed rankings, with Bradford the unlikely and only British city to enter theglobal top 100. Generally, the south and cities are much better catered for thanthe north and countryside. The government knows this – and knows howclosely coupled high-speed internet is with improving the economic and socialprospects of British homes and businesses.More internet in more places comingTo that end, UK Culture Minister Jeremy Hunt has committed to get Britain thebest superfast broadband infrastructure in Europe by the end of the currentparliament and is investing £830m against this6. If that pans out, a prettydecent network is only going to get better, paving the way for more powerfuland rich internet experiences.Mobile, the new kid on the blockWhile most of us still go online at a desk, mobile is increasingly dragging usaway. In 2009 23% went online with a phone. By 2010 it was 31%. In 2011 itwas 45%7. To restate: nearly half of all internet users are doing it on theirphones.Nor is it the case that these people are dusting off an old WAP device andchecking their email. By 2012 46% of Brits were using a smartphone8, a1 Office of National Statistics (ONS)2 Office of National Statistics (ONS) as cited by eMarketer, September 20113 Office of National Statistics (ONS) as cited by eMarketer, September 20114 Trends in broadband supply and uptake http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2011/02/23091236/95 Ofcom, as quotes on BBC http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-119224246 Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/broadband/8448680/Superfast-broadband-scheme-proposed-for-5-million-rural-homes.html7 http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/publications/re-reference-tables.html?edition=tcm%3A77-2267278 http://paidcontent.org/article/419-smartphone-penetration-approaching-tipping-point-as-pc-usage-declines-/ 2
  7. 7. growth on the previous year so deep in double digits it’s not even worth statingas it will be out of date in a month.It’s likely this rate of growth will remain, or even ramp, in the coming years assmartphones go mainstream and the infrastructure gets a makeover with a newnetwork, called the 4G mobile spectrum, landing in 2013.This will offer a big improvement on the current 3G network, which is limited toaround 3.6Mbps, by allowing for speeds of up to 100Mbps out and about, orten times that (1Gbps) when stationary, to around 95% of the country. Thatmeans while a one-minute YouTube video would take 30 seconds to downloadon today’s mobile network, an HD feature length film would take about a tenthof the time on 4G. In other words mobiles will no longer have to pull datathrough the keyhole: the door will be wide open.This will usher in a blazingly fast mobile experience. In this world, the majority ofthe processing will happen in vast servers and all anyone’s mobile has to do isreach up into this ‘cloud computer’ and tap into it, unconstrained by downloadspeeds. Phones tomorrow will do what today’s best desktops can, just quicker.Digital Britain is established and only going to get more established, in speed,geography and devices.But what are people actually doing online? 3
  8. 8. The traditional internetThe great time vampireWe spend around 57 hours per month on computers9. Roughly half that time isspent offline in Word and PowerPoint, organising photos, watching films andplaying games. The rest is spent online.So central is the internet to people’s lives that a third of Brits claim theycouldn’t live without it10. In fact, collectively, we are living with it more everyday. In 2009 the average time spent online per day was 41 minutes; within ayear it had jumped 20% to 52 minutes11; by the start of 2012 it was 1 hour 12minutes or 36 hours a month12. Mobile will drive this stat into the absurd andwe’ll soon be online more than we’re awake. It will be like saying how long anaverage person has access to oxygen for in a day.What are people doing online?If a man were to sit down at his computer, send a few emails, hunt for someinformation, research and buy some stuff, check his bank balance, pop ontoFacebook while listening to some music he downloaded, then game for a whilebefore discussing it on a forum and finish up the day telling a mate on Skypehow he sold something on eBay for a hefty profit, he would pretty much haveexactly summed up British online activity – in decreasing order of frequency.Here’s a more thorough breakdown:9 UKOM: http://www.thedrum.co.uk/news/2011/04/28/21101-overview-of-uk-online-measurement-data-for-march-2011/10 GB TGI Net Q4 2009, December 200911 UKOM, December 200912 http://www.zdnet.co.uk/blogs/tech-tech-boom-10017860/brits-top-internet-addicts-league-in-europe-10025436/ (36 hours divided by 30 days = 1.2hours per day. 0.2 of an hour is 12 minutes. 4
  9. 9. 13Although average time online and frequency is instructive in the broad sense,it’s a ‘white rainbow’, a bland average masking the colourful nuances.Let’s break it down, ladies first.Women drive the digital mainstreamGlobally, there are fewer women on the internet than men, but they spend moretime on it. In the UK, women have overtaken men online (51.3% vs 48.7%)14and reflect the broader pattern of heavier usage, spending about 8% more timeonline15. For UK housewives specifically, nearly half of all their leisure time isspent online16.Two major activities account for this.The social sexGlobally, women spend 30% more time on social networks than men17 – afigure that has held constant into late 2011 with European women clocking up8.2 hours a month on social networks versus men who register at 6.318. Thereare also more of them on social networks. In Europe 81% of men use socialnetworks, trumped by women at 86%, a pattern that holds out for all regions.It’s also good not to forget the less sexy but fundamentally central role of emailand instant messaging, both activities where women talk men under the tableon a global scale19.13 Digital Trends Winter UK December 2011, Mintel14 Estimated data from http://www.emarketer.com/Reports/All/Emarketer_2000391.aspx15 ComScore, July 201016 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/7789494.stm17 ComScore - http://bit.ly/9dth6f18 http://www.comscoredatamine.com/2011/12/women-spend-more-time-social-networking-than-men-worldwide/19 ComScore - http://bit.ly/9dth6f 5
  10. 10. The shopper of the speciesGlobally, women spend 20% more time on retail sites than men20. Women buymore often than men, accounting for 59% of purchases on European websites(53% in the UK), but don’t spend as much as men when they do. WhileEuropean men spend 93.12 euros on an average web purchase, women spend68.65 euros21. In the US, women buy more often than men too, but end upspending more. US women make up just under half of the internet populationbut generate 58% of e-commerce dollars22.The traditional digital womanUnsurprisingly, community, lifestyle and health sites – especially aroundparenting, food and home – continue to get more ladies dropping by thanmen23. British women are also nosier than their men, with 14% of wivesreading their husband’s emails and 10% checking their browsing history,(those figures for men are 8% and 7%, respectively24.) Clearly, technology hasneither got in the way of men’s sexual proclivities nor the orbiting suspicions ofwomen.Women defy digital expectationsSo far we’ve seen nothing a casual bit of stereotyping wouldn’t spit out. Butthere are some surprising findings which armchair bigots might not guess.Game birdsYes, cars, sport and a lot of high finance are still male-dominated but inpersonal finance and financial advice women have the edge, both in numbersvisiting these sites and time spent on them.In online gaming women are a level ahead too25, although only on the gentler,casual games. Women overindex on puzzle, card, arcade, board, casino andtrivia games while the genres of action, adventure and sports are typicallyfavoured by young guys. Leading the charge in gaming for the girls are the over45s who spend nearly a third more time than men their age playing26.Add a bit of spice to the major themes mentioned – being social and spending– and you get to some of the more surprising female pursuits online.20 ComScore - http://bit.ly/9dth6f21 http://www.internetretailer.com/2011/03/28/european-women-shop-more-often-online-men-spend-more22 ComScore - http://bit.ly/9dth6f23 ComScore - http://bit.ly/9dth6f24 http://www.networkworld.com/news/2010/052410-women-more-likely-to-snoop.html25 ComScore - http://bit.ly/9dth6f26 ComScore - http://bit.ly/9dth6f 6
  11. 11. Bad girlsFor example, porn slides in above the already-popular health, clothing, andfamily and parenting sites in overall global usage for women. Some 34% ofladies admit to using adult sites, while for men it’s 46%27. And given theobvious methodological problems of asking people whether they get their kicksfrom commoditised, choreographed human flesh, it’s probably safe to give aViagra to those percentages.Other studies show British women are especially prurient. Six out of 10 womensay they watch porn online28 and an alarmingly high 17% of women describethemselves as “addicted”29.Girls gambleGambling is pretty much a parity sport too. About 7% of adults fritter away theircash online and women are, in fact, more likely to visit some gambling sitesthan men (e.g. lotto and sweepstakes)30.Being geekyMaybe most surprising is that global reach across all ages for technology sitesdoesn’t vary that much between the sexes, although men spend more timethere. Women may be geekier for less time but they’re still being geeky31.Watching lessWhen it comes to online video, although reach is the same as men, womenwatch a lot less video, especially in the UK. Men spend nearly 20 hours amonth watching, women barely reach 10 hours32. One clue to what’s going onhere might be from the fact that women watch a lot more YouTube than men,as a share of their overall viewing. So while men are filling up on a fulsomeshow or film length video, women are snacking from YouTube.Searching lessWomen also search less than men33. One theory to explain this is that whilemen might be employing more of a direct, hunter-style strike to pin down27 ComScore - http://bit.ly/9dth6f28 http://www.guardian.co.uk/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internet-pornography29 http://www.internet-filter-review.toptenreviews.com/internet-pornography-statistics-pg6.html30 ComScore - http://bit.ly/9dth6f31 ComScore - http://bit.ly/9dth6f32 ComScore - http://bit.ly/9dth6f33 ComScore - http://bit.ly/9dth6f 7
