Can we expect food security, good nutrition and health in an increasingly water stressed world?

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Can we expect food security, good nutrition and health in an increasingly water stressed world? …

Can we expect food security, good nutrition and health in an increasingly water stressed world?

Presentation by Colin Chartres and Pay Drechsel at World Water Week 2012 in Stockholm, Sweden.

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  • 1. Can we Expect Food Security, Good Nutrition and Health in an increasingly Water Stressed Photo: David Brazier/IWMI World? Colin Chartres and Pay DrechselWater for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 2. • This presentation will illustrate four key areas which directly or indirectly support Food Security, Nutrition and Human health under Water Stress: – Smart water allocation – Well managed storage – Safe wastewater reuse – Increased water productivity. Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 3. 1. Smart water allocation between different uses 1970s Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 4. 2020• Can We Expect Food Security, Good Nutrition and Health in an Increasingly Water-stressed World? Can We Expect Food Security, Good Nutrition and WeCan We Expect Food Security, Good Health in and Health in an Increasingly Water- and Health in an Increasingly Water-stressed Nutrition an Increasingly Water-stressed World? World? stressed World? Expect Food SecCan We Expect Food Security, Good Nutrition and Health in an Increasingly Water-stressed World?urity, Good Nutrition and Health in an Increasingly Water- stressed World? Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 5. How is allocation related to health?In dry environments:• we have to capture and store as much water as is possible• reuse as much as possible,• allocate very smartly between different usages/users, and• have a best crop per drop efficiency as each drop counts.The critical point is that far too often water is managed sectorally,with no national/regional policy that balances out needs andrisksThere is a water-energy-food- health-environment nexus Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 6. Example 2. The pros and cons of storage • Can We Expect Food Security, Good• ANutrition and Health in waterIncreasingly to key prevention measure to address an scarcity, and adapt climate change is Water Storage. Water-stressed World?• Many IWMI & CPWF projects worked on improving storage from Can We Expect Food Security, Good Nutrition and institutional, hydrological Increasingly Water-stressed World? and Health inand health perspectives. Health in an an Increasingly Water-stressed• World? Storage is a very sensitive options closely related to a variety of possible health challenges, which can, however, be mitigated. Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 7. Technology and Investment – investing in water storage Low per capita storage (m3/capita) • Can We Expect Food Security, 6150 7,000 4729 Good Nutrition and Health in an 6,000 5,000 3255 Increasingly Water-stressed 2486 4,000 1406 World? 1287 3,000 2,000 746 43 1,000 4 0 Ethiopia Thailand Brazil America Australia South Laos China Kenya Africa North World Bank (2003) Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 8. Water storage• Focus on water for agriculture, incl. livestock;• Integrated into most water systems• Save water over time for access at critical periods• Diverted from rivers, rainwater harvesting, aquifers• High variety – Tanks, reservoirs – Groundwater – Large / small – Open / closed – Man-made / natural Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 9. Health risks of open water• Risk of drowning,• Water quality issues,• Vector-borne diseases, like increased malaria transmission associated with: – Small reservoirs – Surface irrigation (estates & small-scale) – Rainwater harvesting ponds – Livestock watering Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 10. Case EthiopiaKoka reservoir in a relatively low- risk malaria zone (Source: MoH & WHO 2007) Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 11. Koka• Reservoir crucial for livestock watering Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 12. Malaria cases/1000 people Malaria cases/1000 people 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 with 01-Jan-00 05-Jan-00 09-Jan-00 13-Jan-00 17-Jan-00 21-Jan-00 Koka 25-Jan-00 29-Jan-00 reservoirs – Water level fluctuations (Source: Lautze 2008) 02-Feb-00 – Distance from 06-Feb-00 10-Feb-00 14-Feb-00 18-Feb-00 • Malaria cases correlate 22-Feb-00 26-Feb-00 01-Mar-00 05-Mar-00 Observed 09-Mar-00 13-Mar-00 17-Mar-00 21-Mar-00 Predicted 25-Mar-00 29-Mar-00 02-Apr-00 06-Apr-00 10-Apr-00 14-Apr-00 18-Apr-00 Malaria cases/1000 people Water level change 22-Apr-00 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 26-Apr-00www.iwmi.org 0 30-Apr-00 04-May-00 08-May-00 1 12-May-00 16-May-00 20-May-00 2 Water for a food-secure world 24-May-00 28-May-00 3 01-Jun-00 05-Jun-00 0 2 4 -8 -6 -4 -2 4 Water level change (m) 5 Water level change (m) Distance f rom the reservoir (km) 7 6 R² = 0.9149 8 y = -27.51ln(x) + 62.462 9 (Source: Kibret et al. 2009)
