Resource Recovery and Reuse (RRR) Models & Cases for Fecal Sludge and Wastewater from Around the World


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Presented by Krishna Rao at the 2nd Asia-Pacific Water Summit in Chiang Mai, Thailand on May 18, 2013.

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  • This project on “Resource Recovery and Reuse” covers all organic waste streams:MSW, Agro-industrial wasteFaecal sludge, urineWastewaterWhile we consider all waste streams, we deemed it important to consider the different waste streams separately. Thus, presentations and discussions today will focus on solid waste management.
  • Typologies of cases: Nutrients, Energy, Wastewater
  • Reference cases: SuSan Design, Ouagadougou case, Rwanda Environment CarePrevious research already conducted by NARO (access to end-users) and available data for reference
  • RRR business models – Market-driven mechanisms to incentivize up-scaling….The challenge thus is how do we ensure …This requires leveraging donor investments …
  • Resource Recovery and Reuse (RRR) Models & Cases for Fecal Sludge and Wastewater from Around the World

    1. 1. Resource Recovery & Reuse(RRR) Models & Cases FecalSludge & Wastewater fromAround the World
    2. 2. Resource Recovery and Reuse: From Research toImplementation
    3. 3. Objectives of Research• To increase the scale and viability of the productive reuseof water, nutrients, organic matter and energy fromdomestic and agro-industrial waste streams through theanalysis, promotion and implementation of economicallyviable business models – IWMI led• To safeguard public health in the context of rapidlyexpanding use of wastewater, excreta and greywater inagriculture & aquaculture and protect vulnerable groupsfrom specific health risks associated with this pattern ofagricultural development – WHO ledMake an Asset out ofWasteEnsure that it is donesafely
    4. 4. Research approach and timelinea) Analyzing the viability of existing RRR cases and the feasibilityof promising business models – IWMI, Sandec/EAWAG, CEWASb) Developing Sanitation Safety Plans (SSPs) supporting safe RRR– WHO, Swiss TPHa)b)
    5. 5. Assessing the Feasibility of RRR Business Models
    6. 6. At the start …..
    7. 7. Number Business case name Country LocationScale (pilot,community,city,…)Type ofwaste usedWaste product(biogas, fertilizer,water, ..)Process ofwastetreatmentCould be abusiness casebecause..Financialdataavailable?1 WASTE CONCERN BANGLADESHDhaka Large-scale business operationSolid waste Fertilizer Composting, co-compostingYes. Replication of Business modelNot sure2 BIOGAS SECTOR PARTNERSHIP NEPAL Kathmandu Large-scale??? Replicable?Human excreta, cattle dung and waterBiogas and compost/fertilizerMethanogenic bacteria on biodegradable waste in anMaybe but specific to rural settingsPossible upon r3 PUNJAB ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AGENCYINDIA Punjab Large-scale Cattle dung Biogas and manure Biologically induced mixing arrangement (BIMA) tec4 USAID INDIA Uttar Pradesh Pilot Cattle dung Biogas (thermal and electrical energy) and compostAnaerobic digestionPotential5 TAMIL NADU ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AGENCYINDIA Tamil Nadu City Wastewater Biogas, Electrical energyHybrid Upward Flow Sludge Media Anaerobic ReactPotential for replication and given6 KOYAMBEDU WHOLESALE MARKET COMPLEXINDIA Chennai, Tamil NaduCity Organic waste (market waste)Electricity; Biogas (used as fuel in gas engine and excess power generatedBiologically induced mixing arrangement (BIMA) tecRepresents a way for the public secPossible7 M/s HIND AGRO INDUSTRIES, LTD INDIA Aligarh, Uttar PradeshLow-medium scale (individual entrepreneur)Abattoir soild waste (droppings, rumen, fat, agro-wastes, fodder residues and hay)Biogas, biofertilizer Biomethanation (Low Speed Agitator tank Reactor)Replicability and sustainability potMaybe8 M/s AL-KABEER EXPORTS PVT, LTD INDIA Andhra Pradesh Medium scale Feed waste, animal wasteBiogas, Manure Biogas Induced Mixing Arrangement (BIMA) technolReplicability and potential for up-sMaybe9 SuSanA GHANA Kumasi Pilot Faecal sludge, Solid wasteCompost FS Dewatering with unplanted drying beds and AeroPPP which addressses land tenureYes (IWMI was10 ECoH Holdings Ltd KENYA Nairobi City Organic waste (green waste, market waste, hotels, schools, hospitals, kitchen waste, farmCompost Windrow composting Possible to get f11 Lilongwe City Council MALAWI Lilongwe Community Organic waste (sugarcanes, mangoes, nsima from hospitals, kitchen and animal manure)Compost Open-air, static-pile compostingAspects of PPP/ CBO model