  12. 12. information, women are using their 30% more time on social networks thanmen34 to shortcut the searching process by asking friends first.Dolls and dollarsWith the exception of mobile (see later section), women are the backbone ofthe internet: buying, chatting and playing, in innocent and not-so-innocentways. To brands, the cleavage between social and spending should beattracting a lot of attention – therein lies enormous opportunity.Digital blokesPorn, tech and sport; that’s all that needs to be said about men online, isn’t it?Not quite. The picture is a little more nuanced. If women are nurturers – puttingmore time into maintaining social networks, searching less and gettinginformation from their friends – men are the information and entertainmenthunters.Information, information, informationFinding, storing and writing information. That’s what the men like to do. Mensearch more than women (71.6 searches per searcher per month for men vs64 for women, US base35). When interacting with brands in social media, 36%of men claim information is their primary goal, while for women it’s 28%36.They’re also more likely to make use of browser bookmarking than to searchagain37. And finally, it’s the men making Wikipedia. Barely 13% of Wikipedia’scontributors are women38.Watching, learning, listeningIn terms of entertainment, the most popular activities for British men online arewatching video (51% vs 42% of women), visiting chat rooms/messageboards/forums (32% vs 24% of women), listening to internet radio (again, 32%vs 24% of women), listening to downloaded music (31% vs 22% of women)and downloading and playing games (14% vs 6% of women).The chat room/message board/forum point is interesting: although womenspend more time in social media overall, men outnumber them on this specificsector of social media, arguably because boards like this allow men to be muchmore specific in their information gathering.34 ComScore - http://bit.ly/9dth6f35 ComScore - http://bit.ly/9dth6f36 Empathetica, http://chiefmarketer.com/social/metrics/gender-difference-retail-social-media-011211/?cid=nl_cm_direct37 Lightspeed Research 2009 http://www.iabuk.net/en/1/mensactivitiesonline.html38 http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/31/business/media/31link.html?_r=3&hp=&adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1296491313-Gb/z5Xc+t9PSsze7krGSRg 8
  13. 13. Sport, cars and techAround 40% of the global online male population read about sport online39,40,with women not far behind at around 35%. However, men are considerablymore engaged spending nearly twice as much time on these sites41.When it comes to cars it’s a similar but less marked story: between 25% and35% of the online male population visit automotive sites (increasing with age)while women clock in between 20% to 30% and spent about 75% of the timemen do on these sites42.Technology is different. Apart from a small male lead in reach at the youngerages, around 55-60% of the sexes go to technology websites, with womenonly spending about 10% less time there43. The common assumption that techis for the boys is just not supported by the data.Male preference for e-tail but overall still prefer a real shop35% of men prefer “e-tail” to real shops compared to 29% of women44. That’sinteresting because, although there is a slight male preference, most peopleprefer going to real shops. There are obvious reasons for this: you can touchand try in real shops – and they’re a richer experience. Nevertheless, thispreference suggests interesting user experiences that bridge the on- andoffline worlds for both sexes.What are they buying most?Men may prefer to use online shopping more than women but they fall short ofwomen on nearly all types of online shopping, only overindexing slightly oninsurance and flights (they clearly like to get their oar in on the seriouspurchases) and, surprisingly, aligning on tech. A list of the most popular majoronline male purchases looks like this45:  37% buy CDs or DVDs (women, 40%)  32% go to eBay (women, 41%)  28% get clothing and footwear (women, 45%)  30% buy books (women, 40%)  22% kit up on toys and games (women, 28%)  20% get insurance (women, 17%)39 ESPN 2009. Accessed from: http://www.iabuk.net/en/1/toptipsfortargettingmenonline.html in 2011; now no longer online40 http://www.marketingcharts.com/direct/women-encroach-on-male-sites-13840/comscore-online-women-sports-sites-august-2010jpg/41 ESPN 2009 Accessed from: http://www.iabuk.net/en/1/toptipsfortargettingmenonline.html in 2011; now no longer online42 ComScore - http://bit.ly/9dth6f42 ComScore - http://bit.ly/9dth6f43 ComScore - http://bit.ly/9dth6f43 ComScore - http://bit.ly/9dth6f44 http://oxygen.mintel.com/sinatra/oxygen/search_results/show&&type=NSItem&class=News&sort=recent&display=abridged&page=1/display/id=574641&anchor=57464145 Digital Trends UK, Spring, Mintel 9
  14. 14.  20% book flights (women, 19%)  19% buy tickets for entertainment, like gigs and theatre (women, 21%)  17% buy music (women, 19%)  18% buy gifts like flowers or confectionary (women, 26%)  16% buy gadgets (women, 16% too)  15% buy food online (women, 24%)What are they buying least?  13% get cosmetics and perfumes (women, 27%)  13% purchase software (women, 10%)  10% book holidays (women, 10% too)  10% buy DIY and garden products (women, 9%)  9% buy computer hardware (women, 5%)  8% get home furnishings (women, 13%)  8% buy mobiles (women, 8% too)  5% purchase healthcare products (women, 10%)46The connected childFor most of today’s children the internet is like air: it’s just there and always hasbeen. It’s also everywhere: in the bedroom, in school, in their hands and even intheir games console. However, there’s still a wealth gap that needs to beclosed before all children have internet access.Most online, most gamingOver 90% of children have internet access at home and the majority also usethe internet at school47. The average 7 to 10-year-old now spends around 8hours a week online, climbing to 18 hours a week for 11-14s and 24 hours aweek for those aged 15-1948. To repeat: teens are spending nearly half thetime most people spend working per week just being online. What are theydoing? As much as 70% claim that gaming is their most common onlineactivity49, equating to 5 million regular young gamers.Poor kids left behindWhile the breadth and depth of the internet for Britain’s young is astonishing,there is a sorry shortfall among the poor. In the richest 10% of homes, 97%had an internet connection whereas in the poorest 10% of homes only 30%were connected50. The fear is that the technology gap is also breeding an46 Digital Trends UK, Spring, Mintel47 Youth TGI as cited by MediaTel, November 201048 Youth TGI as cited by MediaTel, November 201049 Survey commissioned by Disney as cited in "Next generation Media", Intelligence, Aegis Media, January 201050 http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2010/dec/28/uk-children-home-computer-access 10
  15. 15. attainment gap not just in computer literacy but also in all the attendant benefitsbeing connected brings.Growing up smartChildren are being brought up bathed in bits. Nearly half (41%) of 12 to 15-year-olds have internet in their bedrooms, a leap of 31% in growth from 2009.Interestingly, nearly a quarter (23%) are going online via a games console. Thephrase ‘digital natives’ isn’t too far off.It’s perhaps time to give the phrase a younger cousin: the ‘smartphone native’.Around 18% of 5 to 15-year-olds own a smartphone and 16% go online via agames console51. Among 12 to 15-year-olds this rises to 35% owning asmartphone52.To give that its context, smartphone penetration in the UK is estimated to bearound 45% in 2012. In other words, the kids aren’t far behind before they’veeven done their GCSEs.Deep digitalAnd digital life is much more of their life. Rather heart-wrenchingly, 45% saidthey were sometimes happier online than in their real lives53 and, while thiscould be that they just have more fun playing games online than sittinguninspired in a classroom or being told to finish their plates, it does point to thedepth of relationship the coming generation has with the internet.So strong is this relationship that among children aged 12-15, television is nolonger the media most would miss were it to be taken away. Instead 26% nowsay they’d most miss their mobile, while 24% say the internet54. Half of childrensay they would be ‘sad’ and 10% saying they’d be ‘lonely’ if they didn’t have aninternet connection55.What’s interesting is that there are only a few percentage points in it: televisionstill holds a very strong appeal. Anyone saying TV’s dead for the youngergenerations shouldn’t.And we should be careful about following this fact into the future. Actualtelevision viewing might decrease and the kids might say they’ll miss it less ifit’s taken away but the amount of television content watched probably won’t51 http://consumers.ofcom.org.uk/2011/04/half-of-parents-know-less-about-the-internet-than-their-children/52 http://consumers.ofcom.org.uk/2011/04/half-of-parents-know-less-about-the-internet-than-their-children/53 http://www.kidscape.org.uk/events/saferinternetday2011.asp54 http://consumers.ofcom.org.uk/2011/04/half-of-parents-know-less-about-the-internet-than-their-children/55 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/9045134/British-children-feel-sad-without-internet-connection.html 11
