Using Technology to Deepen the Learning Experience in 1st Year         Mathematics       by Ian Schroeder (UCT)
Contents• Background• Theory• The learning task  – Educational goals  – Details• Tools vs Task• Feedback  – Cycle  – Explo...
Background and context• Knowledge transfer• Incoming student knowledge (Davidowitz & Rollnick, 2010)• Maths perceptions (L...
Theoretical Considerations• Collaborative learning (Smith and MacGregor, 1992)• Traditional (Marshall et al, 2007. Beichne...
The Learning TaskEducational Goals• Facilitate a deeper exploration of the mathematical  concepts via asynchronous collabo...
The Learning Task contTask Details• Work in assigned groups, collaborate asynchronously and  contributes to CA mark.• Warm...
Task details continued• Informed of grievance procedure and communications protocol• Phase 2: Groups assigned a real world...
Tool vs Task          (Bower, 2008)Affordances          Blog   Chat   Forum   Wiki    TaskRead-ability          v      v  ...
Feedback Cycle1.    Consider validity of feedback (if nec. consult)2.    Explore model from perspective of feedback3.    A...
Feedback Explored• Focus on the theoretical foundations• How will it work?• How will it address the learning problem?• Col...
Future Considerations• Detailed exploration of facilitation and identifying training  requirements• The need for alignment...
References•   Augar, N. Raitman, R. Zhou, W. (2004, December) ‘Teaching and learning online with wikis’, Proceedings of th...
•   Martin,P. Premadasa,K. (2010), ‘effective use of Wikis in College Mathematics Classes’, Journal on    Systemics, Cyber...
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Emerging Technologies Presentation - CHEC 2012

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  • 1- personal experience2- Gap between school and university, rote learners, survival strategies3- assess using questionnaires4-assess using instruments5- 150 and 1st year AD
  • 1 – builds up knowledge by challenging assumptions and misconceptions. Does need expert input.2- high tech in class (Scale Up), low tech – group around a table with pen and paper3- Asynchronous, Lecture is not the primary knowledge build location e.g. UWC flip chart, pens and group support. Intensive more closely resembles modern work environment4- provides platforms such as blogs, wikis, forums , chats
  • Link problem to nature of tool
  • 2- Real world handling of problems3- Formal meetings to check if on track and where required award milestone marks6- 6 can take many forms
  • First considered task affordances (bowen)Had to add some affordance typesThen compare these to the affordances of tool options.Clearly wiki is the best option. Ideally looking for a wiki with a sidebar chat? How will they communicate with each other.
  • 1- good grounding question2+3 – Made me review the process details and inspect clarity4 A warning linked to 55 – addressed earlier
  • Emerging Technologies Presentation - CHEC 2012

