0
Aditi Mukherji (IWMI) Irrigation reforms in Asia: A review of 108 case studies of IMT¹/PIM² Presented at 60 th  IEC Meetin...
Outline of presentation <ul><li>Background of IMT/PIM </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale of review </li></ul><ul><li>Research que...
Background <ul><li>What are IMT & PIM? </li></ul><ul><li>Originating from the 60s, the reform peaked in the 90s </li></ul>...
Rationale of our review <ul><li>Comprehensive assessments to evaluate the performance of IMT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vermill...
Research questions <ul><li>What do we learn from the documented cases of IMT/PIM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How rigorous were t...
6 step research method <ul><li>Step 1: Select case studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cases post 1994 period </li></ul></ul><ul...
6 step research methods <ul><li>Step 2: Code the cases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location and bibliographic coding (7) </li></...
<ul><li>Step 3: Define success </li></ul><ul><li>IMT/PIM intervention as successful when there is a marked improvement aft...
<ul><li>Step 4: Choose indicators of success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcome indicators (7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I...
6 step research methods <ul><li>Step 5: Construction of composite success score (CSS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On every succe...
6 step research methods <ul><li>Step 6: Correlating CSS with attributes of the case study as coded (in step 2) </li></ul><...
Distribution and location of cases Source: Figure 2, p. 6 Source: Figure 3, p. 7
Methodological critique of cases Very few studies that combine before after and with-without 1/3 rd  of them are short ter...
Distribution of success/failure as per CSS Source: Figure 3, P. 7 Region Success Failure S Asia 18 20 E Asia 7 2 SE Asia 1...
Finding patterns in success: Success by type Lift and pump schemes succeed marginally more Source: Figure 18, p.23
Success by size of system Schemes serving lesser number of farmers succeed marginally more Small schemes succeed marginall...
Success by complexity Simple schemes succeed marginally more Source: Figure 22, p.25
Success by crops grown Non-paddy systems succeed significantly more than paddy systems Source: Figure 23, p.26
Rehabilitated systems fare better than non-rehabilitated ones Source: Figure 26, p.28
Cases where full O&M is transferred fare better Source: Figure 30, p.30
PIM, when implemented by government  are more likely to fail Source: Figure 31, p.31
Not much relationship between per capita GDP and CSS Source: Figure 33, p.32
Multivariate analysis: Logit regression Correctly predicts 76.1% of the cases Source: Table 6, p.34 coefficient std. error...
IMT/PIM Successes in Asia  Bayi in China: The “smart transition” <ul><li>Large schemes (more than 2000 ha) </li></ul><ul><...
IMT/PIM Successes in Asia Panchakanya Irrigation System in Nepal <ul><li>Small scheme  (600 ha), relatively  simple  water...
Baldeva Left Bank Co-operative Irrigation Society, India: AKRSP’s model case <ul><li>Long-term NGO involvement </li></ul><...
A conceptual fault in IMT/PIM <ul><li>Search for condition under which success happens proved elusive </li></ul><ul><li>Un...
Thank you Related Publication Forthcoming .  For more information visit:  http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/Publications/index.aspx
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Irrigation reforms in asia a review of 108 case studies of imt1 pim2

1,447

Published on

Irrigation reforms in Asia: A review of 108 case studies of IMT¹/PIM² , Aditi Mukherji, International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Presented at 60th IEC Meeting and 5th Asian Regional Conference of the ICID 9th December, 2009 New Delhi

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,447
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
24
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Irrigation reforms in asia a review of 108 case studies of imt1 pim2"