  16. 16. change; it will just be seen on different devices. It’s the word television that’sgoing to go out of fashion, not the shows on it.Social from the startOver half (54%) of children aged 8-15 who use the internet at home have asocial networking profile56. As for Facebook, 44% of 8 to 13-year-olds are on itand 66% of six-year-olds are aware of it57. A quarter of children with asmartphone say that they regularly visit social networks on their phone58.Silver surfersCatching upInternet users over 65 are a relatively small group, accounting for only 6.1% ofthe UK online audience in March 201159. That said, they’re the fastest growingage bracket. In 2010 in the UK around 35% of over 65s had broadband60.The poorA bit behindIf you breakdown the internet population by socio-economic group there is arobust pattern: poorer people have poorer internet penetration.56 http://consumers.ofcom.org.uk/2011/04/half-of-parents-know-less-about-the-internet-than-their-children/57 http://www.thedrum.co.uk/news/2012/02/07/survey-find-larger-percentage-uk-children-using-facebook-us58 http://consumers.ofcom.org.uk/2011/04/half-of-parents-know-less-about-the-internet-than-their-children/59 UKOM: http://www.thedrum.co.uk/news/2011/04/28/21101-overview-of-uk-online-measurement-data-for-march-2011/60 GB TGI Kantar Media UK Ltd Q1 2005-2011 (Oct – Sept) Mintel 12
  17. 17. 61The good news is that the less affluent are catching up fast at 13.4% since200962, a slowing down on the previous rate most readily explained by therecession and increased vigilance over discretionary spend.Interaction with advertisingClick deflationBetween 2004 and 2009 click-through rates on online adverts fellprecipitously to 0.07%. Now, only one ad in 1500 is clicked63,64. The decline ischarted below: 65 .61 Researching Purchases Online – UK April 2011, Mintel62 Kantar as cited by MediaTel, June 201063 Forrester and DoubleClick, cited here https://docs.google.com/present/view?id=d5sr9zx_1625hdsh9gfj&pli=164 Mad Men are watching you http://www.economist.com/node/18651104 13
  18. 18. RetargetingHowever, all is not lost in online advertising. Have you ever seen an ad onlinethat reminds you of something you were doing a few days ago on a site? That’sbecause when you went to that site it dropped something called a cookie ontoyour machine. That cookie was just a record of what you looked at. The ad yougot served was uncannily related to the stuff you were looking at because yourcomputer is telling it what you were looking at. This is retargeting and it isenjoying triple the normal click-through rate of online ads at about 0.22%66.However, there is an even more effective type of online advertising.Contextual targetingEver been on a site and seen an ad that seems to be on exactly the samesubject as the page you’re on? This is contextual targeting and is six timesmore effective than the industry average, enjoying 0.45% click-through rates67.And contextual targeting is cheaper. In fact, you get five times the clicks asretargeting at around half the price68.SummaryIn short, the internet is getting wider, flatter and deeper. More people aregetting it. The demographic differences are being ironed out. And we’respending more time on it from childhood right through to old age. That said,there are important differences in usage, from women’s social and spendinghabits to men’s information and entertainment addiction to children’s increasinginternet and mobile immersion. The way people interact with advertising ischanging too: we are no longer as interested in the general, the personalisedand contextual grab us – a lesson many brands simply don’t yet know.65 Forrester and DoubleClick, cited here https://docs.google.com/present/view?id=d5sr9zx_1625hdsh9gfj&pli=166 Forrester and DoubleClick, cited here https://docs.google.com/present/view?id=d5sr9zx_1625hdsh9gfj&pli=167 Forrester and DoubleClick, cited here https://docs.google.com/present/view?id=d5sr9zx_1625hdsh9gfj&pli=168 Forrester and DoubleClick, cited here https://docs.google.com/present/view?id=d5sr9zx_1625hdsh9gfj&pli=1 14
  19. 19. The new internet2011 was an important year for technology. A critical inflection point wasreached: the number of mobile and tablet devices shipped exceeded thenumber of PCs shipped69,70.We are moving into a post-PC era. There’s still going to be a role for the trustydesktop powerhouse but increasingly we will be accessing the internet throughnew devices.The fresh faces and the app economyMost immediately there are two devices for this: the smartphone and the tablet,both of which Apple has pioneered to mass success71.In many ways this has created a new internet, both in the alterations needed toview existing sites on these devices and in the arrival of the app, a softwareprogram for mobile devices fusing internet functionality with all the trickspowerful phones have up their sleeves.We will look at mobiles, tablets and apps in more detail in later sections.What’s on the horizon?But there is also increasing connectivity elsewhere. The next technologybattleground will be in TV. 350 million internet-enabled ones are expected tobe sold worldwide by 201572. Expect serious disruption, mostly likely brokeredby Apple.Shows will change as the internet invades them and they outsource elementsto it. Ads and product placement will become interactive. Gaming is the bestplace to look for an indication of what’s to come, as even back in 2009 videogame consoles accounted for 52% of living room kit with broadband73.But the real fun begins when all these devices talk to each other in interestingways. Mobile, tablet, TV and traditional PC-like devices will all work together inthe future, pulling shows, music, work, games and so on from the ‘cloud’74 on69 http://www.slideshare.net/kleinerperkins/kpcb-top-10-mobile-trends-feb-201170 http://www.engadget.com/2012/02/03/canalys-more-smartphones-than-pcs-shipped-in-2011/71 This is not to say Apple invented these devices. They didn’t. However, they did create the markets which saw them become popular and competitorsape them.72 Parks Associates, January 201173 Worldwide data, http://www.isuppli.com/Home-and-Consumer-Electronics/News/Pages/Xbox-360-PS3-Vie-to-Win-Digital-Connected-Home-Battle.aspx74 As a reminder, the cloud refers to the collective processing and storage power available on the internet and which less powerful and storage-richdevices, like mobiles, can tap into. 15
  20. 20. the internet. And it will go the other way too: interactivity will flourish.Visionaries will create entirely new engines for storytelling that combine all thisin ways that are hard to imagine now.Beyond that, new devices will be brought into the digital world. Nike hasalready shown the promise of this with Nike+, a chip that goes in runners’shoes and communicates information like speed and distance to their iPod, andNike FuelBand, a wristband that captures your activity throughout the day.Currently there are 35 billion devices that connect to the internet. It’s a lot butit’s just the start. It’s entirely plausible – and likely – that our heating, water,fridges, bikes and so on will connect up.Let’s start with mobile. 16
  21. 21. 17
  22. 22. MobileMobiles are cementing themselves further into our lives. We use them moreoften and for more things. Most people in Britain do not have a smartphone.Yet. Within a year they will be mass. Never has the mobile market seen somuch upheaval. Catalysed by bounds in hardware power and miniaturisation,new phones can now run a vast array of programs, called apps, creating ahuge new virtual economy and a dizzying range of new tools for living. InApple’s pioneering wake, others follow, most notably Google whose mobileoperating system looks set to become the winner by share but not quality ofexperience. For brands the opportunities are staggering, as mobiles become amagical bridge between customers and companies. 18
  23. 23. The British mobile marketThe noble traditional mobileUbiquitous except in certain pocketsMobile penetration in the UK has been above 100% since 200475 becausemany people owned more than one. However, splitting apart demographics toreveal true ownership shows that the young and old still underindex. Forexample 40% of 7 to 10-year-olds own their own phone. This rises to 90% for11 to 14-year-olds76 and 97% for 16 to 19-year-olds which holds steady until50 to 59-years-old when it dips back to 90% and then dips to 60% for 60+-year-olds77.An increasingly fundamental roleWhat’s interesting is not just penetration but personal importance. For example,33% of 12 to 24-year-olds in the UK, US, Germany, India and Japan arecontactable at all times, even in their sleep78. And, as mentioned already, forchildren aged 12-15, television is no longer the media most would miss were itto be taken away. Instead 26% say they’d most miss their mobile79. It may beslight at the moment but it’s an indicative trend.A fundamentally increasing roleAnd traditional mobile phone usage isn’t slowing down either: 1.4 billion textand 10 million picture and video messages are sent every week in the UK, up30% since 200980. Of course, this doesn’t speak to the huge number of newuses on offer from the latest breed of advanced phones, the smartphone.75 Guardian http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/jan/01/25-years-phones-transform-communication76 Youth TGI as cited by MediaTel, November 201077 http://www.csu.nisra.gov.uk/Mobile_phone_ownership_by_sex_and_age_Trend.htm78 OTX Research, March 200979 http://consumers.ofcom.org.uk/2011/04/half-of-parents-know-less-about-the-internet-than-their-children/80 The Mobile Data Association 19
  24. 24. Slick smartphonesExtreme rampingThe worldwide smartphone market leapt 61% in 2011 from the previous year.61%. In total 491.4 million units were shipped, against the 304.7 million unitsmoved in 201081.This is mirrored in the data demands the networks are feeling. In 2010 globalmobile data consumption was 2,844 petabytes. By the end of 2011 it haddoubled to 7,164 petabytes82. That’s enough to fill about 240 million iPods83.In 2011 in the UK 27% of adults (13 million) owned a smartphone84, whichrepresents a rocketing of 70% since 200985. If you cut this by the number ofpeople online, smartphone ownership is more like 54%86.A coming mass marketThe conditions are perfect for even more accelerated growth. For a startnetworks are hawking smartphones hard, as they are key to their own growth.Second, the selection is no longer limited to a range of premium devices,opening up the juicy middle of the market. And third, there is voracious demandfor new functionality beyond just voice.Combine this with an extrapolation of the current growth rate and smartphonesare a hard technology to ignore. It’s estimated they will account for 65% of allphones in Europe by the end of in 2011, 77% by 2012 and 82% by 201387.We’re looking at a technology that will be mass very shortly.Who’s got all the mobile internet?As you might expect, mobile internet declines gracefully as you approach oldage and is used just a touch more by the men, as befits traditional technologyadoption. Let’s look at it in detail:81 http://trak.in/tags/business/2012/02/08/smartphone-market-share-2011-12/82 http://www.ispreview.co.uk/story/2012/02/14/cisco-vni-report-shows-huge-surge-in-mobile-broadband-data-traffic-during-2011.html83 32Gb version84 Note that 45% have gone online in 2011 with a mobile, the difference is that the remaining 18% aren’t using a smartphone85 Comscore as cited by Cellular News, March 201086 Comscore as cited by Cellular News, March 201087 Carphone Warehouse/Gartner, February 2010 20
