www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
Processes for resource recovery for
African agriculture
Resource recovery and r...
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
Outline
1. Opportunities and challenges in waste
2. Case studies
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
1. What is contained in waste ? Opportunities
Water
Nutrients
Organic
matterImp...
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
What is contained in waste ? Challenges
Pathogens
Undesirable
fractions
Toxic
f...
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
2. Case studies
A. Reuse of water
B. Recycling of fecal sludge
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
Clarias gariepinus (African catfish)
Stabilization Ponds
A. Water reuse – Aquac...
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
B. The Fortifer© case, Ghana
• Recycle fecal sludge
• Produce a good quality pr...
• 18 tanks (15 m3 each) needed
– 6 public latrines
– 12 Septic tanks
• Over 2 tonnes solid fecal sludge
produced every 2 w...
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
Phase 1. (Co-)composting, e.g. with organic market
waste or sawdust
First stage...
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
Phase 2.
Grinding
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
Phase 2.
Enrichment
• It allows to align the
composition to the
needs for diffe...
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
Phase 2.
Pelletization
• Less volume is needed
for packaging
• Water and binder...
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
Recapitulation: Phase 1
Production of composts
Organic
waste
Regular addition
o...
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
Pelletization
Material to
pelletize
Raw
pellets
Drying
Mixing
26%
water
Ground
...
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
Open field test with Fortifer© in Accra
(with Ferric lixisol)
0
1
2
3
4
Control...
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Control IN-F EC-DFS IR EC-DFS PG EC-SDFS PG ECO-F
Cabbageyield(Tonne/ha)
Cambisol - 150 kgN/ha Cambisol...
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
Benefits with Fortifer© pellets
Challenges Final conclusions
Disease
incidence
...
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
Current stage: Demonstrate the feasibility of this
reuse concept – WaFo project...
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
Thanks for your kind
attention !
The authors would like to express their gratit...
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Processes for resource recovery for African agriculture

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Josiane Nikiema
Researcher – Environmental Sciences
and all of the Resource Recovery and Reuse team

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Processes for resource recovery for African agriculture

  1. 1. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Processes for resource recovery for African agriculture Resource recovery and reuse (RRR) Josiane Nikiema Researcher – Environmental Sciences and all the RRR team West Africa Office – Accra, Ghana Phone: (+233) 302 784 753/4 Fax: (+233) 302 784 752 Email: J.Nikiema@cgiar.org
  2. 2. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Outline 1. Opportunities and challenges in waste 2. Case studies
  3. 3. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world 1. What is contained in waste ? Opportunities Water Nutrients Organic matterImproves soil quality Improve crop yields Required for irrigation
  4. 4. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world What is contained in waste ? Challenges Pathogens Undesirable fractions Toxic fractions Example: heavy metals Example: plastics Example: helminthes eggs Safe quality improvement
  5. 5. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world 2. Case studies A. Reuse of water B. Recycling of fecal sludge
  6. 6. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Clarias gariepinus (African catfish) Stabilization Ponds A. Water reuse – Aquaculture; Kumasi, Ghana
  7. 7. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world B. The Fortifer© case, Ghana • Recycle fecal sludge • Produce a good quality product Objectives Challenges • Pathogens • Sorting required Keywords Cost effective SafeSimple
  8. 8. • 18 tanks (15 m3 each) needed – 6 public latrines – 12 Septic tanks • Over 2 tonnes solid fecal sludge produced every 2 weeks with a 240 m2 drying bed Phase 1. Drying step
  9. 9. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Phase 1. (Co-)composting, e.g. with organic market waste or sawdust First stages Monitoring, through control of temperature and addition of water Final stage
  10. 10. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Phase 2. Grinding
  11. 11. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Phase 2. Enrichment • It allows to align the composition to the needs for different crops and soil • So far, only N enrichment (using ammonium sulphate) was performed
  12. 12. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Phase 2. Pelletization • Less volume is needed for packaging • Water and binder (e.g. starch) are added before pelletization • Pellets can be sun- dried
  13. 13. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Recapitulation: Phase 1 Production of composts Organic waste Regular addition of water Drying beds Raw liquid fecal sludge from tankers or collection points Excess liquid to be treated, e.g. in a pond Raw fecal sludge Composting Compost Raw solid fecal sludge from dry toilets
  14. 14. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Pelletization Material to pelletize Raw pellets Drying Mixing 26% water Ground compost 3% Starch & 7% Ammonium sulphate Grinding Compost Fine particles Dry pellets Heat Sieving Pellet packaging and use Recapitulation: Phase 2 Production of enriched pellets
  15. 15. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Open field test with Fortifer© in Accra (with Ferric lixisol) 0 1 2 3 4 Control Inorg. Fert. EC-DFS (IR) EC-DFS (PG) EC-SDFS (PG) Poultry Manure Maizegrainyield(Tonne/ha) 150 kg N/ha 210 kg N/ha Various pellet formulations
  16. 16. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Control IN-F EC-DFS IR EC-DFS PG EC-SDFS PG ECO-F Cabbageyield(Tonne/ha) Cambisol - 150 kgN/ha Cambisol - 210 kgN/ha Ferric Lixisol - 150 kgN/ha Ferric Lixisol - 210 kgN/ha 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Control IN-F EC-DFS IR EC-DFS PG EC-SDFS PG ECO-F Maizegrainyield(Tonne/ha) Greenhouse tests with Fortifer© ECO-F is a commercial compost
  17. 17. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Benefits with Fortifer© pellets Challenges Final conclusions Disease incidence Fortifer is safe. Transport 50-80 % of the initial volume is needed to transport Fortifer Handling Fortifer pellets are strong The nutrients are gradually being released into the soil Use No dust generated Perception No perception barrier to Fortifer in 5 selected regions of Ghana (preliminary investigation) Cost < 10 US$ per bag of 50 kg
  18. 18. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Current stage: Demonstrate the feasibility of this reuse concept – WaFo project Kick off a Fortifer© plant (up to 1,000 tonnes per year) Outcomes to achieve are: 1. Form a PPP with co-funding at 50% of total lifecycle costs 2. Secure off-take contracts for 50% of the production 3. Demonstrate an increase in volumes of sludge treated and a reduction in costs of sludge management in the target city 4. Proven and replicable business and technology solution established
  19. 19. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Thanks for your kind attention ! The authors would like to express their gratitude to: • Donors (Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), Department for International Development (DFID) and Grand Challenges Canada (GCC). • All partners! (BNARI: Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana; UI: University of Ibadan, Nigeria; UG: University of Ghana; VVU: Valley View University; TMA: Tema Metropolitan Assembly, Ghana; CSIR: Centre for Scientific and Industrial Research, Ghana)
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