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Institutional structures for productive use of agricultural water

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  • 1. Session 2: Directions foragricultural water management in Cambodia: a discussion Sanjiv de SIlva 19th March, 2013, Cambodiana Hotel, Phnom Penh Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 2. Objectives & Key Questions Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 3. Objectives of the Session• Recognize issues constraining the PIMT approach to irrigation management• Generate discussion and debate on options• Less about seeking consensus; more about a dialogue with in-country experts• Acknowledge the significant in-country research that underpins these dialogues. Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 4. Key Questions• Try to fix the present system? – What would it take to do this? – Is it really worth fixing?• Consider other models? – What models are working now? Where are they working best? – What models should we invest in or explore further? – What do we do with the existing systems?• What do we need to do to add value to water? – What’s done best by the public sector / by the private sector? / by public-private partnerships? Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 5. PIMT & the Current Sittuation Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 6. PIMT not working: Do we have a consensus?• Apparent consensus in many evaluations• ISF collection nowhere near O&M costs• Poor leadership in water governance (allocation planning, conflict resolution, etc.)• Failed to deliver the needed flexibility in water delivery to make irrigation efficient. Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 7. Many Reasons for Status Quo• Biophysical and geographic restrictions on water availability and delivery• Inappropriate system design and poor construction impeding equitable water delivery and intensifying O&M burden• Absence of hydrological data and coordination structures exacerbates conflict over water in dry season Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 8. Many Reasons for Status Quo (2)• Mandate limited to water: not empowered to address other factors that constrain irrigated agriculture• Vague linkages in legal framework with more powerful local institutions (e.g. Commune Councils)• Low farmer technical and organizational capacities and insufficient extension services• Constraints often mutually re-enforcing Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 9. So What are the Options? Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 10. Should we…• Try to fix the present system? – What would it take to do this? – Is it really worth fixing?• Consider other models? – What models are working now? Where are they working best? – What models should we invest in or explore further? – What do we do with the existing irrigation systems? Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 11. Context is important here• Session 1: need to investigate irrigation options (groundwater, more surface pumping) for conjunctive use – Substitutes to gravity in some areas and supplementary in others• Implies spatial variability and institutional forms will need to respond to different irrigation strategies Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 12. Some implications of conjunctive use• Not a one-size-fits-all approach• GW will be especially challenging: – Many individual users/groups – Attributing pollution/over-extraction to particular polluters or pumpers is difficult• Regulatory options – Command-and-control approaches (e.g. licensing and metering) is impractical – Indirect approaches like financial disincentives (e.g. energy pricing) or incentives (e.g. subsidies) – Voluntary compliance involving a wide network of actors, ranging from the private to the public sector Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 13. Intermediate institutions: A missing link?• Need for co-ordination at an appropriate hydrological scale is frequently acknowledged – Especially if irrigation strategies become more diverse• What should be the appropriate scale?• Functions and structure? Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 14. Successful Irrigation Management is Not Only About Water Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 15. Value Addition Beyond Water• Success of AWM: access to water + enabling farmers to make productive use of that water• Farmers unable to do this individually. Institutions to support collective smallholder action can• A range of modes for doing this are being tested: private sector entrepreneurs; public-private partnerships; farmer cooperatives• Can these support AWM by leveraging private entrepreneurship and brokering public-private partnerships? Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 16. Renewed Interest in Farmer Cooperatives (FCs)?• Promoted as an integrated approach to agricultural development: production and post- harvest processes• Gaining support with government and donors?• An alternative to FWUCs or another layer?• A private sector model (shareholding) for public objectives?• Can FCs address some FWUC constraints to benefit smallholders? Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 17. Small-scale private sector service providers• Provide a range of rural services: well drillers, pump installers, rainwater jars and water filter suppliers, individuals who collect and deliver water, small companies supplying pipe water to households.• Creating rapidly expanding water markets with little public sector assistance. Able to leverage funds, offer good quality services and products, and maintain accountability for any problems that arise. Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 18. Small-scale private sector service providers• IDE’s Farm Business Advisors (FBAs) – Trains independent private micro- entrepreneurs to provide high-quality agricultural products; in-kind credit; technical advice and market information to small-scale farmers – Helps low-income households improve, intensify, or expand market- oriented agriculture production. Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 19. Small-scale private sector service providers• The Cambodia Agricultural Value Chain Program (CAVAC) – Linking suppliers to farmers and farmers to consumers – Identifies innovations to overcome constraints (e.g. distance and disconnectedness; poor infrastructure, and scarce resources and information – Low-cost irrigation; progressive farmers as change agents; using input supplier networks to provide advice to farmers; networks between model farmers, government agencies and private sector. Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 20. Building synergies?• So several independent initiatives, some structured and managed; others more spontaneous and random, driven by opportunity and initiative• Each offers potential to ease one or more farmer constraints• Are there opportunities to enhance their impacts, or will intervention stifle them? Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 21. Thank youWater for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org

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