  25. 25. 88Kids already aheadBy some sources, children are already overindexing on smartphone ownershipversus the rest of the population. Many have better phones than the averagepunter. 18% of 5 to 15-year-olds own a smartphone, while among 12 to 15-year-olds this rises to 35% owning a smartphone89. In a broader sense, theyoung are heavy mobile internet users: 40% of 16 to 34-year-olds go on theinternet through their phone at least once at day90.Here come the girlsWomen haven’t cornered smartphones yet, as they have with the social andspending corners of the internet. In Europe the skew is 63:37% in men’sfavour. This is probably due to a mix of factors: men adopting earlier, havingmore phones paid for by employees who see benefits to advanced functionalityand greater male earning power.The good news is that the balance is being redressed, with women struttingfrom 18% penetration in 2010 to 39% in 201191.The mummy effectInterestingly this adoption may be in part driven by motherhood. In a US studyof 5,000 mums over half (53%) said they purchased their smartphone as adirect result having a child. Having a baby brings with it a flurry of feature88 Researching Purchases Online – UK April 2011, Mintel89 http://consumers.ofcom.org.uk/2011/04/half-of-parents-know-less-about-the-internet-than-their-children/90 Researching Purchases Online – UK April 2011, Mintel91 http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171778_227158.pdf 21
  26. 26. reprioritisation. The camera becomes even more important than the addressbook and text messaging, jumping to the most important feature for stills andsecond most important feature for movies. Apps, which were never a factorbefore motherhood, jump to number three on the list of top functions. Nearly aquarter of the apps they have are for their children92, for example games,language learning and interactive children’s story93.Who’s using what?Beware of the industryAs people who work in marketing, we should be very aware that our phonesare not reflective of the population as a whole. For instance, iPhone makes uparound 9% of all UK phones while 30% still use Nokia94.Who’s winning the smartphone wars?Android is FordAndroid is the fastest growing mobile operating system in the world95, rampingexponentially to 300 million handsets globally by February 201296, giving it aglobal share of 52%97. In the UK it accounts for 34% of smartphones98. Rightnow, 700,000 Android devices are being activated every day globally99. Not tomiss the chance for a comparison involving Wales, that’s the equivalent todouble all the people in Cardiff switching to Android every day. Phenomenal.The exponential rate of growth can be seen in the chart below: 10092 http://www.babycenter.com/100_press-release-mobile-mom_10349212.bc93 Accessed from: http://www.apple.com/uk/iphone/apps-for-everything/momsdads.html in 2001; now no longer online94 Comscore, as shown on http://txt4ever.wordpress.com/2011/06/16/uk-smartphone-demographics-analysed/95 http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/blog/2011/feb/16/google-eric-schmidt-mobile-world-congress-speech96 https://plus.google.com/u/0/112599748506977857728/posts/Btey7rJBaLF97 http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2396404,00.asp98 Mintel Digital Trends Winter 201199 http://techcrunch.com/2011/12/22/android-700000/100 http://www.slideshare.net/kleinerperkins/kpcb-top-10-mobile-trends-feb-2011 22
  27. 27. Apple is BMWWhile Apple’s iPhone paved – and will probably continue to pave – the way, itsmarket share gains are slowing down101. It’s useful to think about Apple like theBMW of the smartphone market, while Android is the Ford: Android’s looks setto be the affordable mass market smartphone whereas Apple will secure asmaller share with higher priced102, more stylish products on which they makedeliriously lush margins (Apple sells 4.2% of all mobile phones, but makes 52%of all profits103.) One upshot of this is that wealthier consumers are on the endof Apple devices for brands.Bye bye SymbianSymbian, the platform that sits under Nokia phones, will likely die. By 2015 itsestimated global market share will be a woeful 0.1%. Nokia and Microsoft’srecent alliance to develop hardware and software respectively is their way ofaddressing the brutalisation of their share by the two Californian behemoths.Estimates for Microsoft’s mobile OS share settled at around 11% for 2012, atthe end of 2011 they were less than 2%104.Strong BlackBerryAnd finally there’s BlackBerry, which has strong mobile and tablet propositionsbut a much less well-developed app store. In the UK they have a 27.7% share(8.5 million people)105.Current and projected global share of the mobile operating system marketlooks like this:101 http://www.strategyanalytics.com/102 Apples share of the mobile phone industry profits is nearly 60%, http://www.macrumors.com/2011/05/17/apples-share-of-mobile-phone-industry-profits-pushes-toward-60/103 http://www.forbes.com/sites/afontevecchia/2011/11/04/apple-took-52-of-smartphone-profits-on-4-2-market-share-in-q3-stock-to-hit-560/104 http://www.macworld.co.uk/apple-business/news/?newsid=3333519105 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/blackberry/9050236/BlackBerry-UKs-No-1-smartphone.html 23
  28. 28. 106106 http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1622614 24
  29. 29. What are people doing on them?Smartphone usage by activityThe average smartphone owner uses the actual phone only about 40% of thetime. The rest of the time is spent on new activities like internet, games, music,email and navigation107.In the UK, smartphone owners self-report to doing the following activities:surfing the internet (80%), using social media (62%), watching TV/video clips(28%) and making purchases (21%)108.Let’s look at these in a little more detail.Still searching“Search [on phones] is not where it’s at” said Steve Jobs, Apple’s late boss, in2010. Ever the salesman, he was putting forward a case for apps on mobilesas a way of getting stuff done rather than search. Steve was wrong on this one.Google own mobile searchMobile search engine traffic has seen an increase of 247% in the past year109,comparable to the early days of desktop search in Google’s history. YetGoogle’s formidable monopoly is even more pronounced in the mobile search107 Mary Meeker Report, April 2010108 KPMG as cited by eMarketer , December 2010109 Digital Strategy Consulting, October 2010 25
  30. 30. market: it serves 98.29% of mobile search queries globally, followed by Yahoowith 0.81%, Bing 0.46%, other sites who squabble over the remaining 0.46%of the crumbs110.Mobile search is differentSearch on mobile is not like search on a PC. Smaller screens force a smallerselection meaning it’s even more important brands stand out in search or evenbefore the search is made. For example, mobile searchers simply don’t drillpast page one111. If you don’t feature in the right places for the right searches,you don’t exist. Mobile search engine optimisation (SEO) will become its ownvery important subfield.Searching for the brandHowever, given that searchers on mobile are twice as likely to search for abrand name as when searching from the desktop it would be ideal for a brandto be in someone’s head before a search is made. This means good oldfashioned branding is arguably more important than ever. Expect to see‘Increased mobile searches for brand name’ popping up in big brand buildingTV ad effectiveness models soon.Android owners doing more browsing than AppleThere are also some interesting differences within mobile users. Androidersbrowse more on their phones than Applers112. The reason? One, the apps arebetter on an Apple device, obviating a lot of browsing. Two, Android users areprobably more techy. And three, there is a large search box on most Androidphones, shortcutting straight to search. There’s a device bias to browse.WebsitesThe website still centralA bit of eavesdropping on certain quarters of the internet and you’d be fooledinto thinking you’re non-existent if you don’t have an app for people to interactwith you on mobile. Not true. Websites still play an enormous role. The averagesmartphone user will visit up to 24 of them per day113.110 Stat Counter as cited by Pingdom.com, July 2010111 ComScore, September 2010112 Mary Meeker Report, April 2010113 http://www.mobiadnews.com/?p=5133 26
