What are the different types of AID? What is AID?
Aid is ... <ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Goods </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul><ul><li>... given to those in need </li></ul>
<ul><li>Duration: long-term, short-term, emergency </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery: financial, goods, services from trained people </li></ul><ul><li>Source: government, non-governmental organisations (NGO’s), charity, individuals </li></ul><ul><li>International dimension: bilateral, multilateral </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency: tied aid </li></ul>What different types of Aid are there?
Aid matching activity – types of aid Tied aid Sustainable development Bilateral aid Multilateral aid Emergency aid Voluntary aid Non-governmental organisation Food aid Bottom-up development Top-down development Long-term aid Short-term aid
Aid matching activity – answers Money, food, goods and services given at times of dire need Emergency aid Edible commodities donated to needy populations Food aid Aid that is given by a number of countries and organisations, like the United Nations and the World Health Organisation Multilateral aid F oreign aid that must be used in the donor country to buy goods and service from the country giving the aid Tied aid Development that meets the needs of the people today without harming the ability of future generations to meet their own needs Sustainable development An independent charitable organisation that provides aid Non-governmental organisation Aid from one country to another Bilateral aid Money collected from the public (and sometimes governments) by non-governmental organisations Voluntary aid Aid that provides support for a short time, sometimes when there is an immediate need Short-term aid Development projects that are imposed in people from ‘above’ Top-down development Aid that provides support over a long period of time to make changes that last Long-term aid Development projects that start and work from the ‘grass-roots’ level Bottom-up development
What people say about aid 1 <ul><li>‘ Huge bureaucracies are financed (with the aid money), corruption and complacency are promoted, Africans are taught to be beggars and not to be independent.’ </li></ul><ul><li>James Shikwati a Kenyan economics expert </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Speigel Online International </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Foreign aid might be defined as a transfer of money from poor people in rich countries to rich people in poor countries.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas Casey, Classmate of Bill Clinton at Georgetown University </li></ul><ul><li>Source: http://thoughtsnquotes.blogspot.com/2009/04/sarcastic-quotes-foreign-aid.html </li></ul>
What people say about aid 2 <ul><li>‘ In the 1990s dams were built on the Xeset River in the South of Laos to provide electricity and promote economic development. Aid to do this came from Sweden, Norway, the Asian Development Bank and UNDP and China.’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ On the Boloven Plateau (in Laos) … a Norwegian consulting firm is benefiting from Norwegian “aid”, a Chinese construction firm is benefiting from Chinese “aid”, and Lao villagers are left to pay the costs of destroyed rivers and livelihoods.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Chris Lang </li></ul><ul><li>‘ We do not want them to build the dam. It will badly affect our land and the environment. The official compensation will not be adequate, but we dare not oppose government officials.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Laos villager </li></ul>Source: www.wrm.org.uy/bulletin/118/Laos.html
What people say about aid 3 <ul><li>‘ One approach to a successful aid project just is to immerse yourself in the local community, put local people in charge who are themselves highly motivated, be adaptive and flexible to respond to whatever the local people think about how they can help themselves.’ </li></ul><ul><li>William Easterly </li></ul>Source: http://blogs.nyu.edu/fas/dri/aidwatch/2009/04/the_secret_to_successful_aid.html
Lets look at SHORT TERM and LONG TERM aid. <ul><li>What are the advantages and disadvantages of this type of aid on donor and recipient countries? </li></ul><ul><li>Donor countries Recipient countries </li></ul>Type of aid Advantages Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages Short-term aid Long-term aid
What is top- down development? <ul><li>These tend to be big schemes and decisions are made by the national government. Local people who often live near the scheme do not get involved in the process </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul>
Local People Top Down Decision Making External Groups e.g. World Bank, TNCs National Government
What is bottom-up development? <ul><li>Local people are fully involved in the process and decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul>
Local People Bottom Up Decision Making National Government External Groups e.g. World Bank, TNCs Decision made here
Brainstorm for each type of development the positives and negatives Top Down Approach
Brainstorm for each type of development the positives and negatives Bottom Up approach
Top Down Approach Country gets into debt as it borrows money from the World Bank etc Uses machinery etc rather than providing jobs for local people Relies on external links and technology As these areas grow the take away resources from peripheral areas Conditions often attached to the loans Dams etc provide energy needed for the country to develop Often environmentally effective as they use cheaper fuels e.g. HEP
Bottom up Approach Very limited impact of national poverty levels Involve the local people Appropriate technology to the local skill level Low cost
Which is the best option? <ul><li>Looking at both Top down and bottom up approaches to development, which do you feel is the best option and why? </li></ul>
Video Clip <ul><li>http://video.google.co.uk/videosearch?q=micro+hydro+power&hl=en&emb=0&aq=0&oq=micro+hydro#q=micro+hydro+power+peru&hl=en&emb=0 </li></ul>
Effective aid projects or not? <ul><li>Government funding to Nepal – the UK Government recently gave £65 million to the Government of Nepal to use in its health services </li></ul><ul><li>Oxfam’s Let Agogo Project in Haiti – gives cows to people who care for the cows and sell on the dairy products to earn income </li></ul><ul><li>International Aid to Afghanistan – much of the international aid to Afghanistan is paid to foreign contractors for projects that do not meet the needs of the poor </li></ul>
What is effective aid like? AID Types Benefits Possible problems Impacts On donor On recipient Examples
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