Improving Service Quality and Productivity - Service Marketing


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Improving Service Quality and Productivity - Service Marketing

  1. 1. Group 07 Nuwan Ireshinie : 2010/MBA/WE/MKT/14 R Shyamali Dias : 2010/MBA/WE/MKT/15 Improving Service Quality and Productivity
  2. 2. Integrating Service Quality and productivity Service Quality Disconfirmation Models Vs. Perception Models Perspectives of Service Quality Dimensions of Quality Gaps Model – Identifying service quality problems How Customers Evaluate Online Businesses Measuring Service quality – Soft and Hard measures Tools to Analyze and Address Quality Problems Defining and Measuring Productivity Improving Service Productivity Conclusion Agenda
  3. 3. • Quality and productivity are twin paths to creating value for both customers and companies • ƒQuality - focuses on the benefits created for customers • Productivity - addresses financial costs incurred by firm Deliver Quality Experience to Customers More Efficiently Achieve Long term Profitability Integrating Service Quality and Productivity Strategies
  4. 4. “A comparison of expectations with performance” What is Service Quality ? However, there is debate Disconfirmation Models Vs Perception Models
  5. 5. Expected Performance Perceived Performance Comparison P>E P<EP=E Positive Disconfirmation Confirmation Negative Confirmation Satisfaction Neutral Dissatisfaction Disconfirmation Models SERVQUAL ( Parasuraman et al, 1985)
  6. 6. Satisfaction= f (Perception) Perception Models SERVPERF ( Cronin & Taylor, 1992)
  7. 7. • The Transcendent view of quality • The Manufacture based approach • User bases definitions • Value based definitions Perspectives of Service Quality
  8. 8. • Tangibles • Reliability • Responsiveness • Competence • Courtesy • Credibility • Security • Access • Communication • Understanding the customer Assurance Empathy Dimensions of Quality
  9. 9. Identifying and Correcting Service Quality Problems Gaps Model in Service Design & Delivery
  10. 10. • Gap 1 - Knowledge Gap • Gap 2 - The Policy Gap • Gap 3 - The Delivery Gap • Gap 4 - The Communication Gap • Gap 5 - The Perception Gap • Gap 6 - The Service Quality Gap Strategies To Address Gaps in Service Quality
  11. 11. Strategies to close the gap Educate Management about what customer expect  Implement market research procedures.  Implement an effective customer feedback system.  Increase interactions between customers and management.  Facilitate & encourage communication between front line staff and management. Challenges  Customers’ expectations are differ and changing  Management ability to understand the customers’ expectations. Gap 1- Knowledge Gap
  12. 12. Strategies to close the gap Establish the right Service processes and specify standards  Get the customer service process right  Develop tiered service products that meet customer expectations  Set, Communicate & reinforce measurable customer oriented service standards for all divisions Challenges Gap 2 – The Policy Gap  Gap 1 leads to create Gap 2  Different Customer expectations
  13. 13. Strategies to close the gap Ensure that performance meets standards  Ensure that customer service teams are motivated and able to meet service standards.  Install the right technology, equipment, support processes and capacity.  Manage customers for service quality. Challenges Gap 3 – The Delivery Gap  Can only customer service team do it?  Right people to do it?  Do every company do customer expectation management?
  14. 14. Strategies to close the gap Close the internal communications gap by ensuring that communications promises are realistic and correctly understood by customers.  Educate managers responsible for sales and marketing communications about operational capabilities  Ensure than communications content sets realistic customer expectations.  Be specific with promises and manage customers’ understanding of communication content. Challenges Gap 4 – The Communication Gap  Understanding of business by advertising agency
  15. 15. Strategies to close the gap Challenges Tangibilize and communicate the service quality delivered.  Make service quality tangible and communicate the service quality. Gap 5 – The Perception Gap  Will it lead to higher expectations?
  16. 16. Strategies to close the gap Challenges Close gap 1 to 5 consistently meet customer expectations Gap 6 – The Service Quality Gap  Individual customers are different and same customer changing
  17. 17. How Customers Evaluate Online Businesses: Seven Dimensions of E-S-QUAL
  18. 18. Accessibility : Is site easily found?
  19. 19. Navigation: How easy is it to move around the site?
  20. 20. ƒDesign & presentation: Image projected from site?