  31. 31. But poor experiences commonThe vast majority of these are traditional websites, not mobile-specific ones.That doesn’t express a preference at all, just the status quo. And it’s a badstatus quo. People expect a faultless experience regardless of the channel andwhat they’re getting on mobile is very different. 83% of people experiencedproblems trying to buy something through a site on a mobile114. To brands thegreen light of opportunity should be going off to out-experience thecompetition.AppsWired, a technology magazine, announced at the end of 2010 that ‘The Web IsDead. Long Live the Internet‘115. Their conceit was that there’s more to theinternet than web pages on computers: there are apps.At the same time Fast Company, a business magazine, ran an article whichargued the economics of apps aren’t sustainable, users don’t even use themthat much and there are so many now it’s easier to head elsewhere, thebrowser and search.Who is right? As a brand investing money in creating an app or updating a siteto be mobile friendly this is a vital question. Let’s first untangle the differentarticles.The web is not dead, and neither are appsFor one, the web isn’t dead. It’s still growing exponentially. Wired’s graphshowing web traffic dwindling is deceptive for reasons we’ll footnote116. And asfor the Fast Company, apps are economically viable, they were just looking at itwrong (again something we’ll footnote117), frequency isn’t always the right wayto measure success (you wouldn’t measure the usefulness of a bike pump bythe number of times you used it) and yes, they’re hard to find sometimes, butthat is simply innovation getting ahead of organisation.114 The Wireless Federation, April 2011, http://wirelessfederation.com/news/68217-10-million-adults-use-m-commerce-uk/115 http://www.wired.com/magazine/2010/08/ff_webrip/all/1116 The vertical axis is relative, not absolute, cunningly smoothing out the web’s actual exponential growth. Next is that their chosen unit is bandwidth; ofcourse video badwidth has got bigger, quality is improving all the time. Time spent would be a more useful indication of behaviour. And finally theyclumsily split things that cannot be split: for example, iPlayer and YouTube are both web and video117 They cite a study that calculates average app revenue. Averages are only useful when data are spread equally. Some people have got very rich frommaking apps, other’s have made a loss. On average, the amount is positive but low. Nevertheless, developers are irrational and will continue to chasethat big win (even though statistically they are very unlikely to achieve it.) Apps will continue to be made. Fame is a useful analogy: the average celebincome is probably something like £20,000 and a fame level close to zero. In reality there are a load of very handsomely paid celebs but an invisiblehoard who never made it or are trying to still waiting tables. Average it all out and you get poor numbers, but people still try and chase the dream. 27
  32. 32. To app or not to app?So there’s some poor/sneaky presentation of data – bad Wired – and someoversimplifications – naughty Fast Company. Our view: as mobile internet isonly going to get bigger, brands should have a reasoned presence there. Butfretting over whether to do an app or to create a mobile site is unnecessary:both serve different needs and only good judgement can inform which to gowith, if it even needs to be a mutually exclusive choice.For example, mobile sites are accessible by search, on the brand’s own terms(not subject to Apple’s firewalls), have a higher reach and are cheaper to build,making them better for occasional transaction or information gathering.Apps on the other hand offer a smoother experience using the phone’s fullfunctionalities making them perfect for providing branded utility andentertainment that is likely more than a one-time thing for people.Location, location, location40% of Google Maps usage is now from mobiles. Over New Year’s Day 2011,mobile usage of Maps surpassed the desktop – a first for Google products118.Although this could represent low information needs and high navigation needsfor this particular time (you’re not interested in the news, you’re interested ingetting back from the in-laws’) it’s still instructive to see the importance oflocation to the mobile experience. In fact, 26% of people regularly use themaps on their phone; this rises to 63% for iPhone users119. For brands thismeans getting basics like appearing on Google Places right through tosprucing up their mobile search strategy, to tap into local search phrases aswell as taking advantage of Google’s Mobile AdWords which can target aspecified radius around a place with an ad.Watching on the goIncreasingly TV isn’t watched on a TVA third of British television viewers now watch shows on their computer andmobile. Globally, around 11% watch video on their mobiles120, in the UK that’san audience of 2.7 million, growing at a rate of 75%121.118 Marissa Mayer of Google, speaking at SXSW, reported here http://techcrunch.com/2011/03/11/marissa-mayer-40-of-google-maps-usage-is-mobile-and-there-are-150-million-mobile-users/119 http://econsultancy.com/uk/blog/7645-ten-ways-brands-can-use-location-based-marketing120 http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/global/report-how-we-watch-the-global-state-of-video-consumption/121 ComScore via http://www.iabuk.net/en/1/mobilevideoconsumptionup75percent300910.mxs 28
  33. 33. Increasingly what is watched isn’t TV13% of the videos watched via a mobile globally are from YouTube where untilrecently TV shows didn’t exist122. In January 2011, YouTube delivered 200million views a day through mobile, a tripling on the previous year123. By theend of 2011, it was 400 million views124.Although iTunes technically caters for more than phones and mostly to Appleproducts, it’s useful to see the scale of downloads. At the end of 2010, iTuneshad delivered 450 million TV episodes and over 100 million movies to iPod,iPhones and iPads125. That’s not including video podcasts either, which willmake up a good segment.A shopper’s best friendTouch and goCommerce and mobile are knocking into each other in ever more interestingways. At the most basic level phones can be used as intelligence gatheringdevices when ‘in the field’.In 2011, 95% of smartphone users had looked up local information, 88% hadtaken action off the back of this search within a day; for example, 77%contacted a business, with 61% calling and 59% visiting126.10% of people had used their phone to access a review, voucher or pricecomparison site, with 9% of people actually downloading an app to visit again.A further 17% said this would be something they would like to do if only theyknew how127.Barcode democracyA number of services that allow an item’s barcode to be scanned while in theshop are shortcutting the process of painstakingly typing something in. Thisallows for real-time price comparison and is offered by well-known retailerssuch as Tesco and Amazon.More recently, SearchReviews, a consumer review aggregator, has introduceda mobile app for both Apple and Android handsets through which consumerscan scan a barcode and obtain online reviews relevant to the product.122 YouTube now has an area called Shows which has syndicated network content, most notably and widely from Channel 4, whose back catalogue islargely uploaded to the site.123 YouTube blog, http://youtube-global.blogspot.com/2011/01/music-videos-now-on-youtube-app-for.html124 http://articles.businessinsider.com/2011-12-01/tech/30462152_1_total-views-youtube-android-phones125 Apple, September 2010126 US basehttp://googlemobileads.blogspot.com/2011/04/smartphone-user-study-shows-mobile.html127 Researching Purchases Online – UK April 2011, Mintel 29
  34. 34. At the moment this is the preserve of the young, as older shoppers haven’t gotaround to figuring out their phone’s capabilities yet and struggle with the smallscreens.Buying on the goThe next level up is to use the phone to buy something, a feat 21% of UKsmartphone owners have claimed to do128. However, this figure is likely skewedby purchases of apps. Another study showed 8% bought something using theirphone in 2011129. Each month in the UK, 4.2 million consumers are visitingretailers’ websites using their mobiles130 accounting for 3.3% of all e-commerce131. As we saw earlier many are dissatisfied with their mobile webexperiences132. This, coupled with the clear level of demand for informationdelivered in this fashion, should galvanise brands into developing world-classmobile experiences – now.Goodbye walletBenjamin Vigier is an expert in near-field communications (NFC), a short-rangewireless technology that lets two objects talk to one another. Applicationsinclude contactless payment for goods.Why is the relevant? Because Apple hired Vigier towards the end of 2010133and, given the company’s record in defining the tech agenda, it indicates thatsoon we may see smartphones replacing cards and cash134.Some brands are already mobilising. McDonalds, for instance, is in the processof kitting out its 1,200 UK branches with proximity payment cards which willallow payment through a simple wave of the card – or NFC-enabled phone –near the till.Barclaycard, Orange and Samsung are there together too, having launchedQuick Tap, a contactless payment system based on Samsung Tocco mobilephones.128 KPMG as cited by eMarketer , December 2010129 http://econsultancy.com/uk/blog/8226-mobile-commerce-in-the-uk-stats-round-up130 GSMA & ComScore, August 2010131 http://econsultancy.com/uk/blog/8226-mobile-commerce-in-the-uk-stats-round-up132 The Wireless Federation, April 2011, http://wirelessfederation.com/news/68217-10-million-adults-use-m-commerce-uk/133 http://www.fastcompany.com/1682180/apple-nfc-expert-vigier-iphone-wireless-payments134 If this is the case Apple will likely take a share of every transaction (although not as aggressively as it does with the 30% on apps, see sectionbelow). Given the penetration and growth of Apple’s mobile offering this could open a vast new revenue stream for the company. 30
  35. 35. An advertiser’s best friendRetail mobile search rampingTotal mobile search quadrupled in 2011 (vs 2010) according to Google andwithin that mobile retail search traffic soared by 181%. Mobile searches nowaccount for 11% of total retail searches135.Advertising drives mobile searchThe interaction between advertising and mobile phones is clearly establishedbut applied rarely. 71% search on their phones as a direct result of exposurefrom traditional media (68%), online ads (18%) or mobile ads (27%) (USbase)136. Yet there is little to encourage people to do this as customer journeysare currently woefully siloed to specific media, even though this does notreflect the realities of media use.Advertising drives leads and purchasesEight in 10 notice a mobile ad, while one in three notice a mobile search ad137.Incredibly half of those who see an ad on a mobile take action, like visiting awebsite (35%), making a purchase (49%) or recommending a brand orproduct to others (24%)138.And those ads with the highest click-through rate are those that blend with thephone’s functionality best. For example, Google mobile ads with the ‘click tocall’ feature, which makes a number immediately callable, have a 6-8% higherclick-through rate than those without this feature139.Closing the gap to purchaseOne can imagine how further retail functionality could be pulled through thekeyhole (e.g. clothes size, table reservation or even purchase) making it easierfor people and beneficial to the retailer.Touching othersA quarter of British mobile phone users in the UK use their handsets to accesssocial networking sites and blogs140. But it’s the rate of growth that’sastounding: in March 2010, 4.4 million people accessed social media sites or135 For that quarter, http://www.brandrepublic.com/bulletin/brandrepublicnewsbulletin/article/1066923/google-brc-figures-show-explosion-mobile-retail-search/136 http://googlemobileads.blogspot.com/2011/04/smartphone-user-study-shows-mobile.html137 http://googlemobileads.blogspot.com/2011/04/smartphone-user-study-shows-mobile.html138 US base, http://googlemobileads.blogspot.com/2011/04/smartphone-user-study-shows-mobile.html139 http://gigaom.com/2010/12/21/googles-click-to-call-boosts-mobile-revenues140 ComScore MobiLens, July 2010 31