  1. 1. Aditi Mukherji (IWMI) Irrigation reforms in Asia: A review of 108 case studies of IMT¹/PIM² Presented at 60 th IEC Meeting and 5 th Asian Regional Conference of the ICID 9 th December, 2009 New Delhi IMT¹: Irrigation Management Transfer, PIM²: Participatory Irrigation Management All figures and charts used are taken from: Mukherji, Aditi et al. Irrigation Reform in Asia: A Review of 108 cases of irrigation management transfer , Forthcoming
  2. 2. Outline of presentation <ul><li>Background of IMT/PIM </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale of review </li></ul><ul><li>Research questions and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critique of case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of IMT/PIM cases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>What are IMT & PIM? </li></ul><ul><li>Originating from the 60s, the reform peaked in the 90s </li></ul><ul><li>More than 57 countries have embarked on some kind of irrigation reform involving IMT/PIM </li></ul><ul><li>Common assumptions about IMT/PIM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because farmer managed irrigation systems have endured, farmers are best placed to manage irrigation. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Rationale of our review <ul><li>Comprehensive assessments to evaluate the performance of IMT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vermillion (1997); FAO (2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important gaps in knowledge about the impacts of IMT/PIM remain </li></ul><ul><li>Many governments and donors support IMT/PIM as an article of faith </li></ul><ul><li>Review of 108 cases from all over Asia makes it the most comprehensive review of IMT/PIM ever </li></ul>
  5. 5. Research questions <ul><li>What do we learn from the documented cases of IMT/PIM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How rigorous were the studies? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do we categorize cases as success or failure? </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions which promote successful IMT/PIM </li></ul><ul><li>Are those conditions replicable? </li></ul>
  6. 6. 6 step research method <ul><li>Step 1: Select case studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cases post 1994 period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only public owned irrigation schemes </li></ul></ul>Source: Figure 11, p.16
  7. 7. 6 step research methods <ul><li>Step 2: Code the cases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location and bibliographic coding (7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodological parameters (5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical specifications of the system (4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-economic and agricultural (7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMT/PIM implementation related indicators (9) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total 32 indicators </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Step 3: Define success </li></ul><ul><li>IMT/PIM intervention as successful when there is a marked improvement after transfer or transferred systems fare better than non-transferred ones because users receive adequate and reliable supply of water at reasonable and affordable costs over a sufficiently long period of time enabling them to increase their crop production, productivity and incomes . </li></ul>6 step research methods
  9. 9. <ul><li>Step 4: Choose indicators of success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcome indicators (7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISF* collection; financial viability; maintenance; equity; reliability and adequacy; participation and reduction in disputes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact indicators (2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crop related (production, yields, cropping intensity) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Livelihoods related (poverty, wages, employment) </li></ul></ul></ul>6 step research methods *ISF- Irrigation Service Fee
  10. 10. 6 step research methods <ul><li>Step 5: Construction of composite success score (CSS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On every success indicator, a case is scored 1 if there was a positive change after PIM, or 0 if there was no change or negative change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scores standardized on a scale of 0-10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cases with score less than 5 =failed, more than 5=success </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 6 step research methods <ul><li>Step 6: Correlating CSS with attributes of the case study as coded (in step 2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One to one correlation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logistical regression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To understand if there is any pattern in success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our regressions are not good enough to attribute causality </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Distribution and location of cases Source: Figure 2, p. 6 Source: Figure 3, p. 7
  13. 13. Methodological critique of cases Very few studies that combine before after and with-without 1/3 rd of them are short term assessments Source: Figure 13, p. 17 Source: Figure 14, p. 8
  14. 14. Distribution of success/failure as per CSS Source: Figure 3, P. 7 Region Success Failure S Asia 18 20 E Asia 7 2 SE Asia 12 24 C Asia 4 14
  15. 15. Finding patterns in success: Success by type Lift and pump schemes succeed marginally more Source: Figure 18, p.23
  16. 16. Success by size of system Schemes serving lesser number of farmers succeed marginally more Small schemes succeed marginally more Source: Figure 21, p.25 Source: Figure 20, p.24
  17. 17. Success by complexity Simple schemes succeed marginally more Source: Figure 22, p.25
  18. 18. Success by crops grown Non-paddy systems succeed significantly more than paddy systems Source: Figure 23, p.26
  19. 19. Rehabilitated systems fare better than non-rehabilitated ones Source: Figure 26, p.28
  20. 20. Cases where full O&M is transferred fare better Source: Figure 30, p.30
  21. 21. PIM, when implemented by government are more likely to fail Source: Figure 31, p.31
  22. 22. Not much relationship between per capita GDP and CSS Source: Figure 33, p.32
  23. 23. Multivariate analysis: Logit regression Correctly predicts 76.1% of the cases Source: Table 6, p.34 coefficient std. error t-ratio slope Constant -2.83790 1.63066 -1.740 STORAGE 0.118054 1.33783 0.08824 0.0292580 SIZE 0.359527 0.757043 0.4749 0.0888251 CROP 1.69093 0.885667 1.909** 0.388653 NEWREHAB 0.233163 0.965311 0.2415 0.0581703 IMPLMNT 2.01105 0.846505 2.376* 0.457774 LVLTR 0.0510247 0.776525 0.06571 0.0126965 ELECT 0.147760 0.783830 0.1885 0.0366978
  24. 24. IMT/PIM Successes in Asia Bayi in China: The “smart transition” <ul><li>Large schemes (more than 2000 ha) </li></ul><ul><li>First disrepair and chaos </li></ul><ul><li>Then: Incentives as input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of incentives to water resource bureau officials to increase work productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of village irrigation management groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of water duty and diversified sideline enterprises </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>Increased yields and net returns/ha due to access to irrigation water, but also chemical fertilizers and pesticides and introduction of high-yield varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Viable local management of irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Successful sideline enterprises (must purchase water) </li></ul>
  25. 25. IMT/PIM Successes in Asia Panchakanya Irrigation System in Nepal <ul><li>Small scheme (600 ha), relatively simple water control structures and free from threat of inundation and flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers are educated and innovative and knowledgeable in collective action in irrigation development and management </li></ul><ul><li>Local people believe in their organization :the WUA* is accountable to its members and is financially capable to take up new management responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>The WUAs were able to craft their institutions as needed , expanded their networks and provide continuity in water management </li></ul>*WUA- Water Users Associations
  26. 26. Baldeva Left Bank Co-operative Irrigation Society, India: AKRSP’s model case <ul><li>Long-term NGO involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive and innovative farmers (Patels) </li></ul><ul><li>Long-time personnel (institutional memory) </li></ul>AKRSP: Aga Khan Rural Support Programme
  27. 27. A conceptual fault in IMT/PIM <ul><li>Search for condition under which success happens proved elusive </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike FAO (2007) and others, we do not attribute this to implementation failure </li></ul><ul><li>But to a conceptual failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PIM as a policy is not participatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumptions are dubious and not much evidence to support them </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Thank you Related Publication Forthcoming . For more information visit: http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/Publications/index.aspx
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×