+Management ModuleTopic 5dVolunteering inyour Country
+Learning Outcomes To understand the opportunities for undertakingvoluntary work in the cultural heritage sector. To identify the motivations and benefits of volunteering To understand the role of volunteers within culturalheritage institutions To understand the relevant policy and legislation culturalinstitutions must take into account when recruitingvolunteers
+What is Volunteering?Any activity that involves spendingtime, unpaid, doing something thataims to benefit the environment orsomeone (individuals or groups)other than, or in addition to, closerelatives.(Volunteering England)
+Volunteering RolesThere are a number of different volunteering roles withindifferent organisations, including but not limited to: Internships Administrative support Customer service Mentoring and Befriending Trustees and governance Volunteer Driving
+Why Volunteer? For Leisure Free time Social reasons Academic path Personal learning and enrichment To pursue a career (e.g. interest in gaining access tomuseums, galleries and heritage sector)
+Volunteering Statistics In 2008/09 41% of adults volunteered formally (giving unpaid helpthrough a group, club or organisation) and 62% volunteeredinformally (giving unpaid help as an individual to someone who is nota relative)(2008/09 DCLG Citizenship Survey). In 2007/08 formal volunteers contributed an estimated £22.7 billionto the UK economy (UK Civil Society Almanac). The average number of hours spent volunteering per volunteerdeclined by 30% between 1997 and 2007 (Helping Out, 2007). Evidence also suggests that there is a trend towards more episodicvolunteering (The UK Civil Society Almanac 2009).(Institute for Volunteering Research: http://www.ivr.org.uk/ivr-volunteering-stats)
+Who Volunteers? Volunteers are involved in a range of sectors. In 2008/09 the most popularsectors for formal volunteers were: sport/exercise (53%), hobbies,recreation/arts/ social clubs (42%). religion (36%), children’seducation/schools (34%), youth children’s activities (outside school) (32%),health, disability and social welfare (25%), local community orneighbourhood groups (24%), the environment, animals (20%) (2008/09DCLG Citizenship Survey). Volunteers carry out a range of activities in their roles. In 2008/09 the mostpopular activities for formal volunteers were: organising or helping to run anevent (55%), raising or handling money/ taking part in sponsored events(52%), leading the group/ member of committee (37%), providing transport/driving (26%), giving information/advice/counselling (24%), visiting people(24%), secretarial, clerical or admin work (23%), befriending or mentoring people(21%) (2008/09 DCLG Citizenship Survey).(Institute for Volunteering Research: http://www.ivr.org.uk/ivr-volunteering-stats )
+Volunteering and Employment 87% of employers think that volunteering can have a generallypositive effect on career progression for people aged 16-25.However, nearly 30% felt that volunteering was irrelevant whenconsidering a particular job application. A further 30% felt thatvolunteering was only relevant if linked directly to the field of work(Youth Volunteering: Attitudes and Perceptions, 2008, v). In 2007/08 over 2 million people in England volunteered through anemployer supported volunteering scheme. A quarter (25%) ofemployees are offered a scheme by their employer, with 43% ofthose offered a scheme taking part at least once in the last year(2008/09 DCLG Citizenship Survey).(Institute for Volunteering Research: http://www.ivr.org.uk/ivr-volunteering-stats )
+A Volunteer’s Perspective Have you volunteered in a museum/gallery/heritage site? (Ifnot, try to find someone who has and ask them the followingquestions):1. Why did you do it?2. What type of jobs did you do?3. What did you get out of it?4. Was the experience disappointing in any way?5. Was too much or too little asked of you?6. What contribution did you feel you gave?7. Did you feel appreciated/valued, or unappreciated? How wasthis expressed?8. Did you feel ‘managed’? In what ways?