  36. 36. blogs through their mobile phone almost every day. A year later, it increased by80% to 7.9 million mobile users accessing social media almost every day141.As the pre-eminent Western social network, Facebook leads the way onnumbers for its mobile platform. There are more than 425 million active userscurrently accessing Facebook through mobile devices and they are twice asactive as non-mobile users142,143. It’s been estimated that a third of all itemsposted to the network are from mobile144. For Twitter it’s higher: 40% of thecontent comes from mobile, up from 20% 2010145.Where and when are they using it?Mobile internet traffic starts with sunrise at around 5am, grows rapidly andreaches a peak at 4.30pm146. The top occasions can be seen in the followingchart: 147It’s not just when we use it but where that’s interesting too. 35% of people fireup apps before they’ve even got out of bed148, 39% use it in the loo, 33%while watching TV, 22% while reading the newspaper149 and 70% while141 comScore Media Metrix, 9th May 2011, http://www.comscoredatamine.com/2011/05/mobile-social-media-usage-up-80-percent-in-the-uk/142 http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics143 https://developers.facebook.com/blog/post/2012/02/24/growing-mobile-apps-and-games-with-facebook-platform/144 http://danzarrella.com/new-data-on-mobile-facebook-posting.html#145 http://mashable.com/2011/01/07/40-of-all-tweets-come-from-mobile/146 http://www.mobiadnews.com/?p=5133147 http://mashable.com/2011/05/12/smartphone-apps-bed/148 http://mashable.com/2011/05/12/smartphone-apps-bed/149 http://googlemobileads.blogspot.com/2011/04/smartphone-user-study-shows-mobile.html 32
  37. 37. shopping150. The last three stats there show how widespread media ‘stacking’is. Yet, consumer journeys through advertising take no advantage of this fact.Sex and age differences in mobile usageAcross Europe there are a number of differences that emerge when youexamine sex and age. For example, on the chart below the higher the bubblethe more likely girls are to do it.The further right you get the more likely it’s an older person’s activity. So, youngwomen aren’t using apps that much but they’re doing a lot of social networking. Figure 1 comScore MobiLens; demographics of mobile activities for EU5 (FR, UK, GR, SP, IT), March 2010150 http://googlemobileads.blogspot.com/2011/04/smartphone-user-study-shows-mobile.html 33
  38. 38. The app economy explainedWhat are apps?Software on a mobileAn app is simply a program running on a phone, just like a program you’d runon a desktop. Instead of taking it from a disc, like you would a PC program, youcan download it directly from an app store, essentially a website hosting theapps.Limited but liberatedHowever, because of phones’ physical limitations – screen size, graphicsprocessing, download limits – an app is much more focused in functionality.That said it also has access to a lot more functionality, like where the phone is,what angle it’s at or what it’s picking up through the camera, ushering in awave of innovation. In the future, phones may be able to read our gestures151and even facial expressions152.Outsourcing innovationOne of Apple’s moments of genius in marketing the app, was giving the optionto anyone with an idea and the inclination and ability to create their own appand list it in the app store, subject to Apple’s fierce approval process. Nowanyone – a multinational brand or teenager in his room – can make an app. Andthey have in their hundreds of thousands.The app economyWho are the players?Apple and Google. There are others, but their impact is dwarfed by these twoplayers.Apple got it right first. While iTunes impressively and fundamentally reorderedthe music market, the app market’s popularity left iTunes in the dust.151 http://techcrunch.com/2011/05/18/gilt-tastes-ipad-swipe-without-touching/152 http://www.pcworld.com/article/228151/smile_to_unlock_iphone_app_uses_facial_recognition_to_secure_your_phone.html 34
  39. 39. Figure 2 iTunes fundamentally reordered the music market, but the app store’s growth leave it in the dust. KPCB and Apple.However, Google’s app store, while less easy-to-use, is now growing faster.While it’s almost pointless stating the raw numbers as they’ll be out of datewithin weeks of writing them, the Google app store (formerly Android Market,renamed Google Play in 2012) currently has 450,000 apps, which have beendownloaded 10 billion times. Apple’s store has 500,000+ apps and, in March2012, had 25 billion downloads.Although there are other players, it’s these two that lead the pack in terms ofapp usage, as the chart below shows. Figure 3 Installed base vs app downloads, iOS and Android way ahead 35
  40. 40. App store economics30% of revenue from apps on both the Apple App Store and Google Play goto Apple and Google; 70% goes to the producer of the app.About 30% of the apps on the App Store are free; the remaining 70% carry acost. Google Play on the other hand, largely because there is no vetting in thesubmission process, is mostly comprised of free apps (around 60%), while40% are paid for153.Partly as a result of these factors, the Apple App Store wins on revenue,leaving others a distant second. Estimates have been made that the App Storeis worth $7.08bn. To give that context RIM (BlackBerry), is worth $7.04bn.App economicsCombined app store data (Apple App Store for iPhone, BlackBerry App World,Nokia Ovi Store and the then-named Google Android Market) show over thecourse of 2010 there was a shift to lower price tiers, with the $1.00 to $1.99segment seeing the most growth154.What apps are most popular by download?153 AndroLib and 148App.biz, www.pingdom.com (August 2010) data154 Distimo Research 36
  41. 41. Data from the US shows how the app store can be broken out by popularity ofcategory. Games, books and entertainment lead the pack155. 156The most downloaded apps of all time are as follows. Just look how popularsimple gaming and the social stuff is:PAID01. Angry Birds (games)02. Fruit Ninja (games)03. Doodle Jump (games)04. Cut the Rope (games)05. Angry Birds Seasons (games)FREE01. Facebook (social networking)02. Pandora Radio (music)03. Words With Friends (games)04. Skype (social networking)05. The Weather Channel (weather)157App usage155 http://www.mobclix.com/appstore/1156 http://www.mobclix.com/appstore/1157 http://sg.news.yahoo.com/25-billion-downloads-most-popular-ios-apps-145333092.html 37
  42. 42. While the app markets of Google and Apple are impressive and bothcompanies like to market the numbers repeatedly to prove the extra value intheir ecosystems, it’s worth digging deeper into usage.It’s not just whether they have a smartphone, it’s if they downloadThe average number of apps US adults have is 18158 but only 68% of thosewho have a phone with apps actively use them159. Older phone users inparticular do not use the apps that are on their phones, and one in ten adultswith a phone (11%) are not even sure if their phone is equipped with apps160.It’s not just if they download, it’s what they useAdded to that, even after downloading them people don’t use apps. AcrossAndroid, iPhone, iPad, BlackBerry and Windows Phone 7 apps a quarter ofapps downloaded were only used once161. While it’s entirely possible that theone use was enough (and in the context of brands the one go on an app maybe enough to meet an objective), it’s much more likely that this represents thelong tail of apps gathering dust.Smartphone penetration not indicative of smartphone usageAs a result of stats like these, we should be careful not to equate penetrationwith usage. 27% of the UK might use a smartphone, but only 70% of that 27%might be using apps, of which many are sitting dormant. 10% of that 27%might not even know they have apps.158 http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/The-Rise-of-Apps-Culture/Overview.aspx159 US base http://www.pewinternet.org/Media-Mentions/2010/Report-Relatively-few-people-use-cellphone-apps.aspx160 http://www.localytics.com/blog/post/first-impressions-matter-26-percent-of-apps-downloaded-used-just-once/161 http://www.localytics.com/blog/post/first-impressions-matter-26-percent-of-apps-downloaded-used-just-once/ 38
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  44. 44. TabletTablets are taking the world by storm. Even Steve Jobs was surprised by theirsuccess claiming in an early investors call after launch that they may just have a‘tiger by the tail’. Essentially, we are seeing a repeat of the iPhone story – buton fast-forward. The iPad and its myriad competitors are finding a massaudience quicker than pretty much any device in consumer tech history. Eventhe Queen has one now – an indication of the much broader market Apple hasdrilled into. And while they tout portability, it’s the home they’re being used in,replacing the book in bed. Welcome to the age of casual computing. 40