addresAnnual turnove12 NAWACOM KENYA Nakuru Community/City Household organic wasteCompost ? Replicability - success factor/ coop1,500Ksh per ba13 Waste Enterprisers GHANA Kumasi City Faecal sludge Wastewater 1. Water Stabilization Pond?Sustainable model but may be limitAvailable14 Water for People BOLIVIA Cuchumuela, CochabambaCity Urine and fecesDecomposed urine and fecesUDDTs Sustainability Sale of mushroo15 ROSA KENYA Nakuru City Organic waste, feces, urineCo-compost (organic waste with faecal matter collected from UDDTs)? Replicable; sustainable model with16 Karnkata Compost Development LimitedINDIA Bangalore City Organic wasteCompost Windrow composting/ Aerobic decomposition17 Santiago Composting Project CHILE Santiago Project/ City Biodegradable waste and nontoxic wastewater sludgeCompost/ Sale of emissions reductions? Replicable, self-sustainingProcesses 430018 Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD)& SNVVIETNAM ? Pilot/City Human excreta, cattle dung and waterBiogas, Bio-slurry/organic fertilizer? Can be widely replicated, howeverCosts per house19 Chinese Academy of Science CHINA ? Pilot project Waste straw "Bread grass", biogas Bacteria infested (anaerobic/aerobic)Self-sustaining, however initial finaN/A20 Unilever/Triple R Project SOUTH AFRICA? City Food grade wasteCompost * Replicable but may not be cost-effenone21 Kigali - Biogas RWANDA Kigali City Human feces, urineBiogas Biogas digester Replicated with other institutions (Possibly access22 Waste Busters PAKISTAN Lahore City Household/ market waste (organic and inorganic)Compost Windrow composting methodPotential for up-scalingAvailable23 VermiGOLD INDIA Mumbai City Wet garbage, organic wasteVermicompost Vermiculture Low-level technology, replicability24 Anamol Krishi Udyog INDIA Nagpur, MaharashtraCity Vegetable market waste, organic household wasteCompost Biologically induced mixing arrangement (BIMA) tecReplicability, has potential to be upCosts of produc25 TERRA FIRMA BIOTECHNOLOGY LTD INDIA Bangalore City - large-scale Household and market wasteOrganic compost Vermiculture Historical financial growth; large-sAvailabel in doc26 Lakshmi Energy and Foods Limited INDIA Punjab City Rice husk Electricity, Bricks (ash from burning husks)* Large-scale; sustainable business m*27 Cape Flats Treatment Works SOUTH AFRICACape Town City Faecal sludge Biogas, pellets Anaerobic digestion for biogas production; Drying wLarge-scale; sustainable business m400m3/h of bio28 Sulabh International Social Service OrganizationINDIA 25 states Country-wide Human excreta, WastewaterCompost, Manure, Pisciculture?Human excreta - biogas digesters; Duckweed-based wCommercially viable business mod2005 profits - $29 East Kolkata Wetlands INDIA West Bengal City,maybe on a larger scale?Wastewater, solid wasteFish Waste stabilization pondsLarge-scale; self-sustaining/comm*30 Ondo State Integrated Wastes Recycling and Treatment ProjectNIGERIA Ondo State Solid waste Compost Semi-mechanical windrow, curing and milling operaLarge-scale; successful public entit*31 PRISM BANGLADESHKuhlna City Faecal sludge, wastewaterDuckweed, Fish Waste stabilization pondsSelf-sustaining/ successful?Available in doc32 Cows to Kilowatts Project NIGERIA Ibadan? City Abattoir wasteBiogas Anaerobic digestion of abattoir waseSelf-sustaining *33 UN-ESCAP/ Waste Concern SRI LANKA/ VIETNAMMatale/ Quy NhonCommunity Solid waste Compost Aerated box methodSelf-sustaining, profit-making enteSince 2007, mod34 Nyongara Biogas Project/ Kenya Industrial Research and Development InstituteKENYA Dagoretti/ Outskirts of NairobiCity Abattoir wasteBiogas High Performance Temperature Controlled (HPTC) bReplicable in developing countriesPossibly availab35 IFAD Supported Biogas Projects ASIA / PACIFICChina/ Vietnam Mainly Rural setting?Human and animal wasteBiogas (thermal and electrical energy) and compostBiogas digester This case was included because it h*36 KORAT WASTE TO ENERGY THAILAND Muang District City Industrial - wastewater from starch industry/ Sanguan Wongse industriesBiogas - (biofuel and electricity)Anaerobic baffled reactorFinancial viability?*37 Boeung Cheung Ek Lake CAMBODIA Phnom Penh City? Wastewater Water spinach productionWastewater used as a growth medium for water spinAgricultural production; Financial100-300kg/hou38 Supporting the Informal Wastewater Farming Business in GhanaGHANA Accra - Several citiesCountry-wide Wastewater Direct reuse of wastewaterAgricultural use of wastewaterHigh cost-recovery potential and mAvailable in CofIdentification of 150+ RRRpotential success stories acrossAsia, Africa and Latin Americaand analyzing 50+ in detail.