+Benefits of Volunteering - Personal Enhancing study Contributing to a cause Gaining new knowledge, skills and experience Developing existing skills and knowledge Enhancing a CV Improving employability Meeting new people Using ones professional skills and knowledge to benefit others
+Task One (1 hour):Benefits of Volunteering - InstitutionalRead Chapter 2 of the following publication:Goodlad, S. and McIvor, S. (1998) Museum Volunteers:Good Practice in the Management of Volunteers. London:RoutledgeTake a few moments to write down a few reasons whycultural institutions use volunteers. Things to consider: What roles do volunteers carry out? How are these roles beneficial for cultural institutions? What problems may arise? How can volunteers be managed successfully to prevent theseproblems from arising?
+The Role of Volunteers withinMuseums and Cultural Institutions Assist museums in meeting their core aims and objectives A significant and influential audience To undertake specific, tailored projects such as documentingand researching collections To act as ambassadors for the institution To undertake work that institutions may not have the funding,staff or resources to dedicate to e.g. tackling backlogs. To provide a direct link with the local community
+Volunteer Policies – ConsiderationsWhy involve volunteers? Museums and heritage institutions mustcarefully consider their reasons for offering volunteer opportunitiesand how they will support volunteers in their roles. Many developvolunteer policies that outline key factors that must be consideredbefore embarking on volunteering projects. These include: Recruitment of Volunteers Induction and training Expenses Supervision and Support Health and Safety Problem Solving and managing disputes‘Developing a Volunteer Policy’ Museum Practice, November 2010:
+Task Two (1 hour)In order to develop a better understanding of currentpractice in volunteering in the cultural and heritagesector, search for relevant information aboutvolunteering at museum and heritage sites in your owncountry and share your findings with fellow course matesthrough a wiki. Things to consider: Available opportunities Volunteering statistics Relevant policies and legal frameworks Challenges and opportunities for organisations
+Good Practice for Managing Volunteers Devise mini-projects with a definite life-span Prepare tailored job descriptions for recruitment of volunteers Take into account the volunteer’s requirements as well as the institution Evaluate the extent to which volunteers can be offered training and, insome cases, responsibility Make sure relevant staff members are are available for shadowing andsupervision Log what volunteers do and the hours they commit (e.g. via a signing inbook) Evaluate volunteer performance through written reports and formalmeetings Outline any training needs and assess the contribution of volunteers
+What should institutions offer theirvolunteers? The opportunity to contribute Induction and training sessions A manageable workload and appropriate responsibility A sense of belonging and appreciation Confidentiality of personal information Insurance within the workplace Refund expenses incurred for transport and food (often dependentupon number of hours worked)
+Legal Obligations for Institutions Reimbursement Health and Safety Insurance: Data Protection Copyright Complaint’s Procedure Risk Assessment‘Volunteers: Your Legal Obligations’ Museum Practice, November 2010:http://www.museumsassociation.org/museum-practice/volunteers/15112010-volunteers-legal-obligations
+Working with Volunteers –adhering to UK LegislationInstitutions must consider the following UKlegislation when recruiting and working withvolunteersEqual Opportunities PolicyHealth and Safety at Work Act 1974Children Act 1989Disability Discrimination Act 1995
+Volunteering Online –Crowdsourcing ProjectsWhat is crowdsourcing?‘The act of taking a job traditionally performed bya designated agent (usually an employee) andoutsourcing it to an undefined, generally largegroup of people in the form of an open call’Jeff Howe, Wired Magazine
+Types of Crowdsourcing Projectsfacilitated by Cultural Institutions Correction and Transcription: E.g. correcting and/or transcribing outputsof digitisation Contextualisation: E.g. adding contextual knowledge to objects Complementing Collections: E.g. pursuing objects to be included in anexhibit or collection Classification: E.g. gathering descriptive metadata related to the objectsin a collection Co-curation: E.g. collaborating with non -museum professionals to createexhibits Crowdfunding: E.g. pooling money and other resources together tosupport efforts initiated by others(Oomen, J. Aroyo, L. (2011) Crowdsourcing in the Cultural Heritage Domain: Opportunities and Challenges)
+Examples of Successful Online VolunteeringProjects in Cultural InstitutionsWhat different types of crowdsourcing arereflected in the following examples? Old Weather (National Maritime Museum, National Archivesetc.) http://www.oldweather.org UK Soundmap (British Library) http://sounds.bl.uk/Sound-Maps/UK-Soundmap What’s on the Menu? (New York Public Library)http://menus.nypl.org Citizen Archivist (American National Archives)http://www.archives.gov/citizen-archivist/
+Task Three (I hour)Drawing upon the key themes of this topic, research a successfulvolunteering project (onsite or online) within a cultural heritageinstitution from your own country and present your findings in a blogpost (1000 words max). If volunteering is not a common activity inyour country, select a project from another country to complete thetask.Things to consider: What does the institution do? (Mission statement, vision etc.) What did the volunteering project entail? In what way did it involve volunteers? What was the role of the volunteers and what was the role of the institutionwithin the project? How did the project benefit both parties? In what way was the project successful?