  45. 45. The tablet marketHow big is the tiger?iPad the fastest selling Apple device. Ever.According to Apple’s data it’s the fastest ramping device in terms of globalshipments ever sold in quarters after launch in consumer tech (see below),which has prompted a host of ‘me too’ products from Samsung, Motorola,Sony and even, bizarrely, clothes retailer Next. 162By the start of 2012 Apple had sold 55.28 million163. In 2010 it was 15 million,outselling Macs, their desktop and laptop computers, in units. By any measure,this was an incredible ramp for an entirely new computing product. It is sostartling that nobody predicted it, not bullish Wall Street analysts (GoldmanSachs predicted 6.2m sales164 in year one) or even wide-eyed gassingbloggers.The accelerated worldThe accelerated adoption curve is worth dwelling upon. One explanation is thatwe are in a point in technology history where we’re shifting to a new computingparadigm and while everything will plateau out in a few years, until the next stepchange comes along, we’re experiencing heady growth for the moment. We’regetting drunk on new gadgets and the gloomy hangover is coming.162 http://aaplinvestors.net/stats/iphonevsipod/163 http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/07/20results.html164 http://techcrunch.com/2011/01/19/nobody-predicted-ipad-growth/ 41
  46. 46. Or, and this seems more compelling, we’re looking directly into the face of ouraccelerated world, where there’s more technology change occurring morefrequently and reaching more people faster than ever. Tech companies must berubbing their hands. Marketing departments should be planning.Who are the other players?The story with iPhone – Apple making a market and others scrabbling to get aslice, with Google eventually overtaking – will likely be repeated in tablets. TheiPad had 85% global share in the tablet market during 2010. This dropped to62% by March 2012 as other players gained share165, chief among themAmazon’s Kindle and Samsung (see table). In 2011 an estimated 72.7m tabletswere shipped, accounting for a quarter of all mobile PC sales166. 167The UK marketBetween October 2010 and December 2011 tablet ownership trebled to9%168. How does this breakdown? 0.1% own a tablet only, representing a tinybut new market of computer users or people who’ve relinquished all their othertechnology. 1.6% have a laptop and a tablet, while 0.5% have a tablet anddesktop and 7.3% have the full house: laptop, desktop and tablet169.The future marketAggressive growth is predicted with estimates of 500 million units being sold in2015170. To give that perspective around 360 million PCs are shipped eachyear. The market for computing is getting bigger as we enter the post-PCworld.165 http://news.cnet.com/8301-13579_3-57382808-37/ipads-share-of-tablet-market-to-dip-to-62-percent-this-year/166 http://www.v3.co.uk/v3-uk/news/2135289/tablet-sales-grow-250-cent-2011-reach-million167 http://www.isuppli.com/Display-Materials-and-Systems/News/Pages/Apples-Toughest-Competition-in-the-Fourth-Quarter-Tablet-Market-Was-Apple.aspx168 Digital Trends Winter – Uk, December 2011169 Mintel, Desktop, Laptops and Tablet Computers 2011170 eMarketer, December 2010 42
  47. 47. Who owns a tablet?Skews younger and maleLet’s air the caveat first. New technology is almost universally adopted byyoung affluent guys. So, tablet owner data at this stage in the product’s shortlife isn’t necessarily indicative of the future audience. iPad conforms: 25 to 34-year-olds make up the major owner segment followed by 18 to 24-year-olds.65% of these owners are male171. This is a pattern that has held into 2011172.In the UK we can see the following pattern of ownership:171 http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/online_mobile/connected-devices-how-we-use-tablets-in-the-u-s172 http://www.appstechnews.com/blog-hub/2012/feb/07/who-are-using-smartphones-tablets/ 43
  48. 48. 173173 Mintel, Destop, Laptop and Tablet Computers 2011 44
  49. 49. Sharing itIt’s worth tempering the ownership data with the fact that 43% of Apples iPad,Samsungs Galaxy Tab and the Motorola Xoom’s US buyers share their tabletwith others in their house; 8% had bought it for someone else. We thereforeneed to be careful about being led by the buyer data as other audiences maybe using tablets174, something day-to-day experience teaches us is the case,as kids and grandparents pick up the device.Multiple tabletsIn the UK while 74% of iPad households have just the one device, 16% havetwo or more. 18% of those with iPads were planning on purchasing anothertablet or e-reader, with a heavy preference for iPad (66%)175.Receptiveness to advertisingLike ads moreThe iPad audience may just be one of the most lucrative out there formarketers. In a study looking at iPad users, 46% said they enjoy interactive adsvs 27% on other devices, 35% said they enjoy any ads (vs 17%) and they werealso more likely to click on simple text ads (40%) than those on other devices(19%).More likely to spendThey’re also the most likely to splash cash as a result of seeing an ad eitherlater on a PC (36% iPad vs 27% all devices), in store (24% iPad vs 10% alldevices), by telephone (12% iPad, 7% all devices) or on their iPad itself (8%iPad vs 5% all devices). 176174 http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/online_mobile/connected-devices-how-we-use-tablets-in-the-u-s175 http://today.yougov.co.uk/sites/today.yougov.co.uk/files/Tablet_ownership_in_households.pdf176 http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/consumer/the-connected-devices-age-ipads-kindles-smartphones-and-the-connected-consumer/ 45
  50. 50. 177177 http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/consumer/the-connected-devices-age-ipads-kindles-smartphones-and-the-connected-consumer/ 46
  51. 51. What are they doing with it?Most used functionalityTablets are used mostly for consuming games (84%), information (78%), email(74%) and news (61%). Interestingly, people spend up to five times theamount of time reading news on their device as they do on publications’websites178, most likely because they’re more comfortable – sitting at acomputer is not relaxing, sprawled on a bed is. Over half (56%) use them tosocial network. And while not quite as popular, nearly half of users read (46%),consume entertainment (51%) and shop (42%) on their tablets179. Whileshopping here is defined in its broadest sense other data show that nearly onein five UK tablet users (19%) make purchases with a tablet180. 181Most used appsThe top five most downloaded paid iPad applications of all time are as follows:01. Pages (productivity)02. Angry Birds HD (games)03. Angry Birds Seasons (games)04. Penultimate (productivity)05. Scrabble for iPad (games)178 http://thenextweb.com/media/2011/05/18/news-is-5-times-more-engaging-on-a-tablet-than-a-website/179 Admob by Google Tablet Survey, March 2011, US base180 Digital Trends UK, Spring, Mintel181 Admob by Google Tablet Survey, March 2011, US base 47
  52. 52. The top five most downloaded free iPad applications of all time are as follows:01. Angry Birds HD Free (games)02. The Weather Channel for iPad (weather)03. Netflix (entertainment)04. Skype for iPad (social networking)05. Kindle – Read books, Magazines & More (books)182How long are they using it for?Nearly three quarters (68%) of owners use their tablet for more than 2 hours a day,with 30% using it for 1-2 hours183. 184Where are they using it?By a long way, ease of portability and use are the reasons people get tablets over PCsor laptop185. However, current users aren’t taking that portability too far: 82% namethe home as the primary place they use it, followed by out and about at 11% and work,7%186.182 http://sg.news.yahoo.com/25-billion-downloads-most-popular-ios-apps-145333092.html183 Admob by Google Tablet Survey, March 2011, US base184 Admob by Google Tablet Survey, March 2011, US base185 The Nielsen Company, Q1 2011 Mobile Connect Device Report186 Admob by Google Tablet Survey, March 2011, US base 48
  53. 53. When are they using it?Tablets are used mostly during the week (69%) and at nights (69%). To a much lesserextent, people use them at weekends (31%) and during the day (38%). One way tothink of it is that the tablet is replacing the book and TV as a way to relax in theevenings after work187.How is this impacting usage of their other devices?Despite most people (72%) saying tablets aren’t their primary computer, otherelectronics are gathering dust nonetheless188. 77% of users say they use theirPC/laptop less now they have a tablet189. A different US study has shown the broaderimpact of this: 190187 Admob by Google Tablet Survey, March 2011, US base188 Admob by Google Tablet Survey, March 2011, US base189 Admob by Google Tablet Survey, March 2011, US base190 The Nielsen Company, Q1 2011 Mobile Connect Device Report 49
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  56. 56. BehavioursTechnology has not changed the fundamentals of human behaviour – but it haschanged the way we behave fundamentally. People still want to talk, find thingsout and be delighted, it’s just we’re no longer beholden to a few devices to dothis. Communication, information and entertainment now run through manytributaries, increasingly crossing each other’s paths. Too often peoplebemoaning the drying up of one miss the opportunities filling up elsewhere orthe interesting intersections. This section looks at how we search, read, listen,get, watch, play and blend many of these activities together on our increasinglybroad set of devices. 52