    8. 8. Case Analysis• Criteria– Waste stream & Reuse– Agriculture – Feedback– Operating on the ground for sometime– Not in pilot phase– Presence in developing country– Willingness of the Entity to participate• Primary Analysis – understand the business model• Challenge: Getting data on financials and technology
    9. 9. FaecalSludgeNutrients (org.fertilizer, soilconditioner)Water(irrigation, aquaculture, aquiferrecharge)Waste streams Resource ReuseEnergyUrineWastewaterAgricultureLandscaping/horticultureEnergy: Electricity Energy: Fuel-briquettesAquacultureAquiferrecharge, water
    10. 10. Urine and FS Recovery &Reuse – Onsite Sanitation
    11. 11. Sanitation Value Chain & Business ModelsStage II –Collection, storage andtransportStage I – Access to toiletsystems, capture and storageof faecal sludgeStage III – Treatment and conversion offaecal sludge into valuable resource foragricultural use or energy generationSource: Global Health Hub, 2012• Urine reuse model• Co-Compost – Solid waste and FS• Truck operator FS delivery• Public Toilets - reuse
    12. 12.  EcoSan technology adoptionparticularly in slums Value-addition to humanwaste for sale to farmers Private sector Benefits to poor – slumareas (demand and supplyside) Demand by farmers insuburbs as ready market forproduce• Cases: Uganda, SouthAfrica, Kenya, Zimbabwe, SenegalReuse of urine as organic fertilizer foragricultural production
    13. 13. Co-composting of faecal sludge and MSW:Cost-recovery in sanitation sector (Balangoda)$TrainingWasteNight SoilTechnologyCompostFinancial supportUniversities LIRNEasiaPilisaruProjectMunicipalCouncil Balangoda Compost Project Farmers• Public enterprise operational since 1999; Population: ~25,000• Resource: Processing 12 MT MSW/day & 10m3 of FS/day Land: 1Ha;• Investment: Capital: $350k; O&M: $1,340/month; Labor: 17people• Compost (30MT), Super compost (5MT) & treated water (180,000litres)• Cases: Sri Lanka, Vietnam, South Africa
    14. 14. FS Reuse in AgriculturePublic Toilets &HouseholdCesspit truckoperatorsFarmers inPeriurbanFS$• 3 FS tankers (4.45 m3) per ha ~ $16; Price of 50 kg bag of fertilizer perha ~ $18• Income: Increased crop productivity & income of $300 compared tonon-users• Treatment: On farm FS treatment by drying. Long drying periodsreduces health risks. Rainy season hardly any diversion of FS trucks• Reverse cash flow: Truck drivers get paid instead paying to treatmentplants for dumping FS• Cases: India, Ghana, Sri Lanka
    15. 15. • FS pellets process and on-farm trials to establishreuse guidelines• Faecal sludge co-composting standards• Sludge pelletizing & blending (urine, NPK, rock-P)[N:P:K – 3 : 1.2 : 2.3]• Analysis of perceptions and options for behaviorchange• Commercial launch through PPPGhana – FS Pellet Production
    16. 16. Onsite energy generation for sustainable deliveryof sanitation services: FS to Biogas (Sulabh/Tosha)• PPP & BOT approach; Pay & Use system; 1000 users/day• Land & Water: 1.75 m2/toilet seat; 3-4 liter/flush at public toilets• Capital, O&M: US$ 4,000 public toilet and additional US$ 4,000 forbiogas plant – 30 cum; 860 US$/month• Labor: 2-3 fulltime per public toilet complex• Financed (60:30:10) Central: State: Community• Installed: more than 7500 public toilet complexes; 200 public toiletcomplexes with biogas plantToilet, maintenance, training$LocalGovernmentPrivateEnterprise(Sulabh)ToiletOperationsUsers of toiletcomplex$$ ServiceConsultationBiogasFSEnergy
    17. 17. Community Toilet and Multiple Revenue Model(TOSHA, Kenya)Umande Trust CBO MembersTOSHA Bio-CentreCommunity Street vendor Private business FarmersTechnical know-how & $Management &Labor$$ $ $BiogasRentalSpaceFertilizerHuman Excreta& $ToiletService• Multipurpose CBO run facility (100 m2); Pay for use model;1000 users/day; Biogas 54m3• Capital: $22.5k construction and $10k campaign; O&M:$3,720/year• Revenue: 88% from toilet service & rest from Biogas andrental, hardly any from bio-slurry;• Cases: India, Kenya, Rwanda