  21. 21. Content & purpose: Substance and Richness of site
  22. 22. ƒ Currency & accuracy
  23. 23. ƒ Firm’s propensity to respond to e-mails, online chat and other communication media Responsiveness
  24. 24. Interactivity, customization & personalization
  25. 25. Reputation & security
  26. 26. • Soft measures—not easily observed, must be collected by talking to customers, employees, or others Provide direction, guidance, and feedback to employees on ways to achieve customer satisfaction Can be quantified by measuring customer perceptions and beliefs ― For example: SERVQUAL, surveys, and customer advisory panels • ƒHard measures—can be counted, timed, or measured through audits Typically operational processes or outcomes Standards often set with reference to percentage of occasions on which a particular measure is achieved Control charts are useful for displaying performance over time against specific quality standards Measuring and Improving Service Quality
  27. 27. • Key customer-centric SQ measures include:  Total market surveys, annual surveys, transactional surveys  Service feedback cards  Mystery shopping  Analysis of unsolicited feedback—complaints and compliments, focus group discussions, and service reviews • Ongoing surveys of account holders to determine satisfaction in terms of broader relationship issues • Customer advisory panels offer feedback/advice on performance • Employee surveys and panels to determine:  Perceptions of the quality of service delivered to customers on specific dimensions  Barriers to better service  Suggestions for improvement Soft Measures of Service Quality
  28. 28. Unsolicited Customer Feedback : • Customer Complaints • Compliments • Suggestions Soft Measures (contd.,)
  29. 29. • Control charts to monitor a single variable Offer a simple method of displaying performance over time against specific quality standards Are only good if data on which they are based is accurate Enable easy identification of trends • Service quality indexes Embrace key activities that have an impact on customers Hard Measures of Service Quality
  30. 30. Tools to Analyze and Address Service Quality Problems and Productivity
  31. 31. Tools to Analyze and Address Service Quality And Productivity problems
  32. 32. Root cause Analysis : Fishbone Diagram Tools to analyze and address Service Quality • Brainstorm • Resulting factors / Causes are categorized • 5 Categories – Equipment, Manpower, Material, Procedures, Other. • Manufacturing 6M - Man power (People), Method (Process), Machines (Technology), Materials, Measurements, Mother nature (Environment) • Services – Extended to 8 categories - People -front/back stage and Information Causes can be traced back to root causes with the 5 WHYs (who, what, when, where, and why, how) technique
  33. 33. Tools to analyze (contd.,) Source : Adapted from Lovelock (1993)
  34. 34. • Based on the 80/20 Rule – Consumer needs formulated into a standard – Firm aims at achieving this standard – But due to variation in the factors of production (men, material, methods, and machinery), of some items that do not conform to this standard is inevitable. – Defectives - may not be of the same severity – Pareto Principle applied in defect analysis - to identify the vital few defects, which result in many numbers of defectives so that more effort could be made to concentrate on eliminating these vital few defects. • Purpose – identify the principle causes of observed outcomes Tools to analyze (contd.,) Pareto Analysis :
  35. 35. Examples for Pareto principle covering many fields are; • Marketing - few customers account for the bulk of the sales. • HR - few percent of the employees are responsible for most of the absenteeism. • Purchasing - few percent of purchase orders account for bulk of the purchase costs. • A few countries account for most of the world’s population. Tools to analyze (contd.,)
  36. 36. The Pareto Principle represented in a diagram Eg: Most common sources of defects, the highest occurring type of defect, or the most frequent reasons for customer complaints etc., Tools to analyze (contd.,)
  37. 37. Tools to analyze (contd.,) Combining fishbone diagram and Pareto analysis – highlights the main causes of service failure
  38. 38. Tools to analyze (contd.,)
  39. 39. Tools to analyze (contd.,)
  40. 40. Blueprinting : • Visualization of service delivery – sequence of front stage interactions (by customers) and supporting back stage activities • Identify points where failures are most likely to occur • Ripple effect • Identify specific failures that occur mostly which needs urgent attention Tools to analyze (contd.,)
  41. 41. • TQM – Total Quality Management – A collection of principles, techniques, processes, and best practices that over time have been proven effective – Continuous improvement – based on the premise that the quality of products and processes is the responsibility of everyone - management, workforce, suppliers, and customers • Have processes that continuously collect, analyze, and act on customer information. • All of the TQM model's elements work together to achieve results Systematic approaches to quality and productivity improvements and process standardization
  42. 42. TQM in Service - Twelve Critical Dimensions for Implementation • Top management commitment and visionary leadership • Human resources management • Technical system, including service process design and process management • Information and analysis system • Benchmarking • Continuous improvement • Customer focus • Employee satisfaction • Union intervention and employee relations • Social responsibility • Servicescapes • Service culture Systematic approaches (contd.,)
  43. 43. • Internationally recognized standard of quality – facilitate • Comprises: requirements, definitions, guidelines etc., • Registration process : – document review by the registrar – pre-assessment - which identifies potential noncompliance in the quality system or in the documentation – assessment - by a team of 2/3 auditors – Surveillance / periodic re-audits - to verify conformity with the practices and systems registered. • ISO 9000 Principles ? 1. A Customer Focus 2. Good Leadership 3. Involvement of people 4. Process approach to quality management 5. Management system approach 6. Continual Improvement 7. Factual approach to decision making 8. Supplier relationships Systematic approaches (contd.,) ISO 9000 Certification