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  58. 58. SearchWith an estimated 40 billion pages and 1.5 billion images online191, search isabsolutely core to the internet. Google takes more than a billion searches aday, answering them in less than a quarter of a second on average192. 16% ofthose queries have never been seen before. That’s the face of change,quantified, right there.No matter how much pundits drive themselves into a frenzy over the rise ofsocial (‘visits to social overtook visits to search in May 2010’193), search is hereto stay. Nearly 90% of Brits search online194. While global PC searchescontinue to grow (doubling in reach in the last two years195), it’s mobile searchthat’s seeing staggering growth. Any brand worth its salt will have a searchstrategy for desktop but most won’t have a mobile search strategy. They aregoing to need one.The playersGoogle dominates. The search engine is the largest player in the world with an84.65% share196. Its other search engine is the world’s second largest byvolume of search. It goes by the name of YouTube197.The others have tiny shares: in February 2012 Yahoo had 5.42%, Baidu had4.67%, Bing had 2.11% and others shared the remaining crumbs198.Search behaviourHow many searches do people make?Four in 10 respondents (40%) used a search engine more than twenty times inany given week199, with usage smoothly declining as people got older200.How deep into search do people go?79% will go through multiple pages of results if their search isn’t satisfied onpage one201. Note this is not the case on mobiles. Mobile searchers simply191 http://www.businessblogshub.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/google-statistics.jpg192 http://www.google.com/ads/answers/numbers.html193 Online Leisure-UK- December 2010 (Mintel)194 Digital Trends April 2011, Mintel195 Digital Trends April 2011, Mintel196 http://marketshare.hitslink.com/search-engine-market-share.aspx?qprid=4197 http://www.businessinsider.com/youtube-2010-11198 http://www.karmasnack.com/about/search-engine-market-share/199 http://econsultancy.com/uk/blog/7027-20-stats-you-might-not-know-about-user-search-behaviour200 http://econsultancy.com/uk/blog/7027-20-stats-you-might-not-know-about-user-search-behaviour201 http://econsultancy.com/uk/blog/7027-20-stats-you-might-not-know-about-user-search-behaviour 54
  59. 59. don’t drill past page one202. If you don’t feature in the right places for the rightsearches, you don’t exist. 89% will change the terms they’re using to try andrefine results but, if they don’t find what they want, 89% will change searchengine203.What makes people more likely to click a result?Short answer: image, video or multiple listings204. 53% said they’d be morelikely to click a search link if there was an image; 26% if there was a video and48% if the brand appeared multiple times. We’d want to see actual usage data(not just what people unreliably say what they’d do) to flesh this out but theseindicate digital strategies that flood the long tail of search with video and imageto improve search ranking and the attendant search leads.How sensitive are people to time delays in getting search results?People are extremely sensitive to even very slight delays in their searches. AGoogle study found a delay of 100 to 400 milliseconds when displaying searchresults led users to conduct 0.2 to 0.6 % fewer searches205. This may seemsmall but multiplied across a global brand’s site it could seriously affectconversion and the bottom line. If people are used to it on Google, brandsbetter keep up or they’ll get punished by impatient users.Search for products and servicesSearch is the absolutely daddy of internet advertising. The relationship betweensearch and commerce is truly phenomenal and the major reason Google’smarket capitalisation is $201.72bn (Feb 2012)206. While online displayadvertising in its most basic form is suffering severe click deflation, search isbooming. People are interested in things they’re searching for; display ads area distraction.83% of internet users use search engines to find specific products orbrands207; 67% search for product and price information online at least once amonth208 and over a third of mobile internet users searched for a product orservice to buy209. From desktops 20% of searches are about location, frommobile it’s 40%210.202 ComScore, September 2010203 http://econsultancy.com/uk/blog/7027-20-stats-you-might-not-know-about-user-search-behaviour204 http://econsultancy.com/uk/blog/7027-20-stats-you-might-not-know-about-user-search-behaviour205 http://www.technologyreview.com/web/32338/?a=f206 http://uk.finance.yahoo.com/q?s=GOOG207 http://econsultancy.com/uk/blog/7027-20-stats-you-might-not-know-about-user-search-behaviour208 Researching Purchases Online – UK- April 2011(Mintel)209 http://www.slideshare.net/Tomtrendstream/welcome-to-social-entertainment-annual-report-2011?from=ss_embed210 http://www.google.com/ads/answers/numbers.html 55
  60. 60. Why search for products and services?80% research a specific product or brand before purchasing online; 76% useit before purchasing offline; 78% to find the best price of a specific product orbrand211.Mobile is stealing more and more of the show when it comes to shopping. Justtake a look at how Americans used search and their phones in the lead up toChristmas 2011:When are the searches for products and services?Within the shopping category, more searches are made on Sunday than on anyother day of the week212. Then there are spikes at lunch and spikes in theevening all other days213.How many searches are for branded terms?Roughly 90% of searches for the top 2,000 search terms in the UK werebranded in nature. This has been growing steadily: in 2007 they accounted for81%, in 2005 66%214. This is often referred to as navigational search: peopleknow roughly where they want to get but searching is easier than typing out aweb address. It just shows how brands act as shortcuts to categories and211 http://econsultancy.com/uk/blog/7027-20-stats-you-might-not-know-about-user-search-behaviour212 Accessed from: http://googlebarometer.blogspot.com/2009/06/rise-of-meticulous-shopper.html in 2011; now no longer online213 http://www.google.com/ads/answers/numbers.html214 Hitwise Intelligence – Robin Goad – UK: 9 in 10 UK searches are navigational / branded 56
  61. 61. makes one of the strongest commercial arguments for brand marketing. Brandshould be doing whatever they can to get at ‘end of fingertips’ when people aresearching.What are the top branded search terms? 215How many people realise the search ads are ads?63% do; 37% don’t216. You’d want to be in search anyway but the size of thelatter number is just another reason to be there.How search and real life interactSearching to go in storeAround a quarter of internet users report to searching online and thencompleting the purchase by speaking to someone in store217. In fact, this mightbe much higher as other data show 74% of internet users used search to findplaces to buy brands offline218.Advertising drives desktop search78% of internet users search after seeing an advert elsewhere219.Advertising drives mobile searchThe interaction between advertising and mobile phones is established butapplied rarely. 71% search on their phones as a direct result of exposure fromtraditional media (68%), online ads (18%) or mobile ads (27%) (US base)220.215 http://www.experian.com/hitwise/press-release-facebook-was-the-top-search-term-for-2011.html216 http://econsultancy.com/uk/blog/7027-20-stats-you-might-not-know-about-user-search-behaviour217 Web aggregators – UK – November 2010 (Mintel)218 http://econsultancy.com/uk/blog/7027-20-stats-you-might-not-know-about-user-search-behaviour219 http://econsultancy.com/uk/blog/7027-20-stats-you-might-not-know-about-user-search-behaviour 57
  62. 62. Advertising drives leads and purchasesEight in 10 notice a mobile ad, while one in three notice a mobile search ad.Incredibly, half of those who see an ad on a mobile take action, either visiting awebsite (35%), making a purchase (49%) or recommending a brand orproduct to others (24%) (US base)221.Search by demographicThe young using search lessThe effect is very slight but the younger you are the less likely you are to haveused a search engine. This may reflect the increasing use of social networks,which use friends as sources of information over search222.Well off search lessAnother slight effect is the increased search occurring as you travel down thesocio-economic ladder until you hit the bottom when it lifts again223.220 http://googlemobileads.blogspot.com/2011/04/smartphone-user-study-shows-mobile.html221 http://googlemobileads.blogspot.com/2011/04/smartphone-user-study-shows-mobile.html222 Old vs young on the net- UK- May 2010 (Mintel)223 Old vs young on the net- UK- May 2010 (Mintel) 58
  63. 63. 224New developmentsThe algorithm gets socialGoogle’s breakthrough invention was to figure out how to serve you the mostrelevant search results, based on their PageRank algorithm. Instead ofanalysing page content and trying to make decisions based on that, it simplyand ingeniously tapped into the collective brain by incorporating into itsalgorithm the number of links coming to a page. The more popular a page withpeople, the more popular Google read it to be. Page quality didn’t have to bedecided by a computer: it was already decided en masse by lots of peoplemaking the small decision to link to a page. The algorithm has naturally got a lotmore complex since then, but that’s what’s at its heart.Today there’s even more collective social information to tap into, that’svolunteered by social networks. Bing, Microsoft’s search engine, has added asocial layer to search by tapping into the knowledge of who your friends areand what they like. You can see your friends’ recommendations when yousearch in Bing. Google is doing the same with its G+ product225.But as search engines start to incorporate more of this information into theiralgorithms, the brands which have social currency in the bank will come out224 Old vs young on the net- UK- May 2010 (Mintel)225 http://googlesocialweb.blogspot.com/2011/05/social-search-goes-global.html 59
  64. 64. winners. If nothing else a social presence is an investment in your searchfuture.The pocket shopperIn the last two years mobile search has grown 500%, a rate comparable to theearly days of desktop search226. One in every 10 retail searches is donethrough mobile227,228, although the path to purchase was varied. And 12% ofall paid search clicks were made on a tablet or smartphone, representing a50% increase since October 2011 alone229.The opportunity for brands here is enormous both in terms of getting a mobilestrategy sorted and not getting one sorted. The former could deliver enormousvalue to brands; the latter could suffocate fresh revenue as multichannelcompetitors seize the prospects themselves.226 http://digital-stats.blogspot.com/2012/02/googles-mobile-search-volumes-doubled-y.html227 http://www.bizreport.com/2011/10/1-in-10-retail-searches-done-via-mobile.html228 http://www.brandrepublic.com/bulletin/brandrepublicnewsbulletin/article/1066923/google-brc-figures-show-explosion-mobile-retail-search/229 http://www.marketwire.com/press-release/marin-software-reports-49-increase-in-uk-mobile-paid-search-click-share-during-q4-1608510.htm 60
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