School Siting and Children’s Travel:
How Can We Balance Community and Transportation Goals
Ruth L. Steiner
Outline
• Overview of Schools (US and UK)
• Impacts of Policies
– Costs
– Children’s Health
• Policies/programs impacting ...
Organization of Schools – US and UK
• Public Schools
– School Choice
– Magnet Schools
– Charter Schools
• Private Schools
...
Number of Students by Type of School Attended - US
Public, assigned
Public, chosen
Private, church-
related
Private, not c...
Costs
• Rising childhood obesity
– 1 in 3 U.S. kids between 6 and 19 are overweight
or obese
– Direct health costs of chil...
Ongoing Transportation Costs Per Child
• School traffic
accounts for
between 15% and
25% of peak hour
traffic in most
comm...
Factors Affecting Travel Choice for School
• Multitude of factors impacting a parent’s
decision about child’s travel to sc...
Pasco County School District
Chasco Elementary and Middle Schools
Pasco County School District
Chasco Elementary School and Chasco Middle School
Apartment complex across the
street (SR 54)...
Orange County School District
Riverdale Elementary School
Barrier
Alachua County School District
Meadowbrook Elementary
Policy Areas Influencing School Transportation
Three areas of
coordinated planning:
Multimodal Planning
Coordinated School...
Multimodal Planning
Intersection of land use planning and
transportation planning
Four guiding principles:
1. Complementar...
Coordinated School Siting
Intersection of land use planning and school
planning
– Seeks to locate schools near residential...
Safe Routes to School (SRTS)
• 2005: SAFETEA-LU legislation
– Designed to empower communities to make walking and
bicyclin...
Organizations Involved in School Planning
• Federal, State, Regional and Local (US)
vs. Federal and Local (UK)
• Responsib...
Policy Options
Advocate for Better Policies
• Decisions of School Board, City Planning
Agencies and Transportation
Organizations
– Locati...
Facilities and Safety Enhancements
Seminole County School District
• Formal pedestrian paths to schools
• Back entrances
Bear Lake Elementary School
Teague M...
Walking School Buses and Bicycle Trains
Thank you!
• For additional information, please
contact:
Ruth Steiner
rsteiner@dcp.ufl.edu
Research was performed with fun...
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School siting and children's travel - How can we balance community and transportation goals?

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School siting and children's travel - How can we balance community and transportation goals?

Presentation given by Prof Ruth Steiner during her visit (April 2014) to the Institute for Transport Studies (ITS), University of Leeds.

www.its.leeds.ac.uk/about/events/seminar-series

Published in: Education, Technology
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School siting and children's travel - How can we balance community and transportation goals?

  1. 1. School Siting and Children’s Travel: How Can We Balance Community and Transportation Goals Ruth L. Steiner
  2. 2. Outline • Overview of Schools (US and UK) • Impacts of Policies – Costs – Children’s Health • Policies/programs impacting school siting and active transport to and from school • Policy Options
  3. 3. Organization of Schools – US and UK • Public Schools – School Choice – Magnet Schools – Charter Schools • Private Schools – Religious – Non-religious Grade Levels – Primary (5-11) – Middle (11-14) – High (15-18) – Community Colleges/ Universities • State-funded Schools – Community – Academies – Free Schools • Independent/public – Voluntary Aided – Non-voluntary aided • Grade Levels – Primary (4-11) – Secondary (12-18) – 6th Form/FE/ Universities
  4. 4. Number of Students by Type of School Attended - US Public, assigned Public, chosen Private, church- related Private, not church related 2007
  5. 5. Costs • Rising childhood obesity – 1 in 3 U.S. kids between 6 and 19 are overweight or obese – Direct health costs of childhood obesity: $14 billion • Decline in physical activity – 1969: 48% walk to school – 2009: 13% walked to school Within one mile: – 1969: 89% walked or bicycled – 2009: 35% walked or bicycled
  6. 6. Ongoing Transportation Costs Per Child • School traffic accounts for between 15% and 25% of peak hour traffic in most communities • National • Expenditure: $22.9 Billion/£13.7 Billion • Average cost: $868/£521 per student
  7. 7. Factors Affecting Travel Choice for School • Multitude of factors impacting a parent’s decision about child’s travel to school each day – The location of the school – The location of the residence – The characteristics of the roadway network – The location of major roads and highways – The walking environment, including perception of safety and risk – Limits on parents’ time What combination of factors offers the most opportunities for the safe movement of children?
  8. 8. Pasco County School District Chasco Elementary and Middle Schools
  9. 9. Pasco County School District Chasco Elementary School and Chasco Middle School Apartment complex across the street (SR 54) from the school • Schools built in 1999 and 2000 • Zero elementary school walkers/bikers and few middle school walkers/bikers • No crossing guards
  10. 10. Orange County School District Riverdale Elementary School Barrier
  11. 11. Alachua County School District Meadowbrook Elementary
  12. 12. Policy Areas Influencing School Transportation Three areas of coordinated planning: Multimodal Planning Coordinated School Siting Safe Routes to School
  13. 13. Multimodal Planning Intersection of land use planning and transportation planning Four guiding principles: 1. Complementary mix of land uses 2. Appropriate density and intensity of development 3. High level of network connectivity 4. Good urban design connecting complementary land uses
  14. 14. Coordinated School Siting Intersection of land use planning and school planning – Seeks to locate schools near residential areas where students will live – School concurrency: Adequate school facilities must be in place within three years of construction of residential development
  15. 15. Safe Routes to School (SRTS) • 2005: SAFETEA-LU legislation – Designed to empower communities to make walking and bicycling to school a safe and routine activity – SRTS programs may consist of building safer street crossings or establishing programs to encourage walking and bicycling • Initial Funding – $629 million (£360) for SRTS programs across the country – Over $1 billion (£600 million) in federal funding – 10-30% of funds used for non-infrastructure programs • i.e. walking safety program – Remaining funds to be used for bike/pedestrian infrastructure improvements • i.e. sidewalks, overpasses, pedestrian signals • Now included in Enhancements Program and matching requirements changed
  16. 16. Organizations Involved in School Planning • Federal, State, Regional and Local (US) vs. Federal and Local (UK) • Responsibility for School Transport – US (School Districts/Local) – UK (Local Government) • Responsibility for School Siting – US (School Districts) – UK (Local Government)
  17. 17. Policy Options
  18. 18. Advocate for Better Policies • Decisions of School Board, City Planning Agencies and Transportation Organizations – Location of schools/School closures – Sprawl development projects – Expenditures of transportation funds – Professional guidance • Coordination between governments • Rethink the Use of School Buildings • Pay Attention to the Details
  19. 19. Facilities and Safety Enhancements
  20. 20. Seminole County School District • Formal pedestrian paths to schools • Back entrances Bear Lake Elementary School Teague Middle School
  21. 21. Walking School Buses and Bicycle Trains
  22. 22. Thank you! • For additional information, please contact: Ruth Steiner rsteiner@dcp.ufl.edu Research was performed with funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Active Living Research Program, Southeastern Transportation Research, Innovation, Development and Education Center (STRIDE) and the Florida Department of Transportation

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