Processing data
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Processing data Processing data Presentation Transcript

  • WHAT IS PROCESSING? PROCESSING is the thinking that computer does- the decisions. calculation, comparisons and
  • WHAT IS DATA PROCESSING ?  Data processing is the collection and manipulation of items of data to produce meaningful information.  It is also the conversion of raw data to machine-readable form and its subsequent processing as storing, updating, rearranging, or printing out by a computer.
  • DIGITAL DATA  Modern computers are digital i.e. all the information is stored as o string of zeros or onesoff or on. All the thinking in the computer is done by manipulating these digits.
  • DIGITAL CODES:  All letters, numbers, and symbols are assigned code values of 1's and 0's. A number of different digital coding schemes are used by digital devices. THREE common se codes are :  ASCII (used in UNIX and DOS/WINDOWS)  EBCDIC (for IBM system 390 main frames)  Unicode (for windows NT and recent browsers)
  • CPU:  The CPU, or Central Processing Unit is the part of the computer where work gets done. Many computers today have more than one processing chip, resulting in more complex but faster processing.
  • MACHINE CYCLE:  The computer can only do one thing at a time. Each action must be broken down into the most basic steps. One round of steps from getting an instruction back to getting the next instruction is called the Machine Cycle.
  • THE MACHINE CYCLE: FETCH: get an instruction from Main Memory. 2. DECODE: translate it into computer commands. 3. EXECUTE: actually process the command. 4. STORE: write the result to Main Memory. 1.
  • PHYSICAL COMPONENTS:  There are several physical components of a computer that are directly involved in processing. The processor chip itself, the memory devices, and the motherboard are the main ones.
  • MICROPROCESSOR CHIP:  A single silicon chip containing CPU, ALU, and some memory.  The microprocessor chip is located on a large circuit board called the main board or motherboard. The physical size of a computer chip is very small.  Processor speed is measured in Megahertz (MHz) or Gigahertz (GHz).
  • MEMORY DEVICES: VACCUM TUBE: Oldest type. Didn't hold up long and generated a lot of heat. 2. CORE: Small metal rings. Magnets tip a ring to left or right, which represents on and off. Relatively slow even way back when this was used. 3. SEMICONDUCTOR: Integrated circuit on a chip. This is what modern computers use for memory. 1.
  • MEMORY SPEED:  RAM (Random Access Memory) is what the computer uses as Main Memory. Memory speed measures the time it takes to move data in or out of memory. It is measured differently for different kinds of memory chips:  in nanoseconds (ns ) (smaller is faster) for EDO and FPM. 1 ns = 1 billionth of a second.  in megahertz (MHz) (higher is faster) for SDR SDRAM, DDR, SDRAM, and RDRAM.
  • MOTHERBOARD:  The main circuit board of a microcomputer. The motherboard contains the connectors for attaching additional boards.  Typically, the motherboard contains the CPU, BIOS, memory, mass storage interfaces, serial and parallel ports, expansion slots, and all the controllers required to control standard peripheral devices, such as the display screen, keyboard, and disk drive.
  • MOTHERBOARD…  Collectively, all these chips that reside on the motherboard are known as the motherboard's chipset.  The Motherboard is Also Known As: main board, mobo, MB, system board or logic board.  Motherboards, cases and power supplies all come in different sizes called form factors. All three must be compatible to work properly together.
  • MOTHERBOARD…  Motherboards vary greatly in respect to the types of components they support. For example, each motherboard supports a single type of CPU and a short list of memory types. Additionally, some video cards, hard drives and other peripherals may not be compatible.