+Volunteering Resources Institute for Volunteering Research: http://www.ivr.org.uk Volunteering England: http://www.volunteering.org.uk American Association for Museum Volunteers (AAMV):http://www.aamv.org/about-aamv/ Time Bank – Volunteering Stats: http://timebank.org.uk/key-facts Museums Association:http://www.museumsassociation.org/careers/volunteering Volunteering England ‘Good Practice Bank’:http://www.volunteering.org.uk/goodpractice/themes
+Bibliography British Association of Friends of Museums (1999) The Handbook for HeritageVolunteer Managers and Administrators. BAFM/Carnegie Trust Da Milano, C. Gibbs, K.and Sani, M. (eds.) (2009) Volunteers in museums and culturalheritage : a European handbook. Ljubljana : Slovenian Museum Association. [Onine]Available at: http://www.amitie.it/voch/VoCH_Final_Publication_EN.pdf Giles H. and Wolfenden, I.(1996) For Love, not Money: the role and organisation ofvolunteers in art galleries and museums. University of Manchester Goodland, S. and McIvor,S. (1998) Museum Volunteers: Good Practice in theManagement of Volunteers. London: Routledge Green, T. and Stuart, M. (1998) The Good Practice Guide for Everyone Who Works withVolunteers. The National Centre for Volunteering, London Heaton, D. (1992) Museums Among Friends: the wider museum community. Museumsand Galleries Commission. HMSO, London Holmes, K. (1999) Changing Times: Volunteering in the Heritage Sector 1984-1999.Voluntary Action 1(2):21-35. Available at:http://www.ivr.org.uk/images/stories/Institute-of-Volunteering-Research/VA-Documents/VA1_2/article2_holmes.pdf IVR (2006) Exhibiting Support... Developing Volunteering in Museums, Institute forVolunteering Research: London. Available at:http://www.ivr.org.uk/images/stories/Institute-of-Volunteering-Research/Migrated-Resources/Documents/E/Exhibiting_Support.pdf
+Bibliography IVR (2005) Volunteering in Museums, Libraries and Archives, Institute forVolunteering Research: London IVR (2008) Volunteers in Museums: Key Findings and Issues from theLiterature. [Online] Available at:http://www.baringfoundation.org.uk/litreview.pdf Millar, S (1991) Volunteers in Museums and Heritage Organisations:Policy, Planning and Management. London: HMSO National Centre for Volunteering (2002) Getting it Right from the Start,Volunteer Policies – the Key to Diverse Volunteer Involvement, NationalCentre for Volunteering: London Office of Arts and Libraries 1991 Volunteers in Museums and HeritageOrganisations: policy, planning, management. HMSO, London Oomen, J. Aroyo, L. (2011) Crowdsourcing in the Cultural HeritageDomain: Opportunities and Challenges. Wasserman, C. (1990) Protecting Volunteers: guidelines for volunteerorganisers in voluntary and statutory agencies. The Volunteer Centre,Berkhampstead
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