    18. 18. Cost Recovery from Reuse• Reuse of Urine: recover 25% to 40% cost of collection &disposal/treatment ($0.2 /jerry can & $5 /50 kg bag)• Co-compost achieves two goals: Solid waste and FSmanagement (some cases incur profits - Compost sold at $3per 50 kgs)• FS to farmers: increased revenue to truck operators– Depends on fertilizer/manure alternatives available– Truck operators incentive to drive longer distance– Pelletization (pay back potential in 5 to 10 years)• Public Toilets: Potential to achieve pay back in 3 to 5 yearswith income of about $1000 per month in some cases
    19. 19. Wastewater Reuse
    20. 20. Treated wastewater for irrigation, compost/manureand energy• Scale: 1,000-70,000 m3 per day; Investment Cost: $1.5to 230 million• Organization: Public and PPP• Cases: Jordan (As-Samara), Morocco (Draga),Mauritius, Botswana, India (Delhi-Okhla), Bolivia(Cochabamba)Sewage pipesCity EnterpriseGovernmentExternalfinancier(s)WWTreated WWCompost /manureFarmingBiogas-to-electricity$$$
    21. 21. TreatedWWIrrigated farmsCrops salePublic/PPPEnterpriseWastewaterHousehold &industriesInterestedindustryConsumersWWFresh watersavingsFreshwater$$Wastewater & Drinking water exchange Model• Drivers: Water Scarce Region & cut in irrigation water• Capital cost: $2 million; O&M: $210K; water treated – 15 millionm3/year• Revenue: Primarily from exchange water• Farmers use wastewater to produce fodder for milk processingcompany or partnership with supermarkets – 400 l/s; 551ha irrigated• Cases: Bolivia, Iran, Egypt, Spain$
    22. 22. Cost-recovery via Wastewater use for Aquaculture• Scale: 0.5 to 1.5l/sec; Land Area: 1-2 hectare• Investment Cost: $100,000 plus cost of land/lagoons• Process: Cultivated Duckweed (Phytoremediation)to feedfish• Cases: Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Peru, Cambodia,Ghana and NigerPublic/PrivateEnterpriseMunicipalityor publicentityExpertisePartnerWholesellersConsumers(market)WastewaterExpertiseFish, co-cropsFish, co-crops$$$
    23. 23. Untreated wastewater for irrigation andgroundwater rechargeWW transferRaw wastewaterfarmersEnterpriseCity(municipality)AquiferWWFreshwater$Fresh water$$$ $$TreatedwastewaterfarmersWW treatment• Mexico – Mezquital valley: 1920 govt. acknowledged officially use ofwastewater for irrigation• Cases: Pakistan, India – Kanpur and Bangalore (incl. aquifer recharge)Crop Untreated WW (Tons/ha) Neutral water(Tons/ha)% of yield increaseMaize 5 2 150Barley 4 2 100Tomato 35 18 94Oats 22 12 83Chilli 12 7 71Alfaalfa 120 7 71Wheat 3 2 50Source: Blanca (2008)
    24. 24. Cost Recovery from Reuse• Biogas: 25% to 60% of electricity saved• Sludge: Sold as compost ($9 per ton) depending upon thewastewater source. Many cases given away for free/landfill• Treated Wastewater: Mostly given away; Industriespremium customers; For irrigation : $0.015 to $0.086 per m3• Aquaculture: Some cases achieving complete operationscost recovery (fish sold at $3 per kg)• Untreated Wastewater: Used in irrigation (cases where 50%O&M recovered) wastewater sold at $0.72 per m3 andabove. Farmers paying for leasing of land
    25. 25. Lessons for designing waste management solutions• Overreliance on public funding (incl. maintenance)• Technologies not matching institutional capacities• Lacking market analysis and business approachesAvoid pastfailure• Donor investments target leveraging (local) private sectorcapital• Incentives for private sector participation;• Safety: Health and environmental risks and benefits consideredIncorporateReuse• Feeding the cities – lost nutrients and water• Green economy (organic nutrients, water reuse and RE)ThinkbeyondSanitation
    26. 26. Thank you.