  44. 44. Malcolm Baldrige Model • The Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence provide a systems perspective for understanding performance management. • Goal : Promoting best practices, achievements are publicized in US firms • Assess firms on 7 areas ; • Leadership commitment • Planning priorities for improvement • Information and analysis • Human resources management • Process Management • Customer and Market focus • Business Results • Improve Organizational performance • Award winners - Ritz Carlton, FedEx, AT&T Systematic approaches (contd.,) Baldrige Award
  45. 45. • Quality management initiative by Motorolla • Approach to reduce defects , reduce cycle times, improve productivity • Achieving a quality level of 3.4 DPMO (Six standard deviations means 3.4 defects per million) Six Sigma projects must be linked to the organization's business plan • Defect reduction approach  overall business improvement approach • 2 Strategies : • Process improvement – aim at identifying and eliminating the root cause , thereby improving service quality • Process design / Redesign – act as a supplementary strategy to improvement strategy • DMAIC model – analyzing and improving business processes Systematic approaches (contd.,) Six Sigma
  46. 46. • Define opportunities • Measure key steps / inputs • Analyze to identify root causes • Improve performance • Control to maintain performance Systematic approaches (contd.,)
  47. 47. Methodology to Improve and Redesign Processes Systematic approaches (contd.,)
  48. 48. • Financial implications related to quality improvements – Disappointed results – Run into financial difficulties – Poor / incomplete execution of quality programs • CBA of quality initiatives • ROQ based on assumptions; – Quality is an investment – Quality efforts must be financially accountable – Possible to spend too much on quality – Not all quality expenditure are equally valid • TF, expenditure on quality improvement must be related to anticipated increase in profitability • Feasibility of new quality improvement efforts must be ; – Costed in advance – Related to anticipated customer response ROQ – Return on Quality
  49. 49. When does improving service Reliability Become Uneconomical ?? Determining the optimal level of Quality
  50. 50. Quality and productivity improvement strategies together. Deliver quality experiences more efficiently to improve long-term profitability. • Defining Productivity in a service Context – Productivity measures the amount of output produced relative to the amount of inputs used. – Improvements in productivity require an increase in the ratio of output to inputs ; » Cutting resources required to create a given volume of output » Increasing the output obtained from a given level of inputs Defining & Measuring Productivity
  51. 51. • Productivity, Efficiency and Effectiveness – Productivity : financial valuation of outputs to the inputs – Efficiency : comparison to a standard, time-based – Effectiveness : degree to which an Organization is meeting its goals • Classical technique : – Focus on output and not outcome / efficiency and not effectiveness – Variability – variation in quality / value of service Eg: counting the number of calls answered per unit of time – Increased customer throughout at the expense of perceived service quality Eg: hair dresser – productivity and efficiency achieved but not effectiveness Defining & Measuring Productivity (contd.,)
  52. 52. • Intangible nature of service performances • Output is frequently difficult to define – Output – labor (physical / intellectual), material, energy and capital Eg: Information based services – very difficult to measure • People processing services – hospitals , garages, restaurants (fast food), banks, consulting firms ?? • Organizations that consistently deliver higher effective outcomes desired by the customers can demand ; – a higher price – Build a loyal and profitable customer base Why measuring productivity in services is difficult ?
  53. 53. • Controlling cost at every step in the process • Reducing waste of materials and labor • Matching productivity capacity to average level of demand • Replacing workers by automated machines and customer operated self services technologies • Provide employees with equipment and data • Training employees to work more productively • Broadening the array of tasks that a service worker can perform • Installing Expert Systems Improving Service Productivity Generic Productivity Improvement Strategies
  54. 54. Productivity can be improved incrementally. But, major gain require redesigning customer service processes.. . WHEN ? when customers face unbearably long wait times ! Long wait REDESIGN Improving Service Productivity (contd.,)
  55. 55. Customer Driven Approaches to Improve Productivity : • Change the timing of customer demand – Use service outside peak hours and give incentives • Encourage use of alternative service delivery channels – Internet / self-service machines • Ask Customer to use third parties – Specialist intermediaries – Eg: insurance brokers, travel agencies Improving Service Productivity (contd.,)
  56. 56. • Front Stage efforts to improve productivity – High contact services : enhancements are visible • Passive acceptance • Customers to adopt to new patterns • Market research (loss of business, cancel out productivity gains) • Back stage efforts to improve productivity – Depend on whether they affect or are noticed by customers – Ripple effect (extends front stage and affect customer) – Prepare customers for the changes – Promote as a service enhancement How Productivity Improvements Impact Quality and Value
  57. 57. Implications : • Tends to centre on efforts to eliminate waste and reduce labor costs ; – Cutback on frontline staff (remaining work hard/fast) – Insufficient personnel to serve customers – Staff exhausted, make mistakes, treat customers badly – Multi-tasking : poor job at each task – Caught between trying to meet customer needs and achieve management’s productivity goals Caution on Cost Reduction Strategies
  58. 58. • Better to look for Service process redesign opportunities that leads to ; – drastic improvements in productivity – Increase service quality • Key challenge for service firms : – Deliver service quality and satisfaction to customer – In cost effective ways for the firm • Name of the game : – Seek improvements that offer quantum leaps in service quality and productivity at the same time • Service Quality (efficiency and effectiveness) + Productivity  Long term Profitability Conclusion
  59. 59. Thank you Improved Service Quality and Productivity  Profitability