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Black holes ITAES
Black holes ITAES
Black holes ITAES
Black holes ITAES
Black holes ITAES
Black holes ITAES
Black holes ITAES
Black holes ITAES
Black holes ITAES
Black holes ITAES
Black holes ITAES
Black holes ITAES
Black holes ITAES
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Black holes ITAES

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  1. SCIENCE IN THE MEDIABRINGING CUTTING EDGE ASTRONOMY FROM SCIENTISTS TO STUDENTSPUBLIC OUTREACH PROGRAM FOR THE SUZAKU SATELLITETOPIC DEVELOPED BYINSTITUTO TECNOLÓGICO AVANZADO EN EDUCACIÓN DEL SURESTESTUDENTS: Francisco Vargas, Jimena Ruíz, Jéssica Morales, Yesenia Jiménez,Eddy Ruíz, William Liévano, Estefanía Gil.BLACK HOLESAPRIL 2013
  2. CONTENT1. What is a black hole?2. How do we «see» black holes?3. Kinds of black holes depending on their masses4. How do stellar-mass black holes form?5. Do all stars become stellar-mass black holes? Why or why not?6. How do supermassive black holes form?7. Why do black holes create streaming jets of matter?8. How does X-ray radiation help scientists better understand black holes?Questions assigned under NASA s Education and Public OutreachProgram for the Suzaku Satellite. Materials for Session 1.
  3. 1. WHAT IS A BLACK HOLE?“A black hole is a region of space that has so much massconcentrated in it that there is no way for a nearbyobject to escape its gravitational pull.”Space.com Staff. January 2012.http://www.space.com/14278-black-hole-photos-event-horizon-telescope.htmlLet s see two definitions:Simulated view of a black hole in front of the Large MagellanicCloud.CREDIT: Alain R. | Wikimedia Commons“Black holes are exotic structures whose gravitationalfields are so powerful that they trap everything, even light.They were first postulated by Albert Einsteins theory ofgeneral relativity.”12Ted Bunn. September 1995.http://cosmology.berkeley.edu/Education/BHfaq.html
  4. 2. HOW DO WE«SEE»BLACK HOLES?Nobody hasliterally seen ablack hole yet,but there areinstruments withwhichastronomersdetect and studytheir X-rayemissions andtheir effects overmatter.http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_12/black_holes.htmlATOMS AREIONIZED ANDREACH A FEWMILLION KELVINMATTERFALLS OR IS PULLEDINTO THEBLACK HOLETHE BLACK HOLE MOVESFASTER AND HEATS UPATOMS EMIT X-RAYS INTOSPACESATELLITES DETECTRADIATION
  5. 3. KINDS OF BLACK HOLESSTELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLESgenerally 10 to 24 timesas massive as the Sun.SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLESare millions, if not billions, of timesas massive as the Sun.Depending on their mass, black holescan be of 2 types:12http://www.fas.org/irp/imint/docs/rst/Sect20/A6.html
  6. And … MINIATURE BLACK HOLES?Theory suggests that miniature black holes (MBHs) might haveformed in the early universe. But astronomers do not have anyevidence of their existence. Miniature black holes might havebeen created during the Big Bang.http://amazing-space.stsci.edu/resources/explorations/blackholes/lesson/whatisit/mini.htmlMBHs contain as much matter as Mt. EverestMBHs have eventhorizons as asmall asan atomic particletimes the massof the Sun!9
  7. NASAs RXTE DetectsHeartbeat of Smallest BlackHole CandidateWe recommendthat you watch:Astronomers have identified a candidate for thesmallest-known black hole. (Video)
  8. 4. HOW DOSTELLAR-MASSBLACK HOLESFORM?«a star 8 times themass of the Sundies in a supernovaexplosion»http://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/black-holes/Drawing of IC 10 X-1 by artist (and my friend and ex-coworker!) Aurore Simonnet. Courtesy of NASA.«no force can keep the star fromcollapsing under the influence ofgravity»theblackholeformsas the mass increases,so does the gravitational pull
  9. 5. DO ALL STARS BECOME STELLAR-MASSBLACK HOLES?It all dependson the amountof mass starscontainMass <1 sunMass < 3 sunsMass < 8 sunsBecomesa white dwarfBecomesa neutron star Becomesa black holehttp://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/stories/what-is-a-black-hole-k4.html
  10. http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/stories/what-is-a-black-hole-k4.htmlAn artists drawing shows the current view of the Milky Way galaxy. Scientific evidence showsthat in the middle of the Milky Way is a supermassive black hole with a mass equal to about4 million suns.Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech6. HOW DO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLESFORM?The largest black holes are calledSUPERMASSIVEMASSES MORETHAN 1 MILLIONSUNS TOGETHER“Scientists have found proof that everylarge galaxy contains a supermassiveblack hole at its center”
  11. Accretion disks have sufficient energy toeject a small fraction of the infallingmaterial towards its axis of rotation andform the jets.Jets reach a speed almost the speed oflight and generate magnetic fields thatmake jets collimtate.7. WHY DO BLACK HOLES CREATE STREAMINGJETS OF MATTER?Because accretion disks produce them.http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/stories/what-is-a-black-hole-k4.htmlDr. Koji Mukai and Dr. Maggie Masettihttp://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/990923a.html
  12. In general, observations withX-rays instruments enablescientists to:• measure and test regions ofspace in extreme conditions• See how matter forms andinteracts• Understand how the universeevolves8. HOW DOES X-RAY RADIATION HELP SCIENTISTSBETTER UNDERSTAND BLACK HOLES?http://www.astro.umd.edu/~chris/Research/X-rays_and_Black_holes/x-rays_and_black_holes.html
  13. «The black holes of nature are the most perfect macroscopic objects there are in the universe:the only elements in their construction are our concepts of space and time. »ChandrasekharSCIENCE IN THE MEDIABRINGING CUTTING EDGE ASTRONOMY FROM SCIENTISTS TO STUDENTSPUBLIC OUTREACH PROGRAM FOR THE SUZAKU SATELLITE

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