    1. 1. Using Technology to Deepen the Learning Experience in 1st Year Mathematics by Ian Schroeder (UCT)
    2. 2. Contents• Background• Theory• The learning task – Educational goals – Details• Tools vs Task• Feedback – Cycle – Explored• Future considerations
    3. 3. Background and context• Knowledge transfer• Incoming student knowledge (Davidowitz & Rollnick, 2010)• Maths perceptions (Leitze, 1996)• Learning strategies (Mji, 2003)• Financial constraints (Wandilsile & Tshiwula, 2012)• Digital access and skill levels (surveys required)• Class size and level
    4. 4. Theoretical Considerations• Collaborative learning (Smith and MacGregor, 1992)• Traditional (Marshall et al, 2007. Beichner, 2008) vs Web collaborative learning (Lipponen, 2002. Augar et al, 2004. Ben- Zivi, 2007. Martin & Premadasa, 2010. Micocha & Thomas, 2007)• Motivation• Influence primary learning space (tech vs paper)
    5. 5. The Learning TaskEducational Goals• Facilitate a deeper exploration of the mathematical concepts via asynchronous collaborative learning• Develop an appreciation for the applicability of mathematical content by exploring real world examples• Initialise a reflective practitioner approach to problem solving by having to constantly review their group’s work over a period of time
    6. 6. The Learning Task contTask Details• Work in assigned groups, collaborate asynchronously and contributes to CA mark.• Warm up task from historical or modern mathematics.• Digital skills support provided in warm up task (partly in supervised lab)• add, edit and comment on content that is posted online by group members• Teaching staff engaged in active facilitation
    7. 7. Task details continued• Informed of grievance procedure and communications protocol• Phase 2: Groups assigned a real world problem and be required to develop a ‘solution’• Formal group meetings once a week – tutor present for part of this• Project milestones – marks awarded• Clear requirements e.g. history of technique, conceptual approach, solution explanation and numerical approach.• Final presentation by random group member.• Use of Turnitin and CPR (?)
    8. 8. Tool vs Task (Bower, 2008)Affordances Blog Chat Forum Wiki TaskRead-ability v v v v vView-ability v v v vWatch-ability v v v vWrite-ability v v v v vEdit-ability v vMath-ability v vRevision-Ability v v v v vDraw-ability v v v vResize-ability v v vMove-ability v v vAccessibility v v v v vMessage-ability vBrowse-ability v v v v vSearch-ability v v v v vLink-ability v v v vPermission-ability v v v v vShare-ability v v v
    9. 9. Feedback Cycle1. Consider validity of feedback (if nec. consult)2. Explore model from perspective of feedback3. Address feedback issue in prototype4. Repeat 2 & 3 till acceptance5. Once multiple changes have been made repeat 2 & 3Also probe impact on students : – Concepts of Mathematics Questionnaire (Crawford et al, 1998) – Approaches to Studying Questionnaire (Richardson, 1990) – Experiences of Teaching and Learning Questionnaire (Ramsden, 1991) – Course evals, interviews and focus groupsNB: Big benefit of feedback  focussed reflection
    10. 10. Feedback Explored• Focus on the theoretical foundations• How will it work?• How will it address the learning problem?• Collaborative wikis at first year level????!!!!• Facilitation aspects• Wiki vs in (or out of class) collaborative learning
    11. 11. Future Considerations• Detailed exploration of facilitation and identifying training requirements• The need for alignment of assessment activities• The need for a pilot program prior to implementation.• Consider implementing: – Broadening collaboration to include national and international student projects – Collaborative textbooks – Adobe connect interviews to address motivational issues – Concept mapping from both lecturer and student perspective for deeper understanding – Reflective learning journals via blogs – Flipping the classroom using vodcasting – Integrating the use of 3D visualisation software
    12. 12. References• Augar, N. Raitman, R. Zhou, W. (2004, December) ‘Teaching and learning online with wikis’, Proceedings of the 21st ASCILITE Conference, Perth, Australia: 95-104• Beichner, R. (2008) ‘The SCALE-UP Project: A Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs’, BOSE Conference on Promising Practices-Innovation in Undergraduate STEM Education, Washington, DC.• Ben-Zivi, D. (2007) ‘Using Wiki to promote Collaborative Learning in Statistics Education’, Technology Innovations in Statistics Education, Center for the teaching of Statistics, UCLA, UC Los Angeles• Bower, M (2008). ‘Affordance Analysis – matching learning tasks with learning technologies’, Educational Media International, 45(1): 3-15• Crawford, K. Gordon, S. Nicholas, J. Prosser, M. (1998) ‘University mathematics students conceptions of mathematics’, Studies in Higher Education, Volume 23 (1): 87-94• Davidowitz, B. Rollnick, M. (2010) ‘Adjustment of underprepared students to tertiary education’, in Rollnick, M. (eds) Identifying Potential for Equitable Access to Tertiary Level Science. Springer: 89-108• Leitze, A.R. (1996) ‘To major or not major in mathematics? Affective factors in the choice-of-major decision’, in Kaput, J. Schoenfeld, A. Dubinsky, E. (eds) CMBS Issues in Mathematics Education 6:83–100• Lipponen, L. (2002) ‘Exploring Foundations for Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning’, Proceedings of CSCL 2002: 72-81
    13. 13. • Martin,P. Premadasa,K. (2010), ‘effective use of Wikis in College Mathematics Classes’, Journal on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Volume 8(6): 76-78• Marshall, D. Lesai, M. Schroeder, I. (2007, December) ‘Making the Tacit Explicit: Accessing the Discourse of Physics’, For Engineering and Science Educators, Volume 11, 4-6.• Minocha, S. Thomas, P. (2007, December) ‘Collaborative Learning in a Wiki Environment: Experiences from a software engineering course’, New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, volume 13 (2): 187-209.• Mji, A. (2003) ‘A three-year perspective on conceptions of and orientations to learning mathematics of prospective teachers and first year university students’, International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, volume 34 (5): 687-698• Ramsden, P.(1991) ‘A performance indicator of teaching quality in higher education: The Course Experience Questionnaire’, Studies in Higher Education, volume 16 (2): 129-150• Richardson, J. (1990) ‘Reliability and replicability of the Approaches to Studying Questionnaire’, Studies in Higher Education, volume 15 (2): 155-168• Smith, B. MacGregor, J. (1992) ‘What is Collaborative learning’, Goodsell, A. (eds) Collaborative learning: A Sourcebook for Higher Education, National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning and Assessment, University Park, PA: 10-29• Wandisile, M. Tshiwula, L. (2012, January) ‘Student diversity in South African higher education’, Widening Participation and Lifelong Learning, Volume 13, Special Issue: 19-33

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