  • 13. Micro-scale analysis • Adult Anopheles more abundant closer to reservoir • More breeding sites near shore line, mainly in livestock hoof printsMean no. mosquitoes per trap per night 12.00 An. arabiensis (Reservoir villages) 10.00 An. pharoensis (Reservoir villages) An. arabiensis (Control villages) 8.00 An. pharoensis (Control village) (Rese An. arabiensis An. pharoensis (Rese 6.00 An. arabiensis (Contr 4.00 An. pharoensis (Cont Jul-07 Nov-07 Nov-06 Jan-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Feb-07 Sep-06 Dec-06 2.00 May-07 Sep-07 Jun-07 Oct-07 Apr-07 May-07 Apr-07 Aug-07 Mar-07 Aug-07 Dec-07 Oct-06 0.00 Nov-07 Nov-06 Jan-07 Feb-07 Aug-06 Sep-06 Dec-06 Sep-07 Oct-07 Mar-07 Dec-07 Oct-06(Source: Lautze 2008) Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 14. Malaria at Koka Lake, Rift Valley• Increased transmission near lake related to water management• Research result: Decision support for dam operation based on larval control via water level fluctuation is possible and grazing access needs to be controlled• However, nothing was done because the government decided that the need for electricity was paramount• Subsequent analysis has shown that there would be minimal impact on power generation by implementation of a water management regime to reduce malaria risk Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 15. Malaria Risk mapping at basin and national scaleExampleSri Lanka Malaria cases per 1000 inhabitants no cases reported 1-5 6 - 50 51 - 100 101 - 200 201- 500 >500 Major roads Tanks/rivers Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 16. Annual cost of malaria control per individual protected US$ Insecticide spraying 2.75 Impregnated bed nets 1.02 Larviciding 0.53 Water management 0.26Konradsen et al. (1999)Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 77: 301-309 Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 17. Example 3: The need for water reuse 1989 WHO GuidelinesKey question: How to reuse wastewater safely where there are no sewers and treatment plants e.g. due to water scarcity?Research is focusing on:• Actual risk assessment and• Low-cost risk mitigation sing the multiple barrier approach where conventional treatment is lacking Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 18. WHO-FAO-UNEP (2006) 1989 WHO Guidelines Irrigation water quality thresholds Health-based targetsWastewaterWastewater Farm worker Traders Kitchen staff Consumergeneration Farm worker Traders Kitchen staff Consumergeneration Awareness Safe Hygienic Safe food creationWastewater Irrigation Handling washing and to create treatmentWastewater Practices Practices preparation demand for treatment safe produce Non- or post-treatment options for health risk reduction Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 19. Operational StatusWastewater and faecal sludge treatment 35 plants in Ghana ? How many of them work Business (e.g., hotel, airport) 30Number of Treatment Plants Hospital 25 Military 20 School 15 Municipal/Township 10 5 Community-level 0 Region Source: Murray & Drechsel, 2011
  • 20. Farm based options for risk • Drip and furrow irrigationreduction • Sedimentation ponds • Cessation of irrigation • Filter • Limited soil splash • Improved water fetching • Increased retention time • On-farm treatment ponds Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 21. • Supporting die-offMarket based • Display w/o recontaminationoptions • Safe washing & refreshing • Safe cutting practices, etc. Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 22. Streetfoodsectorbasedoptions Effective & safe vegetable washing Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 23. Research is informed by field work across Asia and AfricaOuagadougou IWMI Offices 2010 Water Quality, Heath & Environment Other IWMI projects Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 24. Research produced many options for health risk reduction which supported efforts by WHO and FAO and fed into international guidelines Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 25. Risk assessment inGhana’s 5 biggest cities: Daily risk is with 2,500- 3,000 farmers and traders of exotic vegetables 20,000-26,000 staff of street food restaurants, 600,000- 800,000 street food consumers  12,000 lost DALYs*/year *DALYs: Disability Adjusted Life Years Source: IWMI, 2009 Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 26. Hazard comparison for Accra, Ghana, via different exposure pathways Workers exposed at WWTPs Faecal sludge disposal exposure Flooding of main river passing city Failure of WWTP Contaminated drinking water pipes Cost-effectiveness Swimming at Accras beaches of interventions: Wastewater irrigated vegetables 94 $/DALY Children exposed to open drains >500 $/DALY*DALYs: Disability Adjusted Life Years , *WWTP: Waste Water Treatment Plant Sources: Labite et al., 2010; IWMI, 2009 Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 27. Example 4. Increasing Water ProductivityIn terms of health and water productivity there are two key challenges:• Feeding over 2 billion more people a nutritious diet• Dealing with overeating and waste Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 28. Food for Thought• Based on a 2500 cal/day diet water demand under business as usual will increase to approximately 13,000 km3 by 2050 1• Growing GDP is encouraging the increased consumption of animal proteins, which require more water to produce• Wastage of food due to on-farm losses and in the supply/consumption chain is unacceptably high Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 29. Nutritional intake in India ← Per capita calorie from food Changing consumption patterns 3500 3000 2500 341 477 Animal products grains is declining in the 1990’s 195 Calorie supply 161 ← Vegetables and animal products 2000 114 125 107 566 706 912 1083 Non-grain • 5 419 451 479 crops 1500 1000 1541 1454 1542 1653 1587 1521 1401 Food grains consumption is increasing 500 0 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2025 2050Source: 1961-2001 data from FAOSTAT , IWMI RR 119 Changing consumption patterns 100% 114 107 125 161 195 341 477 → Share of calorie supply 419 451 479 Animal Share of calorie supply 566 706 75% products from grain will decrease 912 1083 Non-grain 50% crops 1541 1454 1542 1653 → More than half the calorie 1587 25% 1521 1401 Food grains supply will be from non- grain products by 2050 0% 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2025 2050 Source: 1961-2001 data from FAOSTAT , IWMI RR 119 Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 30. How do we increase productivity?• Doubling crop and water productivity in poorly performing systems in 20 years via: – Coordinating supply and demand in water delivery in irrigation – Improving conjunctive use of surface and groundwater to minimize salinization – Consider supplementary irrigation options in rainfed systems – Improving fertilizer management – Reforming governance and institutions – Empowering farmers – Developing multiple use water systems – Ensuring access to finance and markets Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 31. US dollar per m 3 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Chishtian sub-div. Mahi-Kadana Nachchaduwa Muda Rajanganaya Nile Delta Kourani Baria II Sunsari Morang * surface water and public wells Gorgo West Gandak Marchwar Lift Saga Big Thompson ** private wells Khageri Panchakanya Fryingpan Kankai Mogtedo Saldana Kourani Baria I Seyhan Coella RUTwww.iwmi.org Torreon Salvatierra Module** Alto Rio Lerma * Cortazar Module* There is ample scope for improvement. Salvatierra Module* Water for a food-secure world Menemen Imperial ID Manisa Samaca Productivity of Water at 40 Irrigation Systems: Triffa Scheme, Sec. 22 Alto Rio Lerma ** Figure 4: Standardised Gross Value of Production per unit water consumed by ETcrop Sarigol Panoche WD Adala Bhairawa Lumbini Alasehir Turgutlu Cortazar Module** Savili
  • 32. • Reduce waste and excessive consumption Food waste, EU27: 179 kg/cap, year (2010) Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 33. So can we expect food security, good nutrition and health in a water stressed worldYes if we:• carefully balance the need for food production with other domestic and ecosystem water demands• reduce water loss through harvesting, storage and recycling• increase water productivity in food production. Harmonizing agricultural production with the environment and learning to understand the value of ecosystem services will be the biggest challenge Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org
  • 34. But this means:• Throwing out business as usual approaches• Focusing on better water governance and institutions to improve allocation processes• Harmonizing agriculture and water management using basin/landscape approaches to support vital ecosystem services• Proactively managing water to limit disease risks• Recycling and reusing waste water and nutrients• Reducing over consumption